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Trans fat began as an Industrial Age breakthrough but evolved into a modern-day menace, offering a history in miniature of the food industry.反式脂肪最初曾是工业时代的一项突破性发明创造,但后来逐渐演变为现代社会中的一大威胁,反式脂肪可以说是食品行业历史的一个缩影。When created in the early 1900s, trans fat was the first man-made fat to join America#39;s food supply, according to the American Heart Association. Procter amp; Gamble Co. took advantage of the cheaper alternative to animal fat, introducing Crisco vegetable shortening. Others soon followed.反式脂肪是上世纪初被创造出来的,据美国心脏协会(American Heart Association)说,它是第一种进入美国食品供应的人造脂肪。保洁公司(Procter amp; Gamble Co.)利用这种更廉价的动物脂肪替代品,推出了Crisco蔬菜起酥油。其他公司很快争相效仿。The invention gave rise to the popularity of margarine, which got a boost from butter rationing during World War II. A few decades later, concern rose about saturated fat in animal products such as beef and butter. Margarine was promoted as a healthier alternative, and food makers switched to partially hydrogenated vegetable oil containing trans fat.反式脂肪的发明使人造黄油风行起来,二战期间黄油配给制度推动了人造黄油的使用。几十年后,人们开始担心牛肉和黄油等动物产品中的饱和脂肪。人造黄油被宣传为一种更加健康的替代品,食品生产商们纷纷改用含有反式脂肪的部分氢化蔬菜油。But the tide turned with a surgeon general#39;s report in 1990 that publicized the harmful effects of trans fat. It was a classic case of food-advice whiplash, as the previously demonized butter turned out to be not so bad by comparison.但1990年美国一位卫生局局长的报告公布了反式脂肪的害处,反式脂肪的命运随之逆转。这是食品建议给产品造成打击的一个典型案例,后来发现这种之前被妖魔化的黄油相比之下其实并不是那么有害。From that time on, trans fat was on a downward slope, but some food makers found it difficult to wean themselves from it without sacrificing taste or shelf life.从那时起,反式脂肪就走上了下坡路,但一些食品生产商发现很难戒除反式脂肪,因为若不使用反式脂肪,食品的口味或保质期就会打折扣。When McDonald#39;s Corp. announced in 2002 it would try to reduce the trans fat in its fries, people flooded its customer-service line with complaints about how the fries tasted -- even though nothing had yet changed. So when the company later began testing new oils, it didn#39;t tell consumers.2002年麦当劳(McDonald#39;s Corp.)宣布将尝试减少薯条中反式脂肪的使用,当时顾客把麦当劳的电话都打爆了,大家纷纷抱怨薯条味道大不如前──尽管当时薯条的炸制用油还未发生任何变化。有了这样的前车之鉴,麦当劳后来开始试用新油时,没有告知消费者。Some noticed nonetheless. After testing a new oil in Los Angeles, McDonald#39;s received complaints that its fries were coming out covered in a milky residue and turned soggy quickly. The fast-food giant did more testing before arriving at an oil that produced crispy, golden fries. The company didn#39;t announce that its fries nationwide were free of trans fat until well after they aly were in restaurants.不过仍有人注意到了。麦当劳在洛杉矶试用了一种新油,之后就接到了投诉,有人说薯条包裹着一层乳白色的残留物,很快就变得软趴趴。这家快餐巨头进行了更多的尝试,之后终于找到了一种能炸制出脆脆的金黄色薯条的油。直到麦当劳餐厅使用新油炸制薯条后很久,该公司才宣布其在全美各地提供的薯条不含反式脂肪。Kraft Foods likewise was stealthy when it rolled out trans fat-free Oreos in 2006. The reformulated cookies quietly hit store shelves with no indication beyond the required disclosure on the Nutrition Facts label.同样,2006年卡夫食品(Kraft Foods)推出不含反式脂肪的奥利奥饼干时,也没有声张。配方经过调整的奥利奥饼干悄然上市,除按要求在标签的营养成分表中注明成分外,并没有额外的标注。By the mid-2000s, consumer concern had risen enough that any use of trans fat risked a corporation#39;s image, said Harry Balzer, a food analyst with NPD Group.NPD Group食品分析师鲍尔泽(Harry Balzer)说,2005年前,消费者的担忧上升到了相当严重的程度,任何使用反式脂肪的做法都可能令企业的形象受损。The Center for Science in the Public Interest took advantage of public opinion in July after discovering high levels of trans fat in food at some Long John Silver#39;s restaurants. The chain#39;s #39;Big Catch#39; meal -- fish, hush puppies and onion rings, all fried -- contained 33 grams of trans fat, the center said, based on the chain#39;s own nutrition disclosures.公共利益科学中心(Center for Science in the Public)发现Long John Silver部分餐厅提供的食品中反式脂肪含量很高,之后在今年7月利用了舆论的力量。该中心说,根据该连锁餐厅披露的营养成分信息,其“Big Catch”套餐──由鱼、油炸玉米饼和洋葱圈组成,全部都是油炸的──含有33克反式脂肪。The center issued a news release calling it the worst restaurant meal in America. Long John Silver#39;s said it would get rid of trans fat in all of its U.S. restaurants by the end of the year.该中心发布了一份新闻稿,称这是美国最糟糕的餐厅套餐。Long John Silver说,其在美国的全部餐厅将在年底前停止使用反式脂肪。 /201311/264437Georgina Porteous and Sid Innes could be the world#39;s thriftiest couple after tying the knot in their all expenses spared wedding.乔治娜-波蒂尔斯和希德-英尼斯可能是世界上最节俭的夫妻了,他们的结婚典礼遵从节约一切费用的原则。The couple had their dream wedding in the Scottish Highlands complete with flowers, cake, photographer and even a jazz band without barely spending a cent.这对夫妻在苏格兰高地举办了自己的梦想婚礼。鲜花、蛋糕、摄影师、甚至是一爵士乐队一样都不少,而且他们几乎没花一分钱。The newlyweds, who are into recycling and self-sufficiency, couldn#39;t avoid the 70 pound marriage fee but everything else was either donated or found for free.这对新婚夫妇循环利用物资,自给自足,除了不可避免的70英镑婚姻登记费,每一样物品都是受捐赠得来或免费找到的。The wedding rings were even handcrafted by the bride herself from antlers found in her garden while her vintage wedding dress cost a whopping Pound 1 or .50 - the couple#39;s only other expense.婚戒是新娘亲手用在花园找到的鹿角制作的,而她的复古礼仅花费了“昂贵”的1到1.5英镑,这是除登记费外的唯一花销。Ms Poertious#39;s mother Suzanne, who is a church er, conducted the ceremony in abarn at the couple#39;s home while the guests were all asked to bring a plate of food each.波蒂尔斯的母亲苏珊娜是一位教堂诵经师,她在这对新人家中的谷仓里主持了这场仪式,而参加婚礼的宾客被要求每人带一盘食物。The bride, 36, and groom, 39, were pronounced man and wife by local reverend Peter Donald who offered his services for free, while the photographer offered his services in exchange for some graphic design work by the bride, and the cakes were made by her aunt.新娘36岁,新郎39岁,当地的牧师彼得唐纳德宣布二人结为夫妇。彼得免费提供了这项务,同时摄影师也免费帮忙拍摄,仅以新娘给他一些平面设计作品作为交换条件,新娘的阿姨则为这对新人制作了蛋糕。The couple, got engaged in Berlin last year after meeting in 2009 said they were determined to have the cheapest wedding possible so they could save money for their dream home and honeymoon.这对夫妇2009年相遇,去年在柏林订婚。他们决定尽可能举办最节俭的婚礼,这样就可以存够钱买梦想中的婚房以及好好度蜜月了。 /201309/256715You#160;work#160;all#160;day.#160;You#160;check#160;email#160;at#160;lunch#160;and#160;wherever#160;you#160;are.#160;And#160;then#160;you#160;keep#160;checking#160;(and#160;answering)#160;emails#160;when#160;you#160;get#160;home.你一整天都在工作,吃午饭的时候,随时随地,你都在查收邮件。工作下班了回到家,你也还是会查看(并回复)邮件。Do#160;you#160;ever#160;stop#160;working#160;and#160;start#160;living?#160;More#160;importantly,#160;do#160;you#160;know#160;where#160;the#160;boundary#160;is#160;between#160;your#160;work#160;and#160;your#160;life?#160;For#160;many,#160;work#160;has#160;taken#160;over#160;their#160;lives.#160;They#160;don’t#160;know#160;where#160;one#160;begins#160;and#160;one#160;ends.你有没有停止工作开始生活过?更重要的是,你分清工作和生活之间的界限了吗?对于很多人来说,工作已经占据了他们的生活,他们不知道这两者的界限和起止点。Here#160;are#160;9#160;Questions#160;to#160;Ask#160;Yourself#160;About#160;Your#160;Work#160;And#160;Life#160;Boundary:问问你自己这9个问题,看看自己能分清工作和生活的界限吗? /201309/256176

The government policy that promotes marriage among single mothers as a key part of the effort to fight poverty has missed the mark, according to one leading researcher.一位研究主管称,政府制定了政策,想要通过促成未婚妈妈结婚来帮助她们脱贫。但是,这不能从根本上解决问题,结婚可能不会帮助未婚妈妈脱贫。The reason, said Kristi Williams, Ph.D., an associate professor of sociology at The Ohio State University, is that marriage fails to provide the same benefits to poor, single mothers as it does for others.美国俄亥俄州立大学社会学副教授、克丽丝蒂?威廉姆斯( Kristi Williams)士说,和其他的结婚人群不同,贫困的未婚妈妈不会从结婚中受益。“If the goal of marriage promotion efforts was truly to lower poverty rates and improve the wellbeing of unmarried parents and their children, then it is time to take a different approach,” Williams said.威廉姆斯说:“如果政府在婚姻推广政策上下功夫的真正目的是降低贫困率、为未婚单亲家庭谋福祉,那么政府是时候去改变策略,换一种方法来解决问题了。”That could include preventing unwanted births and giving more child care support for single mothers, she said.她说,政府应该采取措施控制意外生育,给未婚妈妈提供更多的儿童保育援助。Williams wrote a briefing paper on the issue for The Council on Contemporary Families. Her report was one of two released to assess the state of the War on Poverty on its 50th anniversary.威廉姆斯就这个问题给现代家庭委员会(The Council on Contemporary Families)写了一份简报。1964年,约翰逊?肯尼迪总统发起了“向贫困宣战”( War on Poverty)这一项目,今年是该项目的50周年纪念。有两份发布的报告被用作“向贫困宣战”这一项目实现程度的评价指标。威廉姆斯的报告是其中之一。It’s easy to see why marriage promotion is appealing, Williams said: About 46 percent of children in single-mother households were living in poverty in 2013, compared to 11 percent of children living with two married parents.威廉姆斯说,2013年的统计数据表明,未婚妈妈家庭中有46%的儿童生活在贫困中,而正常的婚姻家庭中只有11%的儿童生活贫困。这样看来,政府对婚姻促成(marriage promotion)政策热衷的原因并不难理解。Marriage promotion became an official U.S. policy in 1996 when Congress passed welfare reform legislation that allowed states to spend welfare funds on a range of efforts to get single mothers to marry. It has continued, with some modifications, to this day.1996年,国会通过福利改革法案,允许各州花费社会福利,以致力于推动未婚妈妈结婚。此后,婚姻促成政策正式成为美国的一项政策。该政策几经修订,延续至今。“But the flaw in this approach is the assumption that all marriages are equally beneficial,” Williams said.威廉姆斯说:“但是,该政策的缺陷在于,它想当然地认为所有结婚的未婚妈妈都能脱贫。”In fact, research shows that single mothers living in impoverished neighborhoods are likely to marry men who won’t help them get out of poverty.实际上,研究表明,居住在贫民区的未婚妈妈很可能嫁得不好,她们的丈夫帮不了她们脱贫。These men are likely to have children from other partnerships, lack a high school diploma, and have been incarcerated or have substance abuse problems, Williams noted.威廉姆斯注意到,未婚妈妈们嫁的这些男人本身就问题多多,情况很可能是这样的:他们有的与前女友或者前妻生育的有孩子,有的没有高中毕业,有的进过监狱,还有的吸毒。“Single mothers who marry and later divorce are worse off economically than single mothers who never marry,” she said.她说:“那些结过婚又离婚的未婚妈妈的经济状况比从未结婚的未婚妈妈的经济状况要糟得多。”Promoting marriage among single mothers may not help their children, either. Recent research by Williams and several colleagues found no physical or psychological advantages for the majority of teenagers born to a single mother who later married.未婚妈妈的结婚推广政策对孩子的成长而言也没有多大帮助。威廉姆斯和几位同事最近进行的研究表明,对于大多数出生在未婚妈妈家庭的青少年来说,母亲后来结婚这件事,没有对他们身心成长大有裨益。Rather than promoting marriage, the government should focus on preventing unintended births, Williams said. She found in one study that having a child outside of marriage is associated with negative mental health outcomes among African-American women only when the birth was unexpected.威廉姆斯在一项研究中发现,非裔美国女性的心理健康程度与是否生育非婚生子女息息相关。只有当意外生育发生时,非裔美国女性才会产生心理健康问题。她表示,政府应该去关注如何控制意外生育,而不是关注如何促成未婚妈妈的婚姻。 /201401/272272

Jewelry designer Jamie Wolf doesn#39;t let pregnancy stop her from doing plies and ronds de jambe in her ballet class.珠宝设计师杰米#12539;沃尔夫(Jamie Wolf)没有让怀阻碍她在芭蕾课上继续练习下蹲和划圈等动作。As a former New York City Ballet corps member, Ms. Wolf knew the best prenatal exercise is the one she#39;s been doing most of her life.相反,作为纽约市芭蕾舞团(New York City Ballet)昔日的一名舞蹈队员,沃尔夫认为最好的期锻炼就是她迄今生活中投入时间最多的运动。With her doctor#39;s consent, Ms. Wolf went back to ballet class after eight weeks into her pregnancy. She says the endorphins from exercising helped her deal with first-trimester nausea. #39;I found that what makes me feel best while being pregnant are the things that feel familiar because everything else is changing,#39; says Ms. Wolf, who is due this month.经得医生允许后,怀八周的沃尔夫重新回到芭蕾课堂。她表示,运动促进体内的内啡?分泌,帮她克了吐这种怀初期的妊娠反应。如今,很快将迎来预产期的沃尔夫说:“我发现怀期间让我感觉最好的就是接触熟悉的事物,因为其他一切都在发生改变。”The 35-year-old New Yorker began dancing at age 8 at the School of American Ballet. Her first role on stage was the #39;Bunny#39; in New York City Ballet#39;s #39;The Nutcracker,#39; which became her nickname when she joined the company in 1996.沃尔夫现年35岁,纽约人,从8岁就在美国芭蕾舞学校(School of American Ballet)学跳芭蕾舞。她的舞台处女作是在纽约市芭蕾舞团的《胡桃夹子》(The Nutcracker)中扮演“兔子”(Bunny)。1996年她加入这个芭蕾舞团后,“兔子”便成了她的昵称。Ms. Wolf retired in 2006 to focus on her jewelry line. She stepped back into the studio three years later when choreographer and former City Ballet dancer Benjamin Millepied approached her to audition for a dancer role in the 2010 film #39;Black Swan.#39; To get back in shape, she began taking ballet classes with master teacher Wilhelm Burmann and continued to do so after working on the film.2006年,沃尔夫从纽约市芭蕾舞团退役,开始专注于珠宝设计工作。三年后她重回芭蕾舞房,因缘在于电影《黑天鹅》(Black Swan,2010年)需要一位舞者,担任编舞的前纽约市芭蕾舞团舞者本杰明?米派德(Benjamin Millepied)邀请她去试镜。为了重塑身形,她开始跟随名师威廉?布尔曼(Wilhelm Burmann)重新修习芭蕾,并且在电影拍完后坚持了下来。She is the only pregnant woman in a class geared for professional dancers, but that doesn#39;t deter her from enjoying the workout.沃尔夫参加的是面向专业舞者的培训班,而她是这个班上唯一的妇学员,但这一点儿也不影响她享受训练的过程。#39;I used to be able to do those moves and now I can#39;t,#39; she says. #39;Who cares? It#39;s about feeling good and I really enjoy it.#39;她说:“以前能做的动作,现在我都做不了了,可那又怎样?只要感觉好就行,我真的感觉很享受。”The Workout跟随“”律Ms. Wolf attends Mr. Burmann#39;s advanced professional class at Steps on Broadway one to three times a week. Class begins at the barre with leg exercises such as plies, tendus and ronds de jambe for 45 minutes. Then the class practices adagios, a sequence of sustained movements.沃尔夫每周去Steps on Broadway参加1-3次布尔曼的高阶专业芭蕾舞课程。该课程一开始有45分钟供学员进行下蹲、拉伸、划圈等基本的腿部练习,然后是一些动作连续的慢板练习。She modifies the exercises to fit her changing body, eliminating moves such as the arabesque, a pose in which a dancer stands on one leg with the other leg extended behind her. She is always on alert for signs of discomfort. #39;As a dancer, you#39;re comfortable with your body and you know yourself so well,#39; she says. #39;It#39;s very easy to differentiate fatigue from pain and discomfort.#39;因为怀带来的身体变化,沃尔夫在练习时对一些姿势进行了变通,例如略过像迎风展翅(arabesque)这样单腿站立、另一条腿往后高抬的动作。沃尔夫会对不适风险时刻保持警惕。她说:“一名舞者会让自己的身体处在舒适的状态,会对自己非常了解。我们很容易就能区分出哪种感觉只是累了,哪种感觉是疼痛和不舒。”At home, she follows online streaming s of Ballet Baby, a prenatal workout created by Mary Helen Bowers, a former dancer and founder of Ballet Beautiful, a ballet-inspired fitness program. Ms. Wolf sometimes takes Ms. Bowers#39;s studio classes.在家里,沃尔夫会跟着《芭蕾宝贝》(Ballet Baby)的在线流式视频进行锻炼。《芭蕾宝贝》是退役舞者玛丽?海伦?鲍尔斯(Mary Helen Bowers)为准妈妈们设计的一套锻炼动作。鲍尔斯也是基于芭蕾舞设计的健身项目Ballet Beautiful的创始人。有时候,沃尔夫也会去鲍尔斯的舞蹈房上课。The series includes mat work, toning exercises and cardio workouts broken into around 15-minute sessions. Her favorites include the Inner Thigh and the Classic Bridge exercises, which help sculpt the butt, the inner thighs and the back of the legs.《芭蕾宝贝》系列课程包括垫上练习、伸展动作和有氧运动,大约15分钟一小节。沃尔夫最喜欢的练习包括“大腿内侧运动”(Inner Thigh)和“经典搭桥”(Classic Bridge)练习,这些动作有助于锻炼臀部、大腿内侧和腿肚部位。The Diet期饮食For breakfast, she often has multigrain toast with fresh avocado sprinkled with salt or multigrain waffles with a banana. For lunch, she#39;ll have either a Moroccan chickpea salad or a salad with grilled chicken.沃尔夫早餐常吃的是撒上少许盐的鲜鳄梨杂粮吐司,或者香蕉杂粮华夫饼。午餐的话,要么洛哥鹰嘴豆色拉,要么鸡肉色拉。For dinner, she enjoys date nights and often eats out with her husband, Mike. At home, they cook grilled fish with wild rice and fish tacos with fresh guacamole in the summer. She eats whatever her body is craving but within moderation.对于晚餐,沃尔夫喜欢约会的感觉,所以常常和老公迈克(Mike)外出就餐。如果在家就餐,夏天他们会做烤鱼,并用野生稻米做饭,还会做鱼肉玉米饼卷,配以鳄梨色拉。总的来说,沃尔夫在饮食方面完全听从自己身体的需要,同时注意适量原则。She has Epic Seed#39;s Greek Yogurt + Chia every day for calcium, and bananas for potassium, which she learned prevents muscle cramps during pregnancy.此外,沃尔夫每天还会食用Epic Seed的Greek Yogurt + Chia以补充钙元素,并通过吃香蕉补钾,她听说这样可以预防期肌肉痉挛症状的发生。The Gear行头装备In ballet class, Ms. Wolf wears Yumiko#39;s Yuki leggings in black microfiber () and Alex or Heather microfiber leotards ( and , respectively). The brand doesn#39;t provide maternity wear so she buys up a size. She dances in Bloch split-sole ballet slippers, which cost around . Her other workout clothes includes Jungmaven T-shirts () and zip-hooded sweatshirts ().上芭蕾课时,沃尔夫穿的是Yumiko品牌的Yuki黑色超纤弹力裤(售价67美元),以及Alex或Heather系列的超纤面料练功(分别售价75美元和68美元)。因为这个品牌没有专门的妇,沃尔夫就选了大一号的尺码。练功时,沃尔夫会穿Bloch品牌的分割式软底舞鞋(售价在33美元上下)。她还备有其他一些练功,包括Jungmaven 品牌的T恤衫(售价29美元)和带拉链的套头衫(售价60美元)。A single class at Steps on Broadway costs , though she buys a series of 10 classes for 0. The Ballet Baby online streaming s cost about for the series. A monthly subscription to in-studio and online Ballet Beautiful classes costs 0.在Steps on Broadway单上一节芭蕾课的花费是18美元,沃尔夫报了一套共10节的课程,总计160美元。一套《芭蕾宝贝》在线视频课程的售价约为50美元,而Ballet Beautiful练功房和在线课堂的月收费是280美元。The Playlist美妙音乐#39;One thing I love about ballet is the incredible music, especially getting to perform with a live orchestra,#39; she says, who counts Stravinsky as one of her favorite composers. At Steps on Broadway, there is a pianist who accompanies the class.沃尔夫说:“我爱芭蕾表演时那美妙的音乐,特别是在乐队现场伴奏下跳芭蕾的感觉。”她表示,斯特拉温斯基(Stravinsky)是她喜欢的作曲家之一。在Steps on Broadway上课时,旁边就有钢琴师伴奏。 /201408/320040

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