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The Lick party was forced to use substandard equipment.这个力克党被迫使用不合格的设备。Campbell has no choice but to take the risk.坎贝尔别无选择,只能冒这个险。He has a total solar eclipse all to himself and may never have another opportunity like this again.这是只有属于他自己的一次日全食,他们可能从来不会再有像这样的另一次机会。Campbells part travels to Goldendale, Washington and gets y for the coming eclipse.坎贝尔前往华盛顿,准备迎接即将到来的日食。It was close to home so the whole family went.由于离家非常近,所以全家人都动身前往。Campbells goal is to photograph the stars that emerge in the brief period when the sun is hidden by the moon.坎贝尔的目标是拍摄当太阳被月球档上而星星出现的短暂时段。But on Saturday, June 8th 1918, it seems that the universe is once again not y to yield its secrets.但在1918年6月8日的周六,似乎宇宙再次不准备揭示它的秘密。Clouds moved in and it looked like he wouldnt even get observations and Russia would be repeated which he hated.云爬了上来,它看起来就像甚至不想被观察而俄罗斯再次重复他讨厌的。And suddenly just at the crucial time when they needed the clear sky the clouds parted.忽然在这关键时间云层散开,他们需要晴朗的天空再次出现。Campbell begins taking photographs of the spectacle.坎贝尔开始拍摄。注:听力文本来源于普特201205/182163。

Obituary;逝者;Keith Colquhoun;基斯·科尔克霍恩;Farewell to an old Asia hand and The Economists previous Obituaries editor;一个写亚洲的老手、《经济学人》逝者专栏前编辑,再见了;In the 20-odd years he worked for The Economist, from 1981 to 2004, Keith Colquhoun never raised his voice. He did not need to. His soft, courteous, slightly smiling delivery encouraged people to listen, as to a favourite uncle. But steel lay behind it. “Ive just taken one or two liberties with your copy,” he would say, meaning that it had been completely rewritten into the best simple, accurate, sparely punctuated Colquhoun prose. “I would like to do X,” he would say gently, announcing the weeks Obituary candidate, who was often a complete unknown; and neither wild horses, nor the deaths of great celebrities, could persuade him to change his mind.1984年-2004年,在基斯·科尔克霍恩为《经济学人》工作的这20多年里,他从不提高声音说话。他不需要这样。他轻柔、谦恭、略带微笑的讲话风格使人们愿意聆听,就像听一个可爱的叔叔讲话一样。但是话语背后透着坚决。他会说,“我把你的稿子做了一两处处理”,意思是,稿子已经改成最简洁、最准确、标点最少的科尔克霍恩风格。当他宣布当周的逝者人选时,他会轻轻说,“我想做某某人”,通常是一个完全不为人知的名字;无论是野马,还是大明星的去世,都不能改变他的主意。Keith came into journalism the old-fashioned way, through provincial papers and Fleet Street, but got as far as Hong Kong, where he worked for the Far Eastern Economic Review. He loved Asia, though his view of it was really that of a 19th-century colonial administrator. He had a soft spot for geishas. Of one correspondent, non-productive though enjoying a lavish retainer, he once remarked: “I think perhaps if we do not hear from him next year, we should send him a note.” Though no stripling, he would hunger to get to Siam, Sinkiang or Tartary. He developed a fondness for the Pacific islands, and actually found stories there.基斯进入记者圈是那种很老套的方式,先在地方报纸做,然后进入伦敦报业街,但是他最远到了香港,供职于《远东经济》。他热爱亚洲,尽管他对亚洲的看法还像是一个19世纪的殖民地官员。他喜欢艺妓。他曾这样一个不出活却享受高价聘用金的记者:“我想也许这样,假如我们明年收不到他的信的话,我们应该给他寄一封。” 他虽然不是小伙子,却渴望去暹罗、新疆和鞑靼。他还对太平洋诸岛产生了兴趣,而且真的在那里找到了故事。When he took over the Obituaries in 1995, just after their launch, he kept the Asian flag flying. He also set an extraordinary standard for clear, dry, witty writing. The openings of his Obituaries were a particular delight. “One of Walter Linis minor pleasures was to get the better of the French.” “The achievement of Karl Kehrle, a Benedictine monk, was to breed a very decent British bee.” Or this:就在“逝者”诞生后不久的1995年,他接手了这个栏目,并且一直高举亚洲大旗。他清晰、朴素、诙谐的写作风格树立了一个卓越的标准。他逝者文章的开头能带给读者一种特别的愉悦。“沃尔特·里尼的一个小乐趣是盖过法国人。” “本笃会修士卡尔·科赫尔的成就是培育一只品种非常优良的英国蜜蜂。” 或是下面这个:Hunting around for something not too brutal to say about Tiny Rowland now that he is dead, those who knew him have remarked on his charm. The English language is helpful with the evasive word.认识泰尼·罗兰的人在脑中搜寻他那些不是太过残酷之处——因为他已经不在了,他们于是说起了他的魅力。英语这种语言很会描述这个含糊的词。It was an open secret, however, that Keiths dearest occupation was not The Economist. It was his own writing, at which he could be seen tapping eagerly for as long as he dared before boarding the homeward train to Mersea Island. He produced 11 blackly comic novels, the last of them (“Five Deadly Words”) this April. Those disarmed by his gentleness could never quite forget that in Keiths world guns would be suddenly drawn, blood spilt on the carpet and bullets lodged in a desk, “reducing its value a little should it ever come to auction.”然而,基斯最钟爱的职业不是他在《经济学人》的工作——这是一个公开的秘密。他最爱的是为自己写作。你能看见他在登上回家乡莫西岛的火车之前,热切地敲着他自己的作品,直到该上车的最后一刻。他创作了11部黑色幽默小说,最后一部(《五个致命单词》)在今年四月出炉。那些被他的温和缴械的人从来不会忘记,在基斯的世界里,会突然被拔出,血会溢到地毯上,颗颗子弹会固着在桌子里,“假如哪天把这桌子拿去拍卖,价钱也就微折。” /201209/200885。

Technology Going underground科技 去地球深处A project to reveal more about all the carbon on Earth一个将会揭示更多关于地球上所有碳的秘密的项目THE carbon cycle is the stuff of school books.碳的循环在学校教科书中已经讲过了。It is a familiar tale of photosynthesis, forests, farming and fossils fuels.这是一个包含光合作用,森林,农业及化石燃料等且为人所熟知的故事。Understanding this cycle is important, both because it sustains life on Earth and because it is bound up with the rate of global warming.理解这个循环是重要的,既因为它撑了地球上的生命又因为它和温室效应息息相关。But are the outlines of the carbon cycle really that familiar?但是碳循环真的就像我们所熟悉的那样子么?At the AAAS meeting in Washington, DC, Robert Hazen of the Carnegie Institution for Science, which is based in the same town, gave a lecture intended to show that this view of the carbon cycle only scratches the surface.在华盛顿特区召开的AAAS会议上,来自位于该特区卡耐基科学研究所的Robert Hazen做的研究试图展示出以前那种碳循环的观点仅仅是抓了些表面现象。Dr Hazen is one of the moving spirits behind a project called the Deep Carbon Observatory, which will be paid for by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation.Hazen士是一个叫做地底碳观察项目的策划人,这个项目即将得到Alfred P. Sloan基金会的资助。Over the course of the next decade it will attempt to understand all the carbon in the Earth, not just the stuff that cycles through the atmosphere, the oceans and living things.在接下来的10年里,该项目将会致力于理解地球上所有碳的循环方式而不仅仅是大气,海洋和生物中循环的那些碳的运转。As Dr Hazen pointed out, carbon is the fourth-most-abundant element in the universe, after hydrogen, helium and oxygen.就像Hazen士指出的那样,碳是宇宙中含量排第四的元素,仅落后于氢,氮和氧。In the Earth, though less common than that, it is reckoned to make up between 0.07% and 3.2% of the planet.虽然在地球上它的含量并没有这么高,但是据估计,它应该占星球的0.07%-3.2%。But the uncertainty of this range is itself a comment on how little carbons role in the Earths overall physics and chemistry is understood.有这个范围区间正表现出碳在整个地球物理化学研究中被忽视了。Also uncertain is how much interchange there is between the carbon in the Earths mantle and core, and the more familiar stuff in the crust, atmosphere and oceans.地表和地心之间碳的交流以及地壳、大气和海洋之间碳的交流目前人们都不明确。Some carbon comes from the mantle to the surface in the form of diamonds.有些来自地幔的碳以钻石的形式到达地表。These crystals, which can form only under the intense pressure of the Earths deep interior, must have been erupted at unbelievable speed (about 100kph) to have survived the journey to the surface intact.这些只有在地球内部巨大的压力下才能形成的晶体,需要以令人难以置信的速度(100公里每小时)喷出地表才能保持完整。At slower speeds they would have turned into graphite, much to the chagrin of brides-to-be everywhere.如果速度较低,他们会变成石墨,这是得那些即将成为新娘的人十分懊恼。(钻石很珍贵而结婚的新娘们很喜欢但因为它们因为速度的原因就不能形成钻石,所以很懊恼)How, exactly, diamond forms is an important question. Diamonds are useful as an industrial material as well as gem stones, and they would have many more applications if they could be made cheaply. And another, even more important industrial material, petroleum, may also come from the mantle.钻石到底是怎么形成的是一个重要的问题。钻石不仅仅是宝石首饰,而且是重要的工业材料。如果可以很便宜的制作的话,它的使用会更加广泛。另外一种更加重要大的工业材料,石油,同样是来自地幔。Among petroleum geologists in Western countries, the consensus is that crude oil and natural gas are formed near the Earths surface from the fossilised bodies of living organisms.西方地质学家认为,石油和天然气是生物石化的尸体在地表附近形成的。Many Russians, though, disagree. They support the 130-year-old idea of their countryman Dmitri Mendeleev (who created the first version of the periodic table of elements).很多俄国科学家则不这么看。他们持同胞门捷列夫的有130年历史的观点。He thought the temperatures and pressures of the mantle would convert carbonates and water into hydrocarbons.门捷列夫认为,地幔的温度和压力可以把碳酸盐和水转化成碳氢化合物。That has, indeed, been done experimentally in the past.的确,这在过去被试验过。And one role of the Deep Carbon Observatory will be to try to do it again in more sophisticated ways.地底碳观察的一个任务是用更精确的方法重复这个实验,If it turns out that fossil fuels are abiogenic, that probably means they are more abundant than Western geologists think, and may be found in places hitherto thought unpromising.如果最终明化石燃料是和生物无关的,那意味着它们的存在可能比西方地质学家们想的更加广泛,可能在以前认为不可能的地方存在。Abiogenic petroleum could also provide food for one of the most intriguing targets of all for the Deep Carbon Observatory: the bacteria that live in the Earths depths.非生物化的石油也可以为地底碳观察最刚兴趣的对象--地底细菌,提供食物。Current estimates suggest that half of all the living matter on Earth lives underground, at depths of up to 5km.现在估计地球上大约一半的生物生活在地下深度约5千米以下的地方。Some people think the share may be bigger than that. Indeed, there is loose talk of life having originated more than once in the distant past, and of there being entire shadow biospheres of organisms completely unrelated to anything on the surface.有些人认为比例可能更大。的确,有关于生命不止一次的在不久的过去重新起源的讨论,以及关于存在与地表无关的地底阴影生物圈的讨论。Intriguingly, a few diamonds bear signs that their carbon was once part of living organisms.有趣的是某些钻石有着一些它们可能曾经是生物的迹象。The ratio between the heavy and light isotopes of the element in their crystals is not quite right for stuff that has come out of the ground.它们晶体里重轻同位素的比例并不像是从地底挖出来的东西那样。Instead, it matches the ratio found when organic molecules have been through a few rounds of biochemical processing.与之相反,它们与生物分子经过生化处理后表现出的比率相吻合。Clearly there is a lot going on deep in the Earth that is completely unknown to science.很显然,地下深处正在发生的很多事情科学对其是一无所知的。With a bit of luck, over the ten years of Dr Hazens project, the veil of ignorance will be lifted a little.如果幸运的话,十年之后Hazen士的项目将会帮我们减少这方面的无知。 /201301/218835。

Business Selling cars online The TrueCar challenge商业 网上卖车 TrueCar来势汹汹A price-comparison website causes ructions in the motor trade比价网站在汽车销售行业掀起争议AMERICANS looking for a new car nowadays often use online price-comparison sites such as AutoTrader, Edmunds and eBay to find the best deal.如今的美国人若要买辆新车,通常会上一些比价网站来淘最好的价格,诸如AutoTrader, Edmunds和eBay等。Most such sites charge dealers a small fee for passing on sales leads from shoppers who have submitted their details.这些网站多数将注册的经销商提供的销售线索展示在网页上,从中赚取小额报酬。TrueCar, a relative newcomer, does things differently.而TureCar,作为行业相对年轻的成员,却有着不同的经营方法。It charges dealers 0, but only when its introduction of a customer results in a sale, and it makes its dealers guarantee to honour their es, no excuses.它只在推荐的客户完成买卖后收取经销商300美元费用,前提是经销商无条件保履行其价格承诺。TrueCar taps into data from state vehicle-registration offices, car-loan providers and other sources to compile what it says are the most accurate figures available for what motorists pay for the same car locally. This can be several hundred dollars less than the sticker price, and is often below ;invoice;—the price that, according to the paperwork sent by the carmaker, represents the wholesale price the dealer paid.TureCar从车辆登记所、车贷机构和其他渠道得到的数据中总结出其所谓的最精准的当地最低车价,这个价格通常便宜几百美元,甚至经常低于;发票价;,即汽车厂商给予汽车经销商的纸面批发价。In fact dealers receive various rebates from carmakers, and make money from such things as loans and service contracts, so a modest profit is still possible.实际上经销商从厂商获取各种回扣,并通过像车贷及售后等务赚取利润,所以最低利润还是有的。But such heavy discounting alarms carmakers.但如此大幅度的折扣引起了厂商的警觉。Hondas American arm recently told dealers it would cut off their marketing allowances—which can be worth hundreds of dollars for each car sold—if they did not stop offering sub-invoice prices on TrueCar and other sites.本田的美国车厂近日告知其经销商,如果不停止向诸如TrueCar等比价网站提供;低票价;,车厂将削减其营销费用,每车大约几百美元。Honda insists dealers can sell at whatever price they wish, but it will not pay them to market its products as ;cheap; or ;low-end; cars.本田表示经销商可以自己定价销售,但厂商不会为了将其产品宣传成;便宜货;或是;低档货;而付费用。It also suggests that some dealers use such sites to ;bait-and-switch;, offering tantalisingly cheap cars they do not have, to reel in suckers, a practice many states ban.本田更暗示说一些经销商利用网站进行诈骗,利用一些根本没有的超便宜车型吊顾客上钩再掉包销售,这在许多州都是被严令禁止的。TrueCar insists that the contracts it makes dealers sign commit them to deliver the cars they promise at the price ed.TrueCar坚称其要求经销商签订协议来保经销商按照约定的价格卖车。David Wilson, who recently told the 16 dealerships he owns in California to stop using TrueCar, says he has reason to share Hondas scepticism: he plays back to The Economist a voicemail from a rival dealer who had ed him an attractive price via TrueCar on a new Lexus, calling to say that they did not have it in stock but could try to find one for him.大卫。威尔森最近要求其在加利福尼亚州的16家经销商停止使用TrueCar,原因是他有理由相信本田对网站的质疑。他向《经济学人》杂志播放了一段音频,内容是对手经销商在TrueCar网站上给一款新雷克萨斯车型报了一个非常诱人的价格,但打电话过去后对方说没有该车库存并表示会尽力找一辆给他。TrueCar says there had been no hiding of the fact that the model concerned might no longer be available, and thus no question of ;bait-and-switch;; that this was a one-off case and that TrueCar has had few complaints so far.TrueCar表示就此事而言,如果经销商没有隐瞒网上展示的车型没有存货,也就不构成;掉包诱售;的罪名。上述的事情只是个案,TrueCar表示至今收到投诉寥寥。But it is awkward that a critic had so little trouble catching a dealer ing for a car it did not have.而且那么容易就能抓到经销商;诈骗;有些不太正常。Another big chain of dealers, Group 1, has also told its members not to use TrueCar, saying it had privacy worries over the websites requirement that it have access to showrooms computer systems so as to verify sales.另一个大经销商Group 1也已经通知其成员不要使用TrueCar,原因是该网站要求通过展厅电脑系统确认其销售情况的举动可能存在侵犯隐私的风险。Scott Painter, TrueCars founder, says that so far such publicity has only drawn dealers attention to the attractions of using the website.TrueCar的创始人Scott Painter解释到,至今这种公开化的做法只会增加经销商使用这个网站的兴趣,而网站所要做的就是把正在做的事情更加公开透明。All the site is doing, Mr Painter argues, is making more open what is aly going on. He says his data show that 23% of all the Hondas sold via TrueCar are below invoice price, only a little above the 22% sold below invoice for all Hondas in America.数据显示通过TrueCar售出的本田汽车中有23%是低于发票价的,只比本田在全美的比例22%高一点。Mr Painter says his website is proving so successful at shifting metal that Honda, and the doubting dealers, will eventually relent: ;The power of the market will change their mind.;Painter先生认为这个网站的成功,最终会使本田和一些质疑的经销商改变态度,他说;市场的力量会改变他们的想法;。However, several states regulators are looking into whether the website breaches their laws.然而已经有好几个州的监管官员在调查该网站是否有违法嫌疑,一些州严禁;指向性营销;(获取代销返佣)。Some states specifically ban ;bird-dogging;-taking commission for introducing a sale.然而已经有好几个州的监管官员在调查该网站是否有违法嫌疑,一些州严禁;指向性营销;(获取代销返佣)。Some also ban using the word ;invoice; in car ads, regarding it as potentially misleading.一些州则认为在车辆广告中使用;发票;的字样有潜在误导性而禁止此行为。Colorados regulator has warned dealers there that they will be held responsible for any rule-breaking in their TrueCar es.科罗拉多州的监管官员警告当地经销商,将为在TrueCar上销售过程中可能产生的违规负责。TrueCar says it will shortly make changes to its website to satisfy the regulators concerns.TrueCar表示很快会调整网站内容以符合监管规定。In September TrueCar raised 5m for expansion. On January 1st it began an exclusive tie-up with Yahoo! to provide car-buying services.11年9月TrueCar筹措2.45亿美元用于网站扩张,12年1月1日它开始为雅虎提供独家汽车销售务。It also provides such services for consumer groups such as the American Automobile Association and the ed Services Automobile Association.另外还为一些消费群提供该项务,如美国汽车行业协会,联合务汽车行业协会。It could look forward to a large slice of the billion a year American car dealers spend on advertising-if it can convince both regulators and dealers that it is operating within the law.TrueCar预计,如果能让监管部门和经销商相信其经营合法,那么它就有望从美国汽车经销商每年付的60亿美元广告费用中分一杯羹。 /201211/210738。