2018年08月21日 00:28:36|来源:国际在线|编辑:排名在线
Business商业报道Manufacturing in Serbia塞尔维亚的制造业Balkan legacy巴尔干遗产Fiat goes east to lower costs菲亚特东迁降低成本MASS-MARKET carmakers in western Europe are enduring car sales at their lowest since 1993.畅销的汽车制造商在西欧正忍受着自1993年以来的最低销量。They are losing money on their assembly plants in their home countries, yet politics makes it hard to close them.他们在本国组装厂赔钱,但政策又使得很难将它们关闭。That has encouraged them to seek ways of manufacturing more cheaply in emerging-market states on Europes periphery, to drive down their average costs.这鼓励他们在欧洲国家寻找更便宜的新兴市场的方式来压低他们的平均成本。Take Fiat, which lost 247m in the third quarter of this year.菲亚特在今年第三季度亏损2.47亿。Some 5,700 workers have been put on extended leave in Italy, and even in Poland Fiat has had to shed 1,450 jobs.在意大利约5,700名工人休长假,在波兰菲亚特甚至不得不裁员1,450个工作岗位。But its Serbian operation is expanding, and in just over a year has gone from zero to becoming the countrys largest exporter.但在塞尔维亚业务却不断扩大,并在短短一年多时间已经从零到成为其最大的出口商。Since March, Fiat has taken on 600 new workers and now employs 3,800 at its plant at Kragujevac, a town in central Serbia.自三月以来,菲亚特在塞尔维亚中部的一个小镇的工厂招聘了600名新工人,现在已拥有员工3,800名。Local suppliers to the plant have taken on a further 1,200 recruits.本地供应商的工厂也新招聘了1,200名新员工。Fiat has invested 1.2 billion in the plant, which now turns out 600 of the companys chunky, family-friendly 500L small cars each day.菲亚特已经在这个厂投资1.2亿美元,每天产出600辆耐用的、适合家用的500L小型车。The region was so badly hit in the 1990s by the collapse of Yugoslavia, followed by sanctions and war that it became known as hunger valley.上世纪90年代南斯拉夫解体对该地区造成了严重的打击,再加上制裁和战争使它成为饥饿的山谷。But it had an industrial legacy in Zastava, maker of Yugo cars and Kalashnikov rifles.但它在扎斯塔瓦有一个工业遗产,优吾车和卡拉什尼科夫步的制造商。In 1989, the last full year of the old Yugoslavia, 180,950 cars rolled off the production lines. In 2004 Zastava produced only 13,300 of its ropy models.1989年,老南斯拉夫全年有180,950辆汽车从生产线下线。在2004年却只生产了13,300辆它的ropy型号。What saved Zastava from oblivion was its links to Fiat, which dated back to 1954.与菲亚特的关系使扎斯塔瓦免于被遗忘,这个关系可追溯到1954年。In 2008 the assets of Zastava were transferred to a new company, Fiat Automobili Srbija, owned 67% by the Italian firm.2008年扎斯塔瓦的资产被转移到一个新的公司,位于意大利的菲亚特汽车有限公司SRBIJA拥有67%的股权。Since then, the old Zastava plant has been demolished. In the new one, workers with an average age of 30 move around silently, tapping instructions into computer terminals that control the plants robots.从那时起老扎斯塔瓦厂就被拆毁了。在平均年龄为30岁的新厂里工人在默默地将指令输入计算机终端控制工厂的机器人。The rationale for producing in Serbia is cost: the wage Fiat pays there is a fifth of what it pays in Italy, and a third of what it pays in Poland.在塞尔维亚生产的理由是成本:菲亚特付的工资只有在意大利的五分之一,是在波兰的三分之一。Last November, however, protests from disgruntled workers forced Fiat to increase wages in Kragujevac by 13%.然而去年11月不满的工人迫使菲亚特在克拉古耶瓦茨增加13%工资。The Serbian government subsequently agreed to compensate Fiat for this by paying it 10,000 for each employee it took on—not the first time a government has had its arm twisted by a carmaker into providing subsidies.随后塞尔维亚政府同意为每一位员工补偿菲亚特10000欧元,这不是政府第一次由汽车制造商拧着胳膊为其提供补贴。It also promised Fiat a further 3,000 per car to make cheaper 500Ls for the Serbian market.它还承诺每辆车补贴菲亚特3,000欧元降低塞尔维亚市场500Ls车的价格。France and rival car importers cried foul, and the European Commission ruled that Serbia, a candidate for European Union membership, had indeed violated state-aid rules.法国和竞争对手的汽车进口商哭诉违反规则,欧盟委员会裁定塞尔维亚的确触犯了国家援助规则,而其是加入欧盟的候选国。The car-price subsidy was abandoned but the cash-for-workers one was not.汽车价格补贴被放弃,但工人现金补贴没有。The plant could make 200,000 cars a year but its production will be lower.工厂一年可以生产200,000辆汽车,但其产量将会降低。One reason is that Serbia failed to persuade Russia to include cars in a free-trade agreement struck in 2011.原因之一是2011年塞尔维亚未能说俄罗斯将汽车列入自由贸易协定。Kragujevac has good transport links and is close to Fiats main European markets.克拉古耶瓦茨拥有良好的交通是菲亚特在欧洲的主要市场。The government would like to encourage more such investment, because too much of Serbias measly economic growth since 2008 has been achieved without creating jobs.政府希望有更多的投资,因为自2008年以来塞尔维亚可怜的经济增长创造不了多少就业机会。How annoying, then, that one of the advertisements made to publicise the 500L in America shows the cars arriving as women strip off their outer garments to the cry of: The Italians are coming!讨厌的是在美国做广告宣传500L汽车时妇女脱掉外衣喊叫:意大利人都来了!If only potential American investors knew that these Italians are really Serbs.假如只有潜在的美国投资者知道这些意大利实际上是塞尔维亚的。 /201311/264838Don: Ready, Yael?唐:真的吗,雅艾尔?Yael: Yep.雅艾尔:对。Don: Here goes 3.1415 9265 3589 7932 3846 2643 3832 79. Ta da!唐:听着,3.1415 9265 3589 7932 3846 2643 3832 79。哒哒!Yael: Wow, you really can recite pi to the thirtieth decimal place. Very impressive, Don! You must have the memory of an elephant.雅艾尔:哇,你真能背诵出圆周率小数点后十三位数字。唐,太令人印象深刻了! 你的肯定跟大象一样好。Don: Thanks, Yael, but do elephants really have good memories? Or is that just a saying?唐:谢谢,雅艾尔,但是大象真有很好的吗?或者这仅仅是个谚语?Yael: Oh, its real. In fact, a study on elephant memory shows that having a strong memory helps elephants survive in the wild.雅艾尔:哦,是真的。实际上,一项对大象的研究明拥有好的能帮助大象在野外存活。Don: What do you mean?唐:你是什么意思?Yael: Well, scientists studying elephants in Tanzanias Tarangire National Park in Africa knew that some elephants lived through a terrible drought from 1958 to 1961. Now cut to 1993, when theres a second severe drought. Some elephant groups left the park, but only those with members who were old enough to have possibly remembered the earlier drought. The group that stayed in the park was composed of younger elephants.雅艾尔:好吧,科学家对非洲坦桑尼亚的塔兰吉雷国家公园中的大象进行研究,了解到有些大象经历过1958年到1961年之间那次特大干旱。到1993年时,又一次严重的干旱袭来,一些大象群离开了公园,但仅仅是那些还记得之前的大干旱的老象所在的群体。留在公园的大象则是一群较年轻的大象。Don: I see. And I assume that the elephants that left the park in 1993 were better able to survive.唐:我明白了。我猜1993年离开公园的大象生存的机会更大。Yael: Right. The elephants that left the park lost only ten- percent of their calves. But the group that stuck it out lost forty-percent of its young.雅艾尔:没错。离开公园的那组大象只失去了10%的小象。而留下来的大象损失了40%的小象。Don: So in this case, at least, evolution selects for elephants that have memories strong enough to remember stuff from their childhood.唐:所以既然如此,至少大象进化选择了那些好得足以从儿时就记得事情的大象。Yael: Yep. For elephants, memory is a survival tool. 雅艾尔:是的。对于大象来说,记忆是生存工具。 原文译文属!201305/241163Water gets into a fishs body through osmosis, the process in which water diffuses from a higher to a lower concentration.水通过渗透作用进入鱼儿的身体,在这一过程中,水从高浓度的地方扩散至低浓度的地方。For example, if there is more water outside of a cell than inside, water will try to flow into the cell until there is the same concentration of water on either side of the cells membrane. The body of a fish acts the same way, either absorbing or losing water depending on its surroundings.比方说,如果细胞外的水多于细胞内,水就会流入细胞内,直到细胞膜内外的浓度相同。鱼儿的身体与细胞一样,吸水还是失水取决于它生存的环境。Whether a fish absorbs or loses water is based on the fact that all fish must maintain a certain amount of salt in their bodies to stay healthy. Fish that live in fresh water have a higher concentration of salt in their bodies than the surrounding water.不管鱼儿吸水还是失水,事实上,所有的鱼要想保持健康其体内就必须维持一定量的盐分。淡水鱼体内盐的浓度要高于周围的水。Consequently, water continuously flows into the fishs body to attempt to dilute the amount of salt in the fish until it is equal to the amount of salt in the surrounding water. Since fish cannot allow their salt content to be diminished, their kidneys work overtime to expel excess water in the form of urine.因此,水就不断地进入鱼儿的体内以稀释盐份,直到鱼儿体内与外界的盐的浓度持平。因为鱼儿自身无法减少体内的盐分,所以他们的肾就要不断工作以将多余的水以尿液的形式排出体外。Ocean fish have the opposite problem. Surrounded by salt water, their bodies contain a relatively lower concentration of salt than the ocean water. In this case, osmosis causes the fish to constantly lose water in order to equalize salt concentration inside and outside the fish.海鱼的问题则恰恰相反。由于被盐水包围,他们体内盐的浓度与海水相比相对较低。在这种情况下,渗透作用使得鱼儿不停地失水以平衡体内外盐的浓度。To partially compensate for the water loss, ocean fish actually drink water through their mouths. To get rid of the excess salt they take in by drinking seawater, they excrete some salt through cells in their gills.为了补偿失去的部分水分,海水鱼通常要用嘴喝水。而为了去除喝海水带来的多余盐分,它们会通过腮里的细胞排出一些盐分。 /201305/240168

Science and technology科学技术Supercomputing超级计算Deeper thought更深奥的思维The world has a new fastest computer, thanks to games多亏,让世界拥有了一台新的最快的计算机The ultimate games machine终极游戏机SPEED fanatics that they are, computer nerds like to check the website of Top500, a collaboration between German and American computer scientists that keeps tabs on which of the worlds supercomputers is the fastest.作为速度控,电脑迷们喜欢查看Top500的网站,该网站是由德国和美国的计算机科学家合办,记录世界上最快的超级计算机。On November 12th the website released its latest list, and unveiled a new champion.11月12日,该网站发布了最新榜单,揭开了新一任冠军的面纱。The computer in question is called Titan, and it lives at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, in Tennessee.获得冠军的计算机名为泰坦,居于田纳西州的橡树岭国家实验室,It took first place from another American machine, IBMs Sequoia, which is housed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, in California.它是击败了另一台美国的计算机-IBM的红杉而取得冠军的,红杉位于加利福尼亚州的劳伦斯利物莫国家实验室。These two machines have helped reassert Americas dominance of a list that had, in the past few years, been headed by computers from China and Japan.这两台计算机使美国重新在Top500榜单上获得优势地位,而在过去数年,中国和日本的计算机一直雄踞榜首。Titan is different from the previous champion in several ways.泰坦与之前的冠军在多个方面均有所不同。For one thing, it is an open system, meaning that scientific researchers with sufficiently thorny problems will be able to bid for time on it, in much the same way that astronomers can bid for time on telescopes.其一,它是一个开放的系统,意味着科研人员可以争取泰坦的使用时间来解决非常棘手的问题,与天文学家争取天文望远镜使用时间的方式差不多。Sequoia, by contrast, spends most of its time running hush-hush simulations of exploding nuclear weapons, and is therefore rarely available for public use.相比之下,红杉将其大多数时间用在绝密的核武器爆炸模拟上,因此很少用于公共用途。Titan has an unusual design, too.泰坦的设计也与众不同。All supercomputers are composed of thousands of processor chips harnessed together.所有的超级计算机是由成千上万个处理芯片连在一起组成的。Often, these are derivatives of the central processing units, or CPUs, that sit at the heart of modern, desktop machines.这些芯片通常都是由现代台式电脑的心脏-中央处理器,即CPU,衍生出来的。But Titan derives the majority of its oomph—more than 90%—from technology originally developed for the -game industry.但是泰坦的大部分性能源于最初由行业开发出来的技术。Half of its 37,376 processors are ordinary CPUs.泰坦有37376个处理器,其中一半是普通CPU,But the other half are graphics processing units, or GPUs.但另外一半是图形处理器,即GPU。These are specialised devices designed to cope with modern games, which are some of the most demanding applications any home machine is ever likely to run.GPU是用于处理现代的专业设备,其中一些要求最苛刻的游戏甚至都没有家用机能运行起来。Chinas TianHe-1 machine, a previous Top500 champion, was built in the same way, as are 60 other machines in the Top500 list.前Top500冠军,中国的天河1号也是采用同样的方式搭建的,Top500榜单中还有60台计算机也是用此方式搭建的。Parallel worlds并行的世界Broadly speaking, a CPU—which will be expected to run everything from spsheets to voice-recognition software to encoded —has to be a generalist, competent at every sort of mathematical task but excelling at nothing.从广义上说,一个CPU—被寄予运行一切事物的厚望,从电子表格到语音视频软件,再到解码视频—必须成为一个全能选手,要胜任所有类型的数学计算任务,但却无一精通。A GPU, by contrast, is designed to excel at one thing only: manipulating huge numbers of the triangles out of which all modern computer graphics are made.相比之下,GPU就是为专精一件事而特别设计的:操控大量的三角形,所有现代计算机的图形都是由这些三角形构成的。Several years ago researchers at Nvidia and AMD realised that many scientific problems which demand huge amounts of computing power—everything from climate simulations and modelling combustion in an engine to seismic analysis for the oil-and-gas industry—could be translated into a form that was digestible by their GPUs.几年前,英伟达及超微半导体的研究人员意识到许多需要大量运算能力的科学问题—从气候模拟及发动机燃烧方式建模到油气行业的抗震分析—都可以转译成GPU可以理解的形式。Soon after, supercomputer builders such as Cray began to take notice.此后不久,这开始引起了超级计算机制造商的注意,如克雷。Borrowing from the games industry in this way brings several benefits. One big one is efficiency.以这种方式借鉴游戏行业的技术带来诸多好处。最大的一个好处是效能。Titan is an upgrade of Oak Ridges existing Jaguar machine.泰坦是橡树岭现有的美洲虎超级计算机的升级版。Upgrading Jaguar with ordinary CPUs would have meant building a computer that sucked around 30MW of electricity when running flat out—enough juice to power a small town.如使用普通的CPU对美洲虎进行升级,则意味着升级后的计算机在全速运行时将会狂饮大约30MW的电力,这么多电力供给一个小镇都绰绰有余。Because GPUs are so good at their specialised tasks, Titan can achieve its blistering performance while sipping a modest 8.2MW.由于GPU非常擅长处理专门性务,泰坦在达到最高性能时只是抿掉8.2MW的电力,不算太多。It makes sense financially, too, says Sumit Gupta, head of supercomputing at Nvidia.使用GPU从经济上说也颇有意义,英伟达超级计算业务的负责人苏米特古普塔称。The chips that the firm sells to supercomputer-makers are almost identical to those it sells to gamers.英伟达销售给超级计算机制造商的GPU几乎与销售给游戏玩家的GPU完全相同。As Dr Gupta observes, The history of high-performance computing is littered with the bodies of firms that tried to build products just for the supercomputing market.据古普塔士观察,在高性能运算的历史上,遍布着那些只想为超级计算机市场提供产品的公司的尸体,By itself, its just too small a niche.就其自身而言,这个利基市场太过狭小了。It is not all upsides, though.然而使用GPU也有不利的一面。Machines like Titan achieve their speed by breaking a problem into thousands of tiny pieces and farming each out to a single processor.泰坦这类计算机是将一个问题打散为成千上万个小碎片,然后将每个小碎片分发给单独的处理器运算,从而达到其很高的运算速度。A helpful analogy, perhaps, is painting a house: one strategy might be to hire a single painter, but it is probably quicker to employ several people and give each a room to do.或许将其比喻为粉刷房子有助于理解:一种策略是只雇用一名粉刷工,但是多雇几个粉刷工,然后每人刷一个房间很可能会更快一点。Not all problems are susceptible to being chopped up in such a way, though.然而不是所有的问题都能以这种方式切分。The requirement to translate a problem into the sort of mathematics that a GPU can digest adds another barrier.而将一个问题转译为GPU可以理解的那中数学运算问题也是一个障碍。Dr Gupta gives the example of the models used to simulate how a car will react in a crash as one problem that has so far resisted what the industry calls the massively parallel approach.古普塔士举了模拟汽车碰撞的模型的例子,解决该问题目前仍需采用被行业称为大规模并行的方法。Clever programmers can sometimes find a way around such issues: ray-tracing, a high-quality, mathematically intense approach to computer graphics that aims to simulate individual light rays, was, ironically, long thought to be the kind of problem that a modern GPU would struggle with.聪明的程序员有时能够找到绕过这种问题的方法:射线追踪,是一种针对电脑图形的高质量,数学运算频繁的方法,目的是模拟单独的光线。但讽刺的是,射线追踪一直被认为是现代GPU难以处理的一类问题,Yet at a graphics conference in 2008, a group of researchers from Nvidia announced that they had, nevertheless, found a way to do it.但在2008年的一次图形大会上,一个来自英伟达的研究团队宣布,尽管这类问题很难,但他们还是找到了处理的方法。Oak Ridge and Nvidia plan to work with scientists wanting time on Titan to see if their algorithms can be tweaked in similar ways, to make them digestible by the new machine.橡树岭和英伟达计划和想要使用泰坦的科学家合作,来检查这些科学家的算法是否能够以类似的方式进行微调,使新计算机能够理解这些算法。Dr Gupta is bullish.古普塔士对其表示乐观。Even the recalcitrant car-crash simulations, he thinks, will yield to the new approach soon.他认为,即便是顽固的汽车碰撞模拟问题不久也会出现新的解决方法。But that is not to say that every problem can be made to work.但这并不是说所有的问题都能解决。And those scientists who find that they cannot tweak their code may find themselves struggling to take advantage of the ever-rising performance of the worlds fastest computers.对于无法对其编码进行微调的科学家来说,会发现他们很难去利用世界上最快的计算机们不断提升的性能。 /201401/27

Linguistics语言学Argot bargy方言来袭Why urban teenagers speak the way they do城里的年轻人为什么那样说话Nov 2nd 2013 |From the print editionYou think my accent’s bonkers. Your kids speak like me你觉得我的口音弱爆了。但是你家孩子跟我一个德行。IN HER novel “White Teeth”, published in 2000, Zadie Smith noted that in London, “all kids, whatever their nationality”, seem to express scorn with a Jamaican accent. Since then linguistic researchers have gradually come to understand how and why so many teenagers sound like Dizzee Rascal, a rapper from Bow in east London (pictured). They call this sping, mutating argot Multicultural London English (MLE).扎迪史密斯在2000年发表过一部小说,名字叫《白牙》,在书中,她提到在伦敦,所有的孩子,不管他们来自哪里,似乎用牙买加口音表达自己的鄙视。从那时起,语言学研究者逐渐明白了如何以及为何那么多青少年口音听起来像来自东伦敦区说唱歌手迪兹瑞克斯(如图)了。研究者称这种正在蔓延以及变异的语言为多文化伦敦英语(MLE)。When MLE first emerged, linguists believed it was a ham version of the way West Indians speak English. In the early 1980s “West Indians who had spoken Cockney suddenly started to speak differently,” explains Paul Kerswill of York University. Young Afro-Caribbean men may have adopted a new style of speech as they sought to forge an identity in an often hostile society. Others were thought to have copied them.MLE首次出现的时候,语言学家认为这是西印度群岛人群讲英语的一种蹩脚方式。约克大学的保罗克苏威尔解释道,在上世纪80年代初,讲伦敦口音的西印度群岛人群突然开始讲不一样的口音了。年轻的加勒比黑人可能已经接受了一种新的口音,因为他们试图在一个充满歧视的社会里获得一种认可。其他人则被认为是在模仿他们。But far from being cod-Jamaican, MLE is now thought to be a hybrid dialect that emerged from the intermingling of West Indians, South Asians and speakers of Cockney and Estuary English. Though much of the slang is West Indian—from “bare” for “very” to “sick” meaning “good”—the pronunciation is often not. Its chief characteristic, an elongated “ah” sound in place of an “i” so that “like” is pronounced “lahke”, does not imitate a West Indian patois.但这绝不是牙买加人专属,MLE现在被认为是由西印度群岛口音,南亚裔口音和伦敦以及河湾区口音混合的方言。尽管大部分是西印度群岛俚语,比如说‘bare’等同于‘very’,还有‘sick’等同于‘good’,发音往往也不一样。MLE的主要特点是‘i’的发音像‘ah’,因此,‘like’听起来像‘lahke’,这一特征就不是效仿西印度群岛口音。Researchers have found that MLE alters from place to place. Variants have emerged in other cities with many immigrants, such as Birmingham and Manchester. Children tend to pick up MLE at secondary school. It is more common—and more strongly accented—among boys than among girls. The grammar that tends to accompany MLE is increasingly uniform: for example the use of ;we wasnt; in place of ;we werent;.研究者发现英国到处都有MLE的踪迹。其他城市的许多移民也出现了变种,比如伯明翰和曼城。孩子们一般是在初中开始接触MLE。这种口音在男孩之间更加普遍,口音也更明显。同时MLE的语法也正在变的规范起来,例如;we werent;代替了;we wasnt;。Linguists are most excited by what MLE is doing to the rhythm of speech. English is usually spoken with a stress-timed rhythm, in which syllables are stressed at regular intervals. Speakers of MLE speak with a syllable-timed rhythm, in which all syllables are accorded roughly the same time and stress, as in French or Japanese. Syllable-timed speech is a characteristic of languages that have come into contact with other languages. Versions of it may have existed in multicultural places such as Hackney for centuries, thinks Mr Kerswill.语言学家对MLE对语调带来的变化更感兴趣。英语一般是由重音引导的,就是音节按照时间规律重读。MLE的使用者则按照音节停顿,所有音节的语调基本一致,跟法语和日语大致相同。和其他语言相比,按音节停顿是其特点。这种语音特色可能已经在诸如哈克尼这种多元文化区存在数个世纪了。Helped along by the exodus of old-fashioned Cockney speakers to London’s suburbs and commuter towns, MLE is replacing London’s traditional vernacular. That worries some. Caroline Goyder, a former teacher who now coaches politicians and lawyers in the art of public speaking, says she sees increasing numbers of school leavers who fear they are incomprehensible in job interviews. For one young Cambridge graduate working in Paris, that rings true. His MLE accent is proving as much of a problem as his imperfect French. “I know it’s incongruous”, he says, “but it’s hard to lose, y’get me?”随着操伦敦口音的居民搬到郊区以及周边通勤城镇,MLE正在取代当地的传统语言。这让一些人感到担忧。曾任教师的卡洛琳葛依德现在是一名政客律师演讲指导教练,她表示她看到很多毕业生害怕在工作面试中不能被理解。对一个在巴黎工作的剑桥毕业生来说,这是真的。他的MLE口音跟他磕磕绊绊的法语一样。他说,我知道这不对,但是很难改,你懂吗?201311/264377

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