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重庆三峡中心医院耳鼻喉电话咨询平昌县人民医院耳鼻喉专科Science and technology科学技术The rise of the dinosaurs恐龙的崛起Pardon!恕我直言!A geological burp may have led to the dinosaursdomination地质上的甲烷释放可能是恐龙称霸地球的原因THE dinosaurs, famously, went out with a bang.众所周知,恐龙在地球上是突然消失的。Some 65.5m years ago, at the end of the Cretaceous period, the Earth collided with an asteroid and the biggest terrestrial beasts in history were no more.大约在6500万年前的白垩纪末期,地球与小行星相撞导致最大的陆地兽类全部灭绝。That left things clear for the rise of the mammals.此次灭绝事件为哺乳动物的崛起提供了契机。But how did the dinosaurs rise to power in the first place?但首要的是恐龙是如何崛起的呢?Some light on this question has just been shed by a paper published in Science by Micha Ruhl of Utrecht University, in the Netherlands, and his colleagues.荷兰乌得勒大学迈克尔·鲁尔及其同事在最近一期科学杂志上撰文对此问题进行了阐述。Dinosaurs first appear in the fossil record during the Triassic period, some 230m years ago.恐龙最早出现在三叠纪时期的化石记录中。They do not take over, though, until the end of the Triassic, 201m years ago.但直至三叠纪末期恐龙才取得地球霸主地位。That date marks one of five recognised mass extinctions in history.历史公认的5次物种大灭绝事件之一就是以三叠纪末期为标志的。In it, half the world’s known species disappeared.在此期间,世界上的半数已知物种都灭绝了。Until now, the end of the Triassic has been blamed on massive volcanic eruptions that went on for 600,000 years.直到现在,人们都一直将三叠纪的终结归因于持续了60万年的大规模火山喷发。Dr Ruhl, however, reckons that was not the cause—or, at least, not directly.然而鲁尔士却认为火山喷发不是导致三叠纪终结的原因或者至少不是直接原因。By analysing the isotopic composition of hydrocarbon molecules from plant waxes of the period,通过分析该时期植物腊的碳氢分子同位素组成,he found what looks like a spike in the amount of recently non-biological carbon, lasting between 10,000 and 20,000 years.他发现有种类似最近非生物碳的碳元素在数量上激增,这种现象持续了1万到2万年。He thinks the liberation of methane stored at the bottom of the ocean in structures called clathrates is the most likely culprit.他认为出现这种现象的最可能诱因是甲烷气体的释放,这些甲烷气体释放前存储在海底称作;笼形包合物;的结构中。The alternative, that the carbon came from the volcanoes, is unlikely because the spike is much shorter than the period of volcanic activity.另一种说法是这种碳元素来自于火山,但这不可能,因为碳数量激增期比火山活动期要短得多。Methane is a greenhouse gas far stronger than carbon dioxide, so the consequence would have been a rapid warming of the climate—a phenomenon that the rocks suggest did actually happen.甲烷是一种比二氧化碳浓烈得多的温室气体,它的释放会导致地球气候迅速升温—岩石层研究也表明这种现象确实发生过。This is not the first time a methane burp has been blamed for an extinction.人类已经不是第一次将物种灭绝归因于甲烷气体的脉冲式释放。Though the Cretaceous asteroid cleared the stage,尽管白垩纪时期的小行星灭绝了居统治地位的恐龙,mammals did not really get going until 10m years later, in the Eocene epoch.但哺乳动物却一直到1000万年后的始新世才真正兴起繁盛起来。The preceding Palaeocene epoch was also brought to an end, the rocks suggest, by a sudden release of methane.岩石层研究表明甲烷的突然释放导致了之前的古新世时期结束。The burp could, of course, have been provoked by the eruptions, so the volcanoes are not off the hook completely.当然甲烷的脉冲式释放可能是火山喷发所致,因此火山始终难辞其咎。But, for those of a nervous disposition, the tying of an ancient greenhouse warming to an ancient mass extinction might suggest lessons for the future.但是对于这些性情冲动的火山,古代的温室变暖和古代大量物种灭绝之间的联系或许对未来有诸多的借鉴意义。 /201305/238705攀枝花市中心医院鼻窦炎看怎么样好不好 Disillusioned office workers幻灭的上班族Chinas losers中国失败者Amid sping prosperity, a generation of self-styled also-rans emerges繁荣之中产生的“失败”一代Man wearing suit on escalator自动扶梯上的穿西装者ZHU GUANG, a 25-year-old product tester, projects casual cool in his red Adidas jacket and canvas shoes. He sports the shadowy wisps of a moustache and goatee, as if he has the ambition to grow a beard but not the ability. On paper he is one of the millions of up-and-coming winners of the Chinese economy: a university graduate, the only child of factory workers in Shanghai, working for Lenovo, one of Chinas leading computer-makers.25岁的朱广是个产品测试员,红色的阿迪达斯夹克和帆布鞋显出他的随性。他的嘴唇和下巴上都留着稀疏的几缕胡子,似乎是想长一圈络腮胡子却没得逞。按理说,他是中国经济中千百万个有前途的成功者之一:他是大学毕业生,上海工人家庭的独子,并在中国最大的电脑制造商联想公司上班。But Mr Zhu considers himself a loser, not a winner. He earns 4,000 yuan a month after tax and says he feels like a faceless drone at work. He eats at the office canteen and goes home at night to a rented, 20-square-metre room in a shared flat, where he plays online games. He does not have a girlfriend or any prospect of finding one. “Lack of confidence”, he explains when asked why not. Like millions of others, he mockingly calls himself, in evocative modern street slang, a diaosi, the term for a loser that literally translates as “male pubic hair”. Figuratively it is a declaration of powerlessness in an economy where it is getting harder for the regular guy to succeed. Calling himself by this derisive nickname is a way of crying out, “like Gandhi”, says Mr Zhu, only partly in jest. “It is a quiet form of protest.”然而朱认为自己是个失败者。他的税后工资只是每月4,000元,并说自己工作时就像个没人注意的机器。通常,他在公司食堂吃饭,晚上就回到自己在合租公寓里租的20平米大的小房间玩网络游戏。他没有女友,也并不想找一个。“没信心啊”,当被问到为什么不找时,他这样回答。和千百万人一样,他戏称自己是“屌丝”,一个表示失败者的街头俚语,本义是“男性的yin毛”。它形象地表达出了这个经济体中那些越来越难获得成功的普通人的无力感。以这个称谓自嘲是一种发出呼声的方式,“就像甘地”,朱并只是在开玩笑,“这是一种无声的反抗。”Calling yourself a diaosi has also become a proud statement of solidarity with the masses against the perceived corruption of the wealthy. The word itself entered the language only recently, appealing to office grunts across the country, especially in the IT industry. A mostly male species, diaosi are often daydreamers with poor social skills and an obsession with online gaming. They are slightly different from Japans marriage-shunning “herbivore” young men in that fewer of them have chosen their station in life. Society has chosen it for them, especially with property prices climbing well beyond their reach. Several recent studies show that, while incomes across Chinese society continue to rise, social mobility has worsened. Yi Chen of Nanjing Audit University and Frank A. Cowell of the London School of Economics found that, since 2000, people at the bottom of society were more likely than in the 1990s to stay where they were. “China has become more rigid,” they conclude.自称屌丝已经成了宣称自己是和社会中的大多数一样厌恶富裕群体腐败行为的方式。这个词语最近才出现,最初来自于办公室的闲聊,尤其是IT这个多数工作者都是男性的行业。屌丝通常指那些缺乏社交能力、沉迷网络游戏还老做白日梦的人。他们和日本那些不愿结婚的“食草族”略有不同,极少数食草男已经选择了生活方式。但社会已经为屌丝们作出了选择,尤其是高速上涨的房价让他们根本无法触及。近期的几次调查显示,尽管中国社会的平均工资持续上涨,但社会流动性却进一步恶化了。南京审计学院的易辰(音)和伦敦政治经济学院的弗兰克·A·康维尔(Frank A. Cowell)发现,同上世纪90年代相比,2000年以后的社会底层群体停留在这个地位上的可能性更大。“中国社会已经变得更加僵化了。”他们总结到。An online sketch show, “Diaosi Man”, shown on Sohu.com, an internet portal, mercilessly mocks the tribe. Since its debut in 2012, the shows episodes have been streamed more than 1.5 billion times. In one recent episode a man tries to impress his beautiful dinner date with how busy he is at his job. He then receives a phone call from work, apologetically takes his leave to go to the office and finally pops up again as a waiter when his date asks for the bill. In the same episode a frustrated new driver curses repeatedly at a Lamborghini in the next lane and screams, “Are you bullying me because I dont know any traffic cops?” In the next scene he is in a neck brace and his nose is broken.门户网站搜狐的网络剧集《屌丝男士》无情地嘲讽着这一群体。自2012首播以来,这部剧集已经被浏览了15亿次。最近一集中,某男想向跟他约会吃饭的美女炫耀他的工作有多忙。然后,他接到了一个工作电话并抱歉地返回了办公室,结果在美女结账时却又现身了——原来他是个务员。同一集中,一个沮丧的新手驾驶员在向隔壁车道的兰基尼不停地叫骂,并大叫道:“你欺负我就因为我不认识交警吗?”到了下一个场景里,他已经带上了脖套,鼻子也受伤了。Mr Zhu says what makes him a diaosi is that he is the son of factory workers. He is not fu er dai—second-generation rich—or guan er dai—the son of powerful government officials. He and his diaosi colleagues feel that, with connections or cash, they might have attended a better university and found a better job.朱说自己变成屌丝是因为自己只是工人的儿子。他不是富二代或者官二代,爹妈不是富人也不是大官。他和屌丝同事们都觉得,如果有关系或者有钱的话,他们就能上更好的大学,并找到更好的工作。With after-tax income of nearly ,000 a year, Mr Zhu would look to many people in China comfortably on his way to the middle class. He is among the lower wage-earners at Zhangjiang Hi-Tech Park in Shanghai, but even many higher earners call themselves diaosi, or refer to themselves as “IT labourers”. Though their salaries are above average even in Shanghai—which had Chinas third-highest annual urban disposable income per person in 2012 at 40,000 yuan—the cost of appearing successful is stratospheric. A fancy flat and a cool car are well beyond their reach. They are wage slaves who cannot hope to be gao fu shuai—tall, rich and handsome—and marry a woman who is bai fu mei—fair-skinned, rich and beautiful.有着8,000美金税后年薪的朱和许多人一样想成为中产阶级。他的工资在上海张江高科技园区并不算高,但很多收入更高的人也自称“屌丝”或者“码农”。虽然他们的工资甚至超过了上海平均工资,2012年上海的城市人均可配年收入达到了40,000元。想要看起来成功的代价非常高。他们永远买不起那些豪车洋房。他们只是工资的奴隶,成不了高富帅也娶不上白富美。This might seem quite normal for a rapidly developing economy. But Zhang Yi, a sociologist at the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, a government think-tank in Beijing, says this diaosi feeling of relative deprivation is a troubling consequence of Chinas growing wealth gap. In an interview devoted to the subject for the website of Phoenix Television, a Hong Kong satellite network, Mr Zhang concluded that people at the bottom feel utterly alienated. They feel less hopeful than they did before of ever moving up in life, he said.对快速发展的经济体来说,这个现象似乎相当正常。然而中国社会科学院的张翼却认为,屌丝之所以会感到相对贫困化是中国日益增长的贫富差距的结果,令人感到担忧。在香港卫星电视台凤凰卫视网站一次关于这个话题的采访中,张翼总结说,底层人群怀着极强的疏离感。他说,相比以前,现如今的这些人认为改善个人境遇更加无望。In spite of this, however, they do still represent a marketing opportunity. There are, after all, many more of them than there are millionaires, even though it can be difficult to define the target market. At Dianping, a website offering restaurant reviews and consumer deals, Schubert You targets very low-wage workers in smaller cities (earning about 0 to 0 a month) with coupons and group discounts. Mr You does not consider the IT workers of Shanghai and Beijing to be true diaosi.尽管如此,屌丝群体依然是一个巨大的市场。虽然这个群体很难定位,但他们的数量比起百万富翁要多得多。来自大众点评网的Schubert You用优惠券和团购折扣来打动小城市的低收入工作者。You并不认为北京和上海的IT工作者真的就是屌丝。But surveys show they believe they are. Last year Analysys International, a research company in Beijing, asked a broad cross-section of office workers if they saw themselves as diaosi. More than 90% of programmers and journalists and about 80% of food and service industry and marketing workers said they did. Those surveyed who least identified with being losers were civil servants, working for the government or the Communist Party.不过调查显示这部分人自己倒是很确信。去年,位于北京的研究公司易观国际调查了不同层次的上班族,询问他们是否认为自己是屌丝。90%以上的程序员和记者,大约80%的食品、务行业以及销售人员都给出了肯定的。受访者中自认为是失败者的比率最低的人群是公务员,那些为政府或是其党派工作的人。 201405/297471宜宾市第一人民医院中耳炎怎么样

彭水苗族土家族自治县治疗小儿扁桃体肥大哪家好綦江大足区看打鼾价格 Science and technology科学技术Academic publishing学术出版Peer to peer同行评审机制Portable reviews look set to speed up the publication of papers便捷化同行评审将会加快文章的发表ASK a researcher what annoys him most about scientific publishing, and slowness will come near the top of the list of gripes.要是问研究员在学术论文发表中什么最令他烦恼,速度慢位居烦恼榜单之首。It takes nearly six months, on average, for a manuscript to wend its way from submission to publication.一篇文章从投给出版社到发表,通常需要将近六个月的时间。Worse, before a paper is accepted by a journal, it is often rejected by one or more others.更糟糕的是,在论文被一家期刊接受之前,通常会被一家或多家的期刊拒绝。The reason need not be a fatal flaw in the research; sometimes the work is simply not splashy enough for outlets high up in the pecking order.原因不一定是研究有致命的错误;有时只是因为研究内容受关注的程度达不到高级期刊的要求。But in the process, each journals editors send the paper for peer review—appraisal by experts in the relevant field—in much the way that each prospective purchaser of a house commissions his own survey.而且,在论文从投稿到出版的过程中,每一期刊的编辑都会对文章做同行评审—由相关领域的专家评估—就像有意购楼者在购楼前要了解楼盘一样。And, unlike those multiple, parallel surveys, the reviewers do not even get paid for their efforts.而且,不像那些多重平行的调查,评审专家甚至没有劳动报酬。Some publishers are at last beginning to twig that this is an awful waste of resources.一些出版社终于开始意识到同行评审这一做法相当浪费资源。Last month a number of them, including big ones like the Wellcome Trust, BioMed Central, the Public Library of Science and the European Molecular Biology Organisation,上个月许多出版社,包括一些大型出版社,譬如维康基金会,生物医学期刊出版中心,科学公共图书馆以及欧洲分子生物学组织,said they would give authors of papers they reject the option of making referees reports available to the other publishers.声明他们将会给予被拒文章的作者选择权,决定是否让文章的评审报告对其他出版社开放。The practice is not unheard of within publishing groups.这一做法在出版集团内部不是前所未闻的事。Genome Biology, BMCs flagship journal, which accepts just one paper in ten, passes 40% of the sound but humdrum sort it spurns to its less prestigious sister publications with reviews attached, says Matthew Cockerill, the groups managing director.BMC的重点期刊《基因生物学》,文章接收率只有10%,该期刊 40%的比较不错但却单调的被拒文章会转投给比它名气稍小的子期刊,这些文章都附有评审报告,出版中心的总经理马修·柯克里尔说到。Half of those end up in a BMC journal.那些文章有一半会发表在BMC旗下的期刊。But similar arrangements between competing publishers have not caught on.但类似这样的做法并没有在竞争的出版商之间流行起来。Other ways to speed up peer review are being tested, too.其他加快同行评审的办法也正经受考验。Rubriq, a company in North Carolina, plans to offer fast, independent reports to authors for a fee.北卡罗来纳州的Rubriq公司,计划通过向作者收费从而提供快速、独立的同行评审报告。This includes a reality check on just how far up the publication pecking order a paper might be submitted with a reasonable expectation that it will be accepted.该务包含一项适应性评估,评估论文应该投给什么样级别的期刊才有可能会被采用。To reviewers, meanwhile, it is offering payment for the job.同时,评审员是有报酬的。The firm is in talks with publishers including BMC and PLoS.该公司正与包括BMC和 PLoS在内的出版商协商。Damian Pattinson, the editorial director of PLoS One, the latter groups biggest journal, calls Rubriqs service useful, though he admits that details of how it will work have yet to be sorted out.PLoS的最大期刊PLoS One的编辑部主任达米安·帕丁森,认为Rubriq公司的务有用,但他也承认这项务运作的细节还未列出。The customers of a Finnish firm, Peerage of Science, are not authors, but journals themselves; 23 have signed up so far.名为Peerage of Science的一家芬兰公司的顾客不是作者而是期刊;目前有23家期刊与之签约。Publications in effect outsource the organisation of peer review to the company on the understanding that other clients can look at the results, too.实际上,出版商把同行评审组织外包给了公司,这样的话,其他客户也可以查看结果。Then, if the first customer rejects a researchers offering, those others can choose quickly whether to snap it up instead.那么,如果第一个期刊顾客拒绝了一位研究员的论文,其他的期刊就可以很快的选择是否要发表这篇论文。Peerages fee is paid by whichever journal ultimately publishes the offering in question.评审人员的酬劳由最终发表这篇论文的期刊付。The number of submissions to journals is outpacing reviewers capacity to deal with them, says Mr Cockerill.柯克里尔先生说道,现在期刊投稿量使评审员负荷过大。Mr Pattinson agrees.帕丁森先生也承认这一点。PLoS One aly churns through 4,000 papers a month, putting its referees under tremendous strain, he says.他说道,PLoS One 现在一个月有投稿论文4000份,这使得他们的评审员承受着巨大的压力。With luck, parallel processing of peer review in this manner will reduce the stress on the system, and thus the time frustrated researchers have to wait before their gems see the light of day.如果一切顺利的话,同行评审的这种并行处理模式将会为评审机制减轻压力,同样,那些在郁闷地等待自己的大作发表的研究员们也可以少等一些时间了。 /201311/263572内江市第六人民医院声带小结治疗的价格

重医附一院流鼻血要多少钱 Kids dont try this at home!小孩子不要在家尝试以下实验!Here is a question for mom and dad.这里有一个给老爸老妈准备的问题。Have you ever dipped your toe into a very hot bath and felt a flash of icy cold just before you realize that its really burning?你是否尝试过把脚趾伸进很烫的浴盆里却感到瞬间的冰冷,回过神来才意识到水是滚烫的?After you pull your toe out, you might wonder what causes very hot water to feel cold.也许抽出脚趾之后你很想知道,是什么原因让人觉得这滚烫的热水很冷。This odd sensation is called paradoxical cold.这种怪异的感受称为诡冷觉,It is when something very hot feels cold and painful.一些非常热的事物感到寒冷和痛苦。It is caused by the temperature receptors in the skin.其实是皮肤内的温度感受器在作祟。There are separate, specific receptors that respond to decreases or increases in skin temperature.皮肤内分布着独立的专门感受器,能对皮肤温度的升降作出反应。If skin temperature drops, the cold receptors fire and if it increases, the warmth receptors fire.如果皮肤温度下降了,冷感受器就发出警告,如果皮肤温度上升了,暖感受器则发出警告。However, if a strong stimulus, like very hot water, can stimulate not only the warmth receptors but also stimulate the pain receptors.可是,如果遇到很强烈的外部刺激,比如很烫的水,不仅能激发暖感受器,而且会激发痛感受器。These warn us that we are doing ourselves damage, and should take action to prevent it.这些反应提醒我们,我们正在伤害自己,应该马上采取措施制止伤害的继续。The strong stimulus can also cause the abnormal stimulation of the cold receptors.这种强烈的刺激也会导致冷感受器被异常激发。So over-stimulation can cause the confusing sensation of cold, hot and pain,过度刺激会使人体对冷、暖和痛觉的感受发生错乱,but as long as were clear about pulling the toe out to safety, paradoxical cold is just another strange trick of the senses.但只要我们清醒地意识到应该把脚趾挪到安全的地方,诡冷觉也只是一种奇怪的感官游戏而已。 /201309/257510遂宁市人民医院鼻甲肥大怎么样阆中市人民医院慢性咽炎好吗

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