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呼和浩特打水光针多少钱呼和浩特土默特左旗处女膜修复多少钱Metal, heal thyself金属,自己愈合吧Materials science: Researchers have devised an ingenious way for the damaged surfaces of metals to repair themselves when they come to harm 材料科学:研究人员构想出了一种新颖独特的方法,使得金属在表面受损时可以自我修复。SADLY for engineers, inanimate objects cannot yet repair themselves. But work by Claudia dos Santos at the Fraunhofer Institute for Manufacturing Engineering and Automation, and Christian Mayer at Duisburg-Essen University in Stuttgart, has brought the day when they will be able to do so a little nearer. They and their colleagues have invented a way for damaged metals to heal themselves.对工程师来说悲哀的一面是,没有生命的物体还无法实现自我修复。但是在德国弗劳恩霍夫制造工程和自动化学会的Claudia dos Santos和斯图加特杜伊斯堡—艾森大学的Christian Mayer的共同研究下,无生命物体实现自我修复那一天的到来被拉近了一点。他们与同事研发出了一种能让受损金属自我愈合的方法。The surfaces of many metal objects are coated with other metals for protection. Iron, for instance, is frequently galvanised with zinc. The basic idea of the new technology is to infiltrate this coating with tiny, fluid-filled capsules. When the metal coating is punctured or scratched, the capsules in the damaged area burst and ooze restorative liquids, in the form of compounds called trivalent chromates. These react with nearby metal atoms and form tough, protective films a few molecules thick to ameliorate the damage.许多金属物体的表面都覆盖着其他金属层来保护自己。例如,铁就通常会镀上锌。而这种新技术的基本构想就是在金属覆盖层中加入微小并且充满液体的胶囊。当金属的覆盖层受到扎刺或划损时,受损区域的胶囊将会破裂并渗出具有恢复性的液体---三价铬钝化化合物。这些液体将与周围金属原子发生反应,形成几个分子厚、坚固且具有保护性的膜,以修复表面的损害。The idea of doing this has been around for years, but it has proved difficult in practice because the capsules used were too big. Surface coatings tend to be about 20 microns (millionths of a metre) thick. The capsules were 10-15 microns across—large enough to disrupt the coatings, and thus do more harm than good. The trick worked out by Dr dos Santos and Dr Mayer is how to create capsules a few hundredths of this size. 这种构想已经现世好几年了,但是由于过去所使用的胶囊太大,在实践中应用起来难度很大。金属表面的覆盖层厚度趋近于20微米(微米为一米的百万分之一),而过去用的胶囊跨度为10到15微米,这种跨度足以打乱覆盖层的结构,因此对金属造成的弊大于利。dos Santos 士和Mayer士想出来的诀窍就是如何创造跨度仅为过去的百分之几的胶囊。The capsules the researchers have come up with are made by mixing butylcyanoacrylate, a chemical found in superglue, with an oil carrying the healing compounds. This mixture is then mixed with dilute hydrochloric acid. The result is an emulsion of droplets between 100 and 300 nanometres (billionths of a metre) across. Each droplet has an oil core surrounded by a thin layer of butylcyanoacrylate. To make the droplets stable, phosphate is added to the emulsion. This triggers the polymerisation of the butylcyanoacrylate into a tough plastic, which forms the outside of the capsule.如今研究人员创造的胶囊是通过把氰基丙烯酸正丁酯和有愈合功效的化合物悬浮其中的油类混合而制的。氰基丙烯酸正丁酯是在超强力胶中发现的一种化学物质。这种混合物再跟稀释的盐酸混合,结果会产生一种乳状液, 其微滴直径在100到300纳米(纳米为一米的10亿分之一)之间。每个微滴都有一颗油核,周围包裹着一层薄薄的氰基丙烯酸正丁酯。为了稳定这些微滴,研究人员在胶状液中添加了磷酸盐,这就促使氰基丙烯酸正丁酯进行聚合反应转变成一种坚固的塑料。这种塑料就形成了胶囊的外壳。The greatest challenge for the team, however, was not making the capsules in the first place, but stabilising them during the plating process. Though galvanisation is often done by dipping steel in liquid zinc, it is sometimes done by electrolysis—nickel and copper plating are normally done this way. The capsules, though, tend to stick together in the liquids used as electrolytes during electroplating, and are also destroyed by the extreme acidity or alkalinity that is often involved in the process. To overcome these problems, Dr dos Santos and Dr Mayer used special detergents that stick to the polymerised butylcyanoacrylate shell around each capsule, which stops them sticking together and protects them from the electrolytes.然而,对于这组研究人员来说,最大的挑战并不是开始时胶囊的制造过程,而是在电解过程中如何稳定这些胶囊。尽管一般是通过液态锌蘸洗钢铁来镀锌,有时候也会用电解的方法,在电镀镍和铜时就通常使用电镀。在电镀过程中,不过,胶囊容易在使用的电解质液体中黏在一起,而且也会由于这一过程中通常出现的极酸性和极碱性而受到破坏。为了克这些问题, dos Santos士 和Mayer士使用了一种特殊的去污剂,这种去污剂可以粘附在每个胶囊周围聚合氰基丙烯酸正丁酯的外壳上,阻止这些胶囊黏在一起,并保护它们免受电解液的破坏。The researchers have now proved their techniques in electroplated layers of copper, nickel and zinc, and believe that self-repairing metals should commonly be available in the years ahead. Moreover, their nanocapsules may have other applications. Lubricants such as silicone oils can be included in them, to make the damaged surfaces of ball-bearings that have run out of oil more slippery, so that they are not scratched too rapidly. Anti-fouling compounds can be placed in capsules on the surfaces of metals intended for use in marine environments. And, in a nod to butylcyanoacrylate’s origins in superglue, capsules containing chemicals that will react to form adhesives when two surfaces are put together are also on the horizon. 研究人员现在已经在电镀铜层,镍层和锌层上实了这种技术,同时他们相信在未来的几年里将会普遍实现金属的自我修复技术。此外,他们所研发的纳米囊也可能应用到其他领域,比如硅系列油等润滑剂,可以使耗尽了油的滚珠轴承的受损表面更加光滑,避免过快擦。还可以在用于海洋环境的金属表面胶囊中植入防污化合物,以保护环境。而且,由于氰基丙烯酸正丁酯来自超强力胶水,当两种金属表面放在一起时,胶囊内含的化学物质能够反应生成粘合剂,这种新型胶囊的问世也将指日可待。201110/158951呼和浩特京美做去疤手术多少钱 Thousands of Congolese Refugees Flee to Uganda, Rwanda数千刚果难民逃往乌干达卢旺达 The UN refugee agency reports thousands of Congolese refugees have fled to Uganda and Rwanda in the past few days seeking safety from escalating fighting in North Kivu province. Rebel forces loyal to renegade leader Laurent Nkundu have made serious inroads into territory previously held by the Congolese army of President Joseph Kabila around the eastern town of Goma. 联合国难民署报告说,几千名刚果难民在过去几天逃到乌干达和卢旺达,寻求安全庇 护地点 ,躲避北基伍省日益升级的战斗。忠于叛军 头目恩孔达的反对派军队大举入侵了以前由卡比拉总统的刚果军队占有的东部城镇戈马附近的领地。The UN refugee agency reports more than 8,500 Congolese refugees have crossed the border into Uganda since the latest round of fighting started in August - some 2,500 of them over the past few days.  联合国难民署报告说,自从最新一轮战斗在今年8月爆发以来,8千5百多刚果难民穿越边境进入了乌干达,其中大约有2千5百人在过去几天里进入乌干达。UN refugee spokesman, Ron Redmond, says many of the refugees said they had walked for more than 20 hours from the Rugarama area in Congo. This is about 17 kilometers from the Uganda border. 联合国难民署发言人雷德蒙德说,许多难民说他们从刚果的卢加拉马地区走了20多个小时。这里离乌干达边境大约17公里远。He says most of the Congolese refugees in Uganda are dispersed in a dozen villages along the border with the Democratic Republic of Congo. 雷德蒙德说,大多数在乌干达的刚果难民被安置在刚果民主共和国边界一带的十几个村庄里。"They are accommodated by host families, friends and relatives," said Redmond. "They are in fairly good condition. But, we fear that the situation could soon deteriorate if medical, water and sanitation facilities are unable to cope with rapidly increasing needs. Logistics are difficult. It is a very remote area. In addition, the food supplies in that part of Uganda generally depend on local imports from DRC." 雷德蒙德说:“接待他们的家庭、朋友和亲戚为他们提供食宿。他们的情况相当好。但是,我们担心,如果医疗、水和卫生设施无法应对迅速增长的需求的话,局势可能不久会恶化。后勤很困难。这是一个非常偏远的地区。另外,在乌干达那个地区的食品补给一般靠从刚果民主共和国进口。”Meanwhile, Redmond says some 1,200 other Congolese refugees, who fled to Rwanda earlier in the week, were staying in a school in Gisenyi. He says they did not want to be registered by UNHCR and transported to the transit center.  与此同时,雷德蒙德说,这个星期早些时候逃到卢旺达的另外大约1千2百名刚果难民住在吉塞尼的一个学校里。他说,他们不希望在联合国难民事务高级专员署进行登记,也不希望被运往临时中心。He says many of the refugees have since returned to Goma to check on their properties and families left behind. Many others, he says, have moved in with relatives in Gisenyi or crossed the border to Uganda. 他说,许多难民后来回到戈马,看看他们留在身后的财产和家人。他说,另外许多人搬到吉塞尼的亲戚家里,或者越过边境进入乌干达。Redmond says the UNHCR is going to have to set up new sites to accommodate the growing number of refugees and displaced people. 雷德蒙德说,联合国难民事务高级专员署打算设立新地点,安置越来越多的难民和逃离家园的人。"It is clear we are going to require more resources, more funding to cope with the new needs," he said. "Working with the UN system and our partners in the UN as well as NGO partners, we are going to need to rapidly distribute tarpaulins, blankets, sleeping mats, jerry cans, buckets, mosquito nets. All of the aid items that are absolutely essential in a situation like this where people have fled with nothing."  雷德蒙德说:“很明显,我们打算要求更多物资、更多资金来应对新的需求。通过和联合国系统、我们在联合国的夥伴机构以及非政府夥伴机构进行合作,我们打算要迅速分发防水帐篷、毛毯、睡袋、罐头食品、水桶和蚊帐。所有这些援助物资对于一无所有逃离家园的人是绝对重要的。”The UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Antonio Guterres, is renewing his appeal to all sides in the conflict to respect humanitarian principles and to ensure the safety of civilians and those trying to help them. 联合国难民事务高级专员署专员古特雷斯再次呼吁冲突各方尊重人道主义原则,确保平民和试图帮助他们的人的安全。He says hundreds of thousands of people who have aly suffered far too much are in danger and in desperate need of help. 他说,成千上万的已经生活在水深火热中的人目前处于危险之中,急切需要帮助。The UNHCR reports more than a quarter of a million people have fled their homes since August. Altogether, it estimates there are more than one million internally displaced people in North Kivu. 联合国难民事务高级专员署报告说,从8月份以来,已经有25万人逃离了家园。难民署估计,在北基伍省里,总共有1百多万人流离失所。200811/54783著名的年轻法老图坦卡蒙的死因一直是个谜,曾有人猜测他死于谋杀,也有人认为他死于疾病。最近,科学家在图坦卡蒙家族木乃伊尸体中发现疟疾寄生虫DNA,同时在研究图坦卡蒙的遗骨时发现他患有畸形足。疟疾加上先天疾病引起的严重并发症可能是图坦卡蒙的真正死因。201003/97693内蒙古自治区医院光子嫩肤多少钱

呼和浩特有多少家做脱毛的地方Dolphin saves the whalesA dolphin called Moko makes headlines - and possibly history - by apparently saving two stranded whales A dolphin called Moko has made headlines, and possibly history by apparently saving two stranded whales. The pair of pygmy whales, a mother and child were stranded on the East Coast of New Zealand's North Island. Rescuers struggled for an hour and a half to get the whales back into the water, only to see them beached another four times and were starting to contemplate euthanasia. (It) was about to give up, and usually when that happens, the whales will stay on the beach, and we have to take the strays away from the situation. Entered Moko who approached the whales, leading them along the beach, and through a channel out to open sea. She came directly to where we were and established contact, and immediately those two whales seemed to relax. The speculation Moko responded to the whales' distress calls. She did in a few minutes work, we actually being totally in a fit-to-fit doing over an hour and a half. Moko's well-known to the locals and anecdotal evidence abounds of dolphin's protecting people lost at sea. But dolphin's helping other marine life, it's virtually unheard of ...200810/54445呼和浩特京美激光祛痣多少钱 Red Cross: Nightmare Scenario Unfolding in Cholera-Stricken Zimbabwe红十字会:津霍乱疫情像恶梦  The International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies says a nightmare scenario is unfolding in Zimbabwe as the number of cholera deaths and cases continues to mount. The Red Cross says it is hit with a severe funding crisis and this is hampering its ability to contain the deadly disease. 国际红十字会与红新月会联合会说,津巴布韦霍乱疫情造成的死亡和患病人数还在增加,那里正在出现恶梦一样的惨状。红十字会说,严重的资金危机正在削弱红十字会控制这场疫情的能力。Senior health officer for the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, Tammam Aloudat, has recently returned from Zimbabwe. He says the cholera outbreak in the country is increasing in scale and it is claiming more lives. 国际红十字会与红新月会联合会的高级医疗官员阿洛达最近刚刚从津巴布韦返回。他说,津巴布韦霍乱疫情的规模正在扩大,死亡人数也在增加。"The scenario that was described a few weeks ago and was told to be an excessive nightmare scenario is happening," said Aloudat. "It is unraveling in front of our eyes. We have close to 50,000 cases and close to 3,000 deaths aly."  他说:“几个星期前,有人告诉我们那里的情况就像可怕的恶梦,这种惨状目前正在发生,就在我们的眼前出现。已经有近5万人得了霍乱,近3000人死亡。”Several weeks ago, humanitarian agencies were warning that Zimbabwe's cholera epidemic could peak at 60,000. They called this a nightmare scenario and said all measures must be taken to contain the disease.  几个星期前,一些人道主义机构警告说,津巴布韦的霍乱疫情可能导致6万人患病。它们把这种情况称为恶梦,并说必须采取一切行动控制霍乱。Aloudat says the Red Cross and other aid agencies have the expertise and the will to control a disease that, under more normal circumstances, can be fairly easily contained and prevented. 阿洛达说,红十字会和其它组织有控制疫情的专业知识和意愿。在比较正常的条件下,霍乱是一种相对容易控制和预防的疾病。"Today as we speak, the Red Cross is providing treatment, providing sanitation, water and providing volunteers who are going to their communities to educate them and providing personal hygiene materials," said Aloudat. "This is what has the potential to avert a cholera outbreak. We can definitely contain this outbreak given the resources. We are not anymore in the 19th century."  他说:“就在此刻,红十字会正在提供治疗、卫生设备、水和志愿者。这些志愿者进入他们所在的社区,教人们如何防病,发放个人卫生用品。这些工作本来有可能防止霍乱发生。如果有人力物力,我们一定可以控制疫情。毕竟我们不是生活在19世纪了。”But, that is the problem. The Red Cross is not being given the resources, the money it needs to carry out its life-saving mission. The agency appealed for over million at the end of last year. Aloudat says this appeal is about 60 percent under-funded. 不过,问题正在于红十字会并没有得到这些治病救人所需的资源和资金。红十字会曾在去年底呼吁得到900多万美元的资助。但阿洛达说,红十字会最终只得到大约40%的资金。"The lack of funding is probably a mixture of several aspects and most important, we have seen the funding drop when Zimbabwe dropped off the TV screens. It is not about the politics or persons here. It is about the ability to reach people who are now dying of cholera and need assistance now. I think linking the humanitarian assistance to cholera to politics is not a good idea."  他说:“缺乏资金可能是多种因素造成的,其中最重要的是,当津巴布韦不再出现在电视新闻中时,我们得到的资助就减少了。我们谈论的不是津巴布韦的政治或领导人,而是为那些即将被霍乱夺走生命的人提供帮助的能力,这些人现在就需要救助。我认为,把对霍乱疫情的人道主义援助同津巴布韦的政治联系起来是不明智的。”Aloudat says Zimbabwe's health system is completely shattered. He says health professionals are not going to work because they are hungry and they are not being paid. He says one of the most important things that must be done to control the epidemic is to top off the salaries of doctors and nurses so they report for work. 阿洛达说,津巴布韦的医疗系统已经完全崩溃。他说,医疗工作者由于饥饿和得不到工资而不去上班。他说,为了控制疫情,最重要的是必须补发医生和护士的薪水,以便让他们回去上班。01/61491乌兰察布市中心医院激光去胎记多少钱

呼市第一医院纹眉毛多少钱 British Leader Warns Global Downturn Could Turn to Recession英国首相:多国实体经济可能衰退 In his first parliamentary question session since last week's European leaders' summit where economics took center stage, British Prime Minister Gordon Brown has warned that many countries must brace for recession in the real economy. 英国首相布朗在议会接受质询时警告说,许多国家必须做好应付实体经济出现衰退的准备。这是自从上星期在欧洲峰会上经济成为中心议题以来布朗首次在议会备询。It is the first time Prime Minister Gordon Brown has publicly acknowledged what many average Britons have felt for months: that the global economic downturn is likely to cause a recession both here and elsewhere around the world. And as Mr. Brown underlined in parliament, it was serious. 这是英国首相布朗首次公开承认许多英国人几个月来所感受到的事情,那就是全球经济的下行风险可能会在英国和世界其他地区引起衰退。并且正如布朗在议会所强调的那样,这可能是一次严重的经济衰退。"The Governor of the Bank of England said last night that not since the First World War has the international banking system been so close to collapse and I agree with him," Brown said. "Having taken action on the banking system, we must now take action on the global financial recession which is likely to cause recession in America, France, Italy, Germany, Japan and because no country can insulate itself from it, Britain too." 布朗:“英格兰行长昨天晚上说,国际体系如此接近于全面崩溃,这是第一次世界大战以来从未出现过的情况。我同意他的说法。我们已经就解决系统的问题采取了行动,我们现在必须就应付可能引起美国、法国、意大利、德国、日本经济衰退的全球金融衰退采取行动,因为没有一个国家能够不受到影响,英国也是一样。”Mr. Brown said he looks forward to attending a summit of world leaders soon to discuss cooperative economic recovery measures. That gathering will be held in the ed States sometime shortly after the November presidential election. 布朗表示,他期待出席下个月在美国举行的世界领导人金融峰会,讨论合作制定经济复苏措施的问题。With the British economy shrinking, Mr. Brown is facing many of the same problems being felt elsewhere in the developed world, such as rising home foreclosures that have nearly doubled during the past 12 months. 随著英国经济的收缩,布朗正面临其他发达国家所面临的同样的问题,诸如房屋贷款违约率上升。在过去一年里,英国丧失房屋贷款赎回权的数量几乎成倍增加。In the House of Commons, the prime minister outlined new plans to combat that alarming trend. 在英国下院,布朗首相概述了控制这种可怕倾向的新方案。"Mr. Speaker, I can announce today new guidance - new guidance for the judiciary to halt or adjourn court action on repossessions unless alternative options that help the homeowner including extending the terms of the mortgage, changing the mortgage type and deferring payment have been fully examined first of all. We are determined to do everything we can to help homeowners avoid repossessions," he said. “议长先生,我今天可以宣布新方针,这个新的司法方针要求停止或暂时终止法庭收回房屋的判决,除非法庭判定在此之前帮助房主的其他措施已经得到执行,这些措施包括延长房屋贷款的期限,改变房贷的类型,以及推迟分期付款。”But the economic fight back will take time. Mortgage approval rates are down by more than 70 percent this year compared to 2007.  但是防止经济衰退的措施需要时间才能生效。英国的房屋贷款批准率今年和2007年相比下降了百分之70以上。Unemployment is rising and that is expected to continue into . And the pound has slipped to a five-year low against the U.S. dollar. 失业率上升,预计年还会继续攀升。英镑对美元的汇率已经下滑到5年来的新低。200810/53772呼和浩特市立医院玻尿酸多少钱内蒙古医学院附属医院光子脱毛多少钱



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