原标题: 郴州东方泌尿专科男科电话
Books and Arts; A father of modern photography;The hunter and his prey;文艺;现代摄影之父;猎手与猎物;Henri Cartier-Bressons photographs are on show in New York until June 28th;亨利·卡蒂埃·布列松摄影展在纽约展出,截止到6月28日;All it takes to be a photographer, Henri Cartier-Bresson once said, is “one finger, one eye and two legs”. He visualised photography as a way of engaging with the world. He quietly stalked his subjects—Balinese dancers, Mongolian wrestlers, New York bankers—until that “decisive moment” when the right composition filled the frame. It all came so naturally. He rarely used a light meter or checked his aperture setting, and he seldom took more than a few shots of a single subject. With the instinct of a hunter, he knew when to click the shutter: “I prowled the streets all day, feeling very strung-up and y to pounce, determined to ‘trap life—to preserve life in the act of living.”亨利·卡蒂埃·布列松曾经说过,成为摄影师的必备条件不过是“一根手指、一只眼睛和两条腿”。他把摄影设想为接触世界的一种方式。他静静地走近拍摄对象-巴厘岛的舞者、蒙古摔跤手、纽约家-直到合适构图布满取景框的那个“决定性瞬间”。一切来的自然而然。他很少用曝光表,也不检查光圈,对拍摄对象拍不了几张照片。凭借猎手的直觉,他知道何时按下快门:“我整天在大街小巷漫步,觉得兴致勃勃,随时准备抓住机会,决定捕捉生活,在生活行为中珍藏生活。”Born in 1908 in Paris, the eldest son of wealthy cotton-th manufacturers, Cartier-Bresson had a lusty, rebellious hunger for travel. With a head full of Rimbaud and a copy of “Ulysses” under his arm, he set off for west Africa in search of adventure. (He aspired to be a painter, but Gertrude Stein suggested he drop the brushes.) He bought his first Leica in the Cote dIvoire when he was 23. Light and quiet, the camera had just come onto the market, and it was a revelation. It fitted into his pocket, along with a few rolls of film. “Nobody took pictures that were better at exploiting the portability of the camera,” says Peter Galassi, the chief curator of photography at the Museum of Modern Art in New York, where “Henri Cartier-Bresson: The Modern Century” is on view.1908年生于巴黎的卡蒂埃·布列松是家境富裕的棉纱制造商的长子,对旅行充满强烈、难以抑制的渴望。满脑子兰波诗作的布列松夹着一本《尤利西斯》,踏上了去西非的探险之旅。(他曾经渴望当一名画家,不过著名画家格特鲁特·斯泰因劝他丢下画笔。)23岁的时候,布列松在象牙海岸买了第一台莱卡相机。这款相机刚刚投放市场,质地轻巧、噪音很小,实在出人意料。这台相机刚好放进他的口袋里,还有几卷胶卷。《亨利·卡蒂埃·布列松:现代百年》摄影展在纽约现代艺术物馆展出,物馆的摄影总监彼得加拉西说:“在开发相机的便携性方面,没有摄影者比他做得更好。”The show, many years in the making, is drawn primarily from the huge archive of work held by the Henri Cartier-Bresson Foundation in Paris, founded a year before he died in 2004. From the thousands available, Mr Galassi has selected 300 images from 1929 to 1989, a fifth of which have never been seen publicly before.本次摄影展筹备多年,展品主要来自巴黎亨利·卡蒂埃·布列松基金会的大量作品档案,该基金会于2004年布列松逝世前成立。加拉西从几千张照片中,精选了1929到1989年间的300张照片,其中五分之一从未公开露面。As cameras grew smaller and picture magazines bigger, Cartier-Bresson became a globe-trotting hired hand. But though he had a knack for being in the right place at the right time—in India at the time of Gandhis assassination, in China during the Cultural Revolution—he did not really have a nose for a good scoop. What he excelled at was seeing things in a different way from most other people.照相机越来越小,摄影杂志越做越大,卡蒂埃·布列松成了奔波于全球的摄影家。尽管布列松有在合适时间、合适地点抓拍的窍门-在印度目睹甘地被刺,在中国碰上文化大革命-他却真的不善于挖掘独家新闻。他高人一等的地方,就是以不同于他人的方式观察事物。The visitor is greeted by a wall of four photographs: a crowd of flag-waving, bespectacled Nixon-supporters in Texas in 1960 (the illustration above shows a couple of more sedate fans in Indiana); a cluster of Chinese youth gawking at a television in Beijing in 1958; a mass of French mourners in coats holding hands in 1962; and a group of wizened and rather menacing old men in Sardinia, lounging in straw-like grass, also in 1962. The juxtaposition of these images shows not just Cartier-Bressons range but also his gift for group portraits. When snapping a spectacle—a coronation, say, or a parade—he trained his camera on the unsuspecting bystanders.观众迎面看到的是四张照片的幕墙:1960年在德克萨斯州,一群尼克松的持者挥舞旗帜、戴着眼镜(说明下面的插图是印第安纳州一对不苟言笑的持者);1958年,一群中国年轻人在愣愣地看电视;1962年,许多穿着外套的法国送葬者手挽着手。1962年,撒丁岛上一群形容枯槁、面露凶相的老人在草地上游荡。这些照片齐聚一堂,不但显示卡蒂埃·布列松的题材广泛,还展现了他拍摄群像的才能。不论是加冕礼还是大游行,每拍摄一个场景,他都把照相机对准浑然不觉的芸芸众生。The show is divided into sections, starting with some of Cartier-Bressons most arresting surrealist work from the 1930s, such as a sunbather in Trieste, Italy, whose white body echoes a sliver of white in the grass, and his self-assured prostitutes in Mexico City. Then came the war (he was a prisoner in Germany for three years before escaping) followed by his career as photojournalist and portrait photographer.这次摄影展分成几部分,开头是卡蒂埃·布列松20世纪30年代最引人瞩目的超现实主义作品,比如意大利蒂利亚斯特的日光浴者,她们的白皙身体和银白色草场相互呼应,还有墨西哥城满怀自信的。接着是战时摄影作品(布列松在德国被囚禁了3年才逃脱),开创了他身为摄影记者和肖像摄影家的职业生涯。There is much to marvel at, such as the pictures of China in 1948, which capture the photographers powerful sense of formal composition. Some of the curators choices seem a bit odd and the written descriptions, which add little, are occasionally heavy-handed. One section, for instance, is introduced as Cartier-Bressons criticism of “American vulgarity, greed and racism”. But the visitor is left with a remarkable chronicle of the transformations of the 20th century—the rise of industrialisation, the fall of colonialism, the sp of commercialism and the grand-scale shift in world order—all captured by a lone man and his camera.令人惊叹的还有这位摄影家强烈庄重的构图感,比如1948年在中国拍摄的照片。摄影总监对作品的选择看似有几分奇特,图片说明平添了一点尴尬。例如,有一个部分介绍了卡蒂埃·布列松对“美国人的粗俗、贪婪和种族主义”的批评。观众对20世纪种种变化的非凡记录所震撼:工业化的崛起、殖民主义的衰落、重商主义的蔓延和世界秩序的天翻地覆,一切都被一个人和他的照相机收入眼底。 /201306/243456New fiction新小说Fatty issue胖子是个大问题A thoughtful new work by an American original.具有独创精神的美国作家带来富有创见的新作Big Brother《老大哥》LIONEL SHRIVER knows the drawbacks of using her own family in her fiction. Famous for the bestselling “We Need to Talk About Kevin”, which won the Orange prize for fiction in 2005, she once lamented that her parents had not yet forgiven her for an unflattering portrait in an earlier book. The rift was unfortunate, even sad, Ms Shriver noted, but that did not mean she would not do it again. “Real-life people are like carcasses thrown to a carnivorous pet,” she observed.兰诺丝薇佛明白,拿自己家人作为小说人物原型问题多多。于2005年获英国柑橘文学奖小说奖的畅销书《凯文怎么了》使丝薇佛声名鹊起,她曾慨叹,因为自己在一部早期作品中对父母描述直白,双亲一直耿耿于怀。丝薇佛表示,与父母产生嫌隙是令人遗憾的,甚至是令人伤心的,但那并不意味着她不会故技重施。她说,“现实中的人物就像抛给食肉动物的畜体,有血有肉。”“Big Brother”, Ms Shrivers 12th novel, may be her most plainly autobiographical. The author has written publicly before about her own big brother, an “obscenely smart” man who ultimately ate himself to death. The experience left her with not a few unresolved questions. What moves someone to eat to grotesque excess? Why is it so hard to deal with food in a healthy way in the overabundant 21st century? And what is the duty of kin when it comes to helping someone bent on self-destruction? These concerns drive her new novel, which considers the fate of a morbidly obese man and his sensible, successful 40-something younger sister. Ms Shriver, who has reviewed fiction for The Economist, has a knack for conveying subtle shifts in family dynamics, but this book feels uniquely personal, and is more poignant for it.《老大哥》是丝薇佛的第12本小说,也可能是她自传痕迹最明显的一部小说。作者在以前公开发表的作品中就曾提到她的老大哥,说他“聪明到让人吃惊”,最后把自己给吃死了。如此经历给丝薇佛留下了不少困惑。是什么动力使一个人暴饮暴食到近乎荒唐的地步?在物产过剩的21世纪,为何健康饮食如此之难?如果要向一个执意自我毁灭的人施以援手,其亲属又肩负哪些责任?对这些问题的关注推动她完成了这部小说,对一个肥胖病患者和他理智、成功、四十来岁的的命运做出了思考。丝薇佛曾为《经济学人》撰写过小说,擅长巧妙传达家人互动时的微妙变化。但这本书似乎更关怀个人,而且更加切中要害。Pandora Halfdanarson, the heroine, leads a staid life in Iowa, where ambitions are as modest as the plains are flat. She has a thriving toy business, a contented marriage and a good relationship with her teenage stepchildren. But these dulling comforts have her craving the “splash of anarchy” that a visit from her cool, jazz-playing brother, Edison, would bring.小说女主人公潘多拉?哈夫达纳森在爱荷华州享受着安稳的生活,那里土地平坦,人们甘于平凡。她的玩具店生意兴隆,婚姻美满,和十几岁的继子女们相处融洽。但波澜不惊的安逸生活让她对“混乱的波澜”心生向往,这份波澜,将由爱迪生—她玩爵士乐的哥哥—带给她。After years of limited contact, however, the sight of him comes as a shock. Her once handsome and sylphlike brother has become a mountain of flesh in a double-wide wheelchair, his jazz-pianist fingers bulging like bratwurst just before the skin splits. “It was rude to stare, and even ruder to cry.” Struggling, Edison hopes to stay with Pandora and her family for a little while. But his presence is outsized and disruptive, his appetites epic, his boastful stories tinged with resentment (“Hey Ive played with some heavy cats, dig?”). Edisons bombast strains Pandoras marriage and disturbs the balance of her life, especially after she hatches a dramatic plan to slim him down in order to save him.兄间多年少有联络,再见面时,被哥哥吓了一跳。她原本相貌英俊、身形窈窕的哥哥如今成了一座瘫在加宽轮椅上的肉山,曾经弹奏爵士钢琴的手指如今鼓胀得像肠衣即将爆裂的德式香肠。“瞪眼直视俨然成了无礼冒犯,泪流满面则更甚。”爱迪生努力想同潘多拉一家人待一段时间。但他身形庞大,到处添乱,胃口惊人,自吹自擂的故事里还捎带着忿恨爱迪生的胡吹乱侃让潘多拉的婚姻关系变得紧张,扰乱了她平静的生活。为了挽救哥哥,潘多拉想出了一个戏剧性的方案来帮他减肥,之后一切更是乱了套。With “Big Brother”, Ms Shriver offers some sage observations on the pleasures of eating, the link between fat and shame and the struggle to lose weight—a “distinctly bourgeois form of suffering”. She suggests that the fundamental problem of food may be that it is “more concept than substance”, an idea of satisfaction if never quite satisfaction itself. The highlight of ingestion is the moment between one bite and the next; actual eating never quite delivers on the tantalising contentment promised between bites.丝薇佛在《老大哥》中提出了一些富有哲理的看法,涉及饮食的乐趣、肥胖和羞耻的关系以及减肥的努力—她称减肥为“典型的中产阶级痛苦”。她认为食物最根本的问题也许在于它“更多的是一个概念,而非物质”,强调的是满足感而非满足本身。摄取食物最令人满足的时刻在咬一口和下一口之间,而两口之间那诱人的满足感并不能通过实际的吃来获得。But this book is not just about bingeing and purging. Ms Shriver writes tenderly about marriage, and also about the potency of blood ties, which are wonderful and horrible for the same reason: there is “no natural limit to what these people can reasonably expect of you”. Her interior monologues are pitch-perfect; her dialogue less so. Yet her main gift as a novelist is a talent for coolly nailing down uncomfortable realities—like the feelings of regret that haunt a sister who asks if she did right by her big brother.但这不只是一本探讨暴饮暴食和心灵净化的书。丝薇佛充满温情地描绘了婚姻,也将血缘亲情的力量娓娓道来,这份力量既美好又可怕,因为“家人以为对你的期待合情合理,而这份期待其实无边无际”。丝薇佛笔下的内心独白精异常,对话稍逊一筹。不过,作为小说家,丝薇佛的天赋在于能够从容地把握令人不安的现实——比如潘多拉不确定自己对哥哥所做的一切是否正确时,那份困扰她的懊悔之情。 /201405/294996

In 1624, a Jesuit missionary, Father Antonio Andrade, wrote a book highly popular across Europe.1624年,耶稣会传教士安东尼奥安德拉德神父写的一本书深受整个欧洲的欢迎。In it, he describes his visit to an amazing country called Tibet.在书中,他描述自己拜访了一个被称为西藏的了不起的国家。Father Andrade and his companion trecked from their missioning goal in search for long-forgotten Christian state called Shambhala.神父安德拉德和他的同伴以传教士目的为由寻访被遗忘很久的称为香巴拉的基督教国家。Instead, they discovered Guge.然而他们发现了古格。By this time the story goes, tensions between Khri bKra shis Grags pa lde and his brother were at an all-time high, and they were about to get worse.此时,克里克巴和他的兄弟之间的关系剑拔弩张,而且即将变得更糟。The king warmly welcomes Andrade.然而国王却热忱的欢迎安德拉德。In his book, Andrade writes, as holy men, the king treated us with great reverence,在他的书中,安德雷德写道,身为圣人, 国王很尊敬的招待我们,and then explains somewhat to my surprise that he wishes to understand our faith.然后解释的令我有些吃惊,他希望了解我们的信仰。 201403/279441Science and technology科学技术Scientific publishing科学出版The price of information信息的价格Academics are starting to boycott a big publisher of journals学术界开始联合抵制某个大型期刊出版商SOMETIMES it takes but a single pebble to start an avalanche.有时一块小卵石就足以使冰山崩裂。On January 21st Timothy Gowers, a mathematician at Cambridge University,一月二十一日,剑桥大学数学家Timothy Gowers写了一篇文,wrote a blog post outlining the reasons for his longstanding boycott of research journals published by Elsevier.其中陈列了其长期抵制埃尔塞维尔科学出版社的研究期刊的原因。This firm, which is based in the Netherlands, owns more than 2,000 journals, including such top-ranking titles as Cell and the Lancet.这个总部位于荷兰的公司主营的期刊就有2000多,包括《细胞》和《柳叶刀》等世界一流的刊物。However Dr Gowers, who won the Fields medal, mathematicss equivalent of a Nobel prize, in 1998, is not happy with it, and he hoped his post might embolden others to do something similar.然而菲尔兹奖得主Gowers士对它不满,并希望其文可以鼓励他人联合抵制。It did.他目的达到了。More than 2,700 researchers from around the world have so far signed an online pledge set up by Tyler Neylon,Gowers士的同事Tyler Neylon受到该文的鼓舞,在网上发起请愿,a fellow-mathematician who was inspired by Dr Gowerss post, promising not to submit their work to Elseviers journals,目前已有来自世界各地的2700多名研究者签名,他们承诺不会投稿到Elsevier的期刊,or to referee or edit papers appearing in them.也不会推荐或编辑上面刊登的文章。That number seems, to borrow a mathematical term, to be growing exponentially.签署的人数—借用数学术语来说—似乎呈指数增长。If it really takes off, established academic publishers might find they have a revolution on their hands.如果这真的形成一股风气,那已成立的学术出版社可能面临一场大变革。A bundle of trouble麻烦不断Dr Gowerss immediate gripes are threefold.Gowers士的不满可以分为三点。First, that Elsevier charges too much for its products.首先,Elsevier的产品要价太高。Second, that its practice ofbundling journals forces libraries which wish to subscribe to a particular publication to buy it as part of a set that includes several others they may not want.其次,它将几种刊物捆绑出售,这就让想要订阅其中某种刊物的图书馆不得不将囊括了他们不想要的刊物的系列刊物全买下。And third, that it supports legislation such as the Research Works Act, a bill now before Americas Congress that would forbid the government requiring that free access be given to taxpayer-funded research.第三,它持研究工作法等立法,该法案无须通过美国国会,就可以阻止政府为纳税人资助的研究小组提供免费通道。Elsevier insists it is being misrepresented.Elsevier坚称自己是被误解了。The firm is certainly in rude financial health.无疑该公司的财务状况很强健。In 2010 it made a 724m profit on revenues of 2 billion, a margin of 36%.2010年其收入有20亿欧元,热利润只有7.24亿欧元,利润幅度达36%。But it charges average industry prices for its products, according to Nick Fowler, its director of global academic relations,然而其全球学术关系部门领导Nick Fowler认为其开价属于行业平均价格,and its price rises have been lower than those imposed by other publishers over the past few years.而且过去几年来,其价格涨幅要比其它出版商要低。Elseviers enviable margins, Dr Fowler says, are simply a consequence of the firms efficient operation.Fowler士称,Elsevier那让人眼红的盈利幅度,只是该公司高效运转的结果。Dr Neylons petition, though, is symptomatic of a wider conflict between academics and their publishers—a conflict that is being thrown into sharp relief by the rise of online publishing.然而,Neylon士的请愿不过是学术及其出版商之间矛盾扩大化的一种象征——由于网络出版业的崛起,这种矛盾已经得到大大的缓解了。Academics, who live in a culture which values the free and easy movement of information have long been uncomfortable bedfellows with commercial publishing companies,学术,能生长于一个重视信息传播的自由性与方便性的文化环境中,同时也是一个愿意无偿编辑和评判文章的事物。which want to maximise profits by charging for access to that information, and who control many of the most prestigious scientific journals.但长期以来,学术与商业化出版商就格格不入,后者希望通过向信息获取者收费从而使利润最大化,此外还掌控着大多数最负盛名的科学刊物。This situation has been simmering for years.这种局面已经酝酿多年了。In 2006, for example, the entire editorial board of Topology, a mathematics journal published by Elsevier, resigned,比如,2006年Elsevier出版一本数学期刊《地志学》时,整个编辑委员会都提出辞呈,citing similar worries about high prices choking off access.并对高价掐断信息来源的行为表示类似忧虑。And the board of K-theory, a maths journal owned by Springer, a German publishing firm, quit in 2007.而德国某出版公司Springer旗下的一本数学期刊《扭结理论》的编辑委员会也于2007年辞职。To many, it is surprising things have taken so long to boil over.酿就一件事花费如此长的时间让很多人大跌眼镜。Academics were the internets earliest adopters, with all the possibilities for cutting publishers out of the loop which that offers. And there have indeed been attempts to create alternatives to commercial publishing.学术界是最早采纳互联网的。却是有人试图为商业出版提供更多选择。Cornell Universitys arXiv website was set up in 1991.康奈尔大学的arXiv网站于1991年成立。Researchers can upload maths and physics papers that have not been published in journals.研究员可以上传一些还没在期刊上发表的数学及物理文章。Thousands are added every day.每天添加的文章成千上万。The Public Library of Science was founded in 2000.公共科学图书馆于2000年成立,It publishes seven free journals which cover biology and medicine.它会免费出版7种涵盖生物学和医学的刊文。But despite the enthusiasm for such operations, there are reasons for the continued dominance of traditional publishers.然而,尽管人们有热情去做类似事情,但传统出版商主导地位依旧屹立不倒也有其理由。ArXivs papers, though subject to merciless post-publication commentary, are not formally peer-reviewed before they are posted.ArXiv的文章,尽管遭受到出版后的无情抨击,但他们在发表之前并没有接受同行审评。Their quality is thus rather uneven.因此其质量相当不平衡。PLoS relies partly on donations, but also charges publication fees of up to ,900 per paper.PloS的部分经济来源于捐赠,但每篇文章也收取高达2900美元的发表费。These must be paid by the authors, a significant expense for cash-strapped university departments.这些费用必须由作者承担,对于囊中羞涩的大学部门来说这是笔很大的费用。And there is also a lingering prejudice against electronic-only publishing.此外,关于只有电子版的刊物的偏见一直存在。Web-based alternatives often seem less respectable than their dead-tree counterparts.通常,相比网络版刊物,人们更尊重那些过时了的纸质版刊物。That matters, because university departments are rated both by the number of papers they publish and the reputation of the journals those papers appear in.这至关重要,因为大学部门是以他们所发表的文章数量及其所在刊物的名气程度来评级的。Youngsters, who might be expected to embrace new ways of doing things, must therefore publish in existing, reputable journals if they want recognition and promotion.因此,可能接受新方式的青年如果想要得到承认与升迁,就必须在有名气的实体刊物上发表文章。And the definition ofreputable changes slowly, since journals with the best reputation get the pick of new papers.由于新报刊能够成为最有名气的报刊,名气的定义也在逐渐改变。Commercial publishers have begun to experiment with open-access ideas, such as charging authors for publication rather than ers for ing.商业化出版商已经开始尝试开放式获取理念,比如收费对象从读者转向发表文章的作者。But if the boycott continues to grow, things could become more urgent.然而,如果抵制情绪持续增长,问题将变得更为紧迫。After all, publishers need academics more than academics need publishers.毕竟,需要学院的出版商多过需要出版商的学院。And incumbents often look invulnerable until they suddenly fall.而且往往出版商在倒下的前一刻还看起来坚不可摧。Beware, then, the Academic spring.那么,当心学术的春天到了。 点击此处下载本期经济学人讲解PDF与音频字幕 /201306/245146

Science and technology科学技术Fundamental physics基础物理学Antimatter of fact反物质现状Researchers at CERN have held on to anti-atoms for a full quarter of an hour欧洲核子研究中心的研究人员已经让反原子停留了十五分钟。READERS who were paying attention in their maths classes may recall that quadratic equations often have two solutions, one positive and one negative.关注数字课的读者们或许会想到二次方程通常会有两个解,一个是正值,一个是负值。So when, in 1928, a British physicist called Paul Dirac solved such an equation relating to the electron, the fact that one answer described the opposite of that particle might have been brushed aside as a curiosity.因此在1928年,一个名叫保罗·狄拉克的英国物理学家给出了有关电子的一个方程的解,然而事实上,这个结果表达的是一种相反的粒子,这个结果或许会被考虑后舍弃。But it wasnt.然而事实并非如此。Instead, Dirac interpreted it as antimatter—and, four years later, it turned up in a real experiment.相反,狄拉克将其解释为反物质—并且在四年后,在现实的实验中验了它的存在。Since then antimatter—first, anti-electrons, known as positrons, and then antiversions of all other particles of matter—has become a staple of both real science and the fictional sort.从那时起,反物质—最初是反电子,也就是俗称的质子,接着就是其他粒子的反物质—这已经成了现实科学和虚构类别之间的主要组成部分。What has not been available for study until recently, however, is entire anti-atoms.这样的研究一直以来没有突破直到最近的完全的反原子的出现。A handful have been made in various laboratories, and even held on to for a few seconds.在各个实验室已经有一小部分的反原子被发现,即便它们仅仅存在了几秒钟的时间。But none has hung around long enough to be examined in detail because, famously, antimatter and matter annihilate each other on contact.不过没有一个停留了足够长的时间用以仔细地研究他们,众所周知,反物质与物质只要相遇就会湮灭。But that has now changed, with the preservation of several hundred such atoms for several minutes by Jeffrey Hangst and his colleagues at CERN, the main European particle-physics laboratory near Geneva.然而随着在欧洲核子研究中心这个在日内瓦附近主要的欧洲粒子物理实验室里,该机构的杰弗瑞?汉斯特与其同事让数百个这样的原子维护了几分钟,原来的情况现在已有所改观。The reason this is important is that Diracs equation is misleading.狄拉克方程是一种误导这个原因是很重要的一点。Antimatter cannot be the perfect opposite of matter, otherwise neither would exist at all.反物质并不是完全的反物质,否则它将无法存在。If they truly were perfect opposites, equal amounts of the two would have been made in the Big Bang,如果实际上它们是完全相反的,那么相同的数量的反物质早在大爆炸产生时就已经互相湮灭了,and they would have annihilated each other long since, leaving only light and other forms of electromagnetic radiation to fill the universe.它们只以电磁波的形式留在宇宙中。That galaxies, stars and planets—and physicists to ponder such things—exist therefore means there is a subtle asymmetry between matter and antimatter, and that nature somehow favours the former.星系,恒星以及行星——物理学家在在仔细思考这样的事情—它们都已经存在了,这意味着在物质与反物质之间有着一些不可思议的不对称性,自然界在某种程度上是偏爱于前者。Two such asymmetries have indeed been found. But neither is big enough to explain why so much matter has survived. Being able to look at entire anti-atoms might give some further clue.两个这样的不对称性实际上已经被发现了。不过二者都不足以解释为什么如此多的物质存活了下来。对于整个反原子的研究或许能够提供进一步的线索。Last November the ALPHA collaboration at CERN, which Dr Hangst leads, managed to put positrons into orbit around 38 antiprotons—thus creating anti-hydrogen atoms—and then held on to them in a magnetic trap for a few tenths of a second.去年11月,欧洲核子研究中心由汉斯特士领导的阿尔法项目成功地将正电子放入了38个反质子周围的轨道中—因此形成了反氢原子—接着将它们放入了一个磁阱,持续了零点几秒。Now, as they report in Nature Physics, the researchers have used their device to preserve anti-hydrogen for 16 minutes .随着他们在《自然—物理学》发布报告,研究人员又利用他们的设备维持了反氢原子16分钟。This gives the anti-atoms plenty of time to settle into their ground state, the most stable condition a particle or atom can attain.这让反原子有充足的时间待在基态—这是一个粒子或原子能够达到的最稳定状态。As a result, Dr Hangst and his colleagues can look in a leisurely manner for novel ways that antimatter might differ from the common-or-garden variety.因此汉斯特士和他同事凭这种新奇的方式有充足的时间来观察反物质—这或许不同于平日的各种状态。Their first experiment will involve nudging the trapped anti-atoms with microwaves.他们的第一次实验将会用不同频率微波轻推被困的反原子。If the frequency of these microwaves is just right, they will flip an anti-atoms spin.如果这些微波的频率恰到好处,他们将会使这些反原子产生自旋翻转。That reverses the polarity of the atoms magnetic field and ejects it from the trap.这就会改变原子原来的极性和磁场,原子就会从磁阱中弹出去。The frequency needed to do this can then be compared with that which flips the spin of an ordinary hydrogen atom.这些测试的频率将会与翻转普通氢原子的频率作对比。If the two turn out to be different, it will point towards the nature of the mysterious cosmic asymmetry.如果两个频率是不同的,那么它将会指向神秘的宇宙不对称性。Besides being of huge interest, such a result would also have a pleasing symmetry of its own.除了巨大的兴趣外,这样的结果对于本身也将是一个值得欣喜的对称。The original discovery of antimatter was a nice example of theory predicting an undiscovered fact. This would be a fact that repaid the compliment by predicting an undiscovered theory.反物质的独特发现是理论预示未知世界这一说法的一个极好说明。这使得预测未知理论来获得人类的满意将成为一个事实。 /201304/235727You know, radio is a great thing.要知道,收音机是伟大的发明。Here I am! Flying high abovethe earth, but my voice is coming across just as if I were sitting in front of you.现在,我在演播厅,可是,我的声音让你觉得我就在你面前。Communicating by voice alone has its drawbacks, though.但是,光凭声音沟通是有缺点的。For example, I cant use hand gestures to clarify what I mean.比如,我现在无法用手势来表达自己。And, as it turns out, that makes a big difference.这说明手势对沟通很重要。Researchers at the University of Otago in New Zealand wanted to know how much a relevant hand gesture helps to communicate an idea.新西兰奥塔拉大学的研究,想知道相关的手势对表达想法有多少帮助。They had volunteers watch clips of a woman saying different simple phrases, such as “the square box,” or “peel the banana.”志愿者被要求观看视频短片,短片中有个女人在说各种简单短语,比如,“方盒子”、“剥香蕉”。In some, she simply said the phrase without moving her hands.第一组志愿观看的视频中,她只是说出来,而不做任何手势。Peel the banana. In others, shemade the kind of hand gesture most of us would make when saying that-a sort of banana-peeling mime that matches the content of the phrase.但是,第二组志愿观看的视频中,她模仿默剧,做剥香蕉手势。In a third group, she made gestures with her hands that were unrelated to what she was saying.在第三组志愿观看的视频中,她做了一些和剥香蕉毫不相干的手势。The results?结果是什么呢?People who got the matching content hand gestures remembered those phrasesmore effectively than folks who got just the words alone.第二组志愿者比第一组记得更好;而第一组比第三组记得更好!What does this show us?这说明什么呢?We aly knew that all the hand-waving we do when we speak isntjust nervous energy; it serves various functions.我们在说话时所做的手势,除了情绪表达还有更多其它用处。Apparently, one of them is to help the listener remember what youve said.很显然,手势有助于听者记忆。 201407/309042

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