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达州市中西医结合医院小儿鼻窦炎要多少钱

2018年12月18日 19:19:38来源:兰州晨报

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  • High blood pressure is one of the main causes of heart disease, stroke and premature death in Europe and North America, with about one in three adults afflicted by the condition.在欧洲和北美,高血压是导致心脏病、中风和过早死亡的主要原因之一,约三分之一的成年人患有高血压。There are 152,000 strokes in the UK alone each year, resulting in 41,000 deaths, according to the National Health Service, yet an estimated 30 per cent of people who have high blood pressure don’t even know they have a problem.英国国民健康务(NHS)的数据显示,英国每年发生中风15.2万例,导致4.1万人死亡。不过,约30%的高血压患者甚至不知自己身体有恙。Under current guidelines in Europe, people are considered to have high blood pressure, known medically as hypertension, if their systolic blood pressure, the first of two numbers usually recorded, is above 140mm Hg, or millimetres of mercury.根据欧洲现行的参考指标,如果一个人的收缩压高于140毫米汞柱(mm Hg)——通常记录的两项血压值中的前一项——就可认为患有高血压(医学名为hypertension)。But a study released in the US last month may force doctors to rethink their approach to the problem.但上月美国发表的一项研究成果,或许会迫使医生们反思治疗高血压的方法。The National Institutes of Health study, known as the systolic blood pressure intervention trial (Sprint), followed 9,300 people who were over the age of 50. The trial found that people given medication to lower their blood pressure to 120mm Hg, or 20mm Hg below the previous target, suffered a third fewer heart attacks, heart failure and strokes than control groups. The risk of death declined by a quarter.美国国立卫生研究院(National Institutes of Health,简称NIH)的这项名为“收缩压干预试验”(Sprint)的研究,追踪了9300名50岁以上的研究对象。试验发现,通过药把血压降到120mm Hg、或者比之前目标低20mm Hg的人,心脏病发作、心力衰竭和中风的概率比对照组少三分之一。死亡风险下降了四分之一。The study was so successful that it was ended a year earlier than planned.研究非常成功,比预期提前一年便结束了。The problem is that in order to reach these reduced levels, patients were given a cocktail of three medications. When I asked Paul Thompson, a cardiologist in Hartford, Connecticut, if he has changed his treatment for hypertension as a result, he says “not really”. The main reason, he notes, is the difficulty in getting patients to adhere to such a complicated drug regimen.问题在于,为了把血压降到上述水平,患者需要用三种药物。当我询问康涅狄格州哈特福特的心血管专家保罗搠湬森(Paul Thompson),他是否因此改变了高血压治疗方法时,他说,“没有”。他指出,主要原因在于,让患者遵循如此复杂的药方案是有难度的。“We always have to remember that folks in studies are different from folks in the office,” Dr Thompson says.“我们始终必须记住,研究对象跟办公室里的人是不同的,”汤普森说。When I ask the same question of Rhian Touyz, the director of the Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Science at the University of Glasgow, she says she is awaiting the full results of the Sprint study, which will be formally presented at a conference in Florida next month, before making any change in recommendations in medications.当我向格拉斯哥大学(University of Glasgow)心血管和医学科学研究所(Cardiovascular and Medical Science)所长里安堠志(Rhian Touyz)提出相同问题时,她说,她在等待Sprint研究项目的完整结果——将于下个月在佛罗里达州的一次大会上正式公布——然后才会决定是否对用药建议进行更改。However, Professor Touyz does note that lifestyle changes are the first line of defence against hypertension.不过托志教授指出,改变生活方式是对抗高血压的第一道防线。One of the biggest contributors to high blood pressure is the large amount of salt in western diets, not only what we add from the shaker but what is hidden in prepackaged foods and beverages such as breakfast cereals and sports drinks.造成高血压的最重要因素之一,是西方饮食中盐的含量偏高,不但有我们用调味瓶添加的盐,还有隐藏在预包装食品和饮料(比如早餐谷物和运动饮料)中的盐。It has been known for 50 years that people who eat a low salt diet (under 2g a day) are free from the blood pressure problems common in western industrial countries.在西方工业国家,血压问题很常见。而人们50年前就知道,低盐饮食(每日低于2克)的人不会出血压问题。The NHS recommends eating no more than 6g of salt, or 2.4g of sodium a day.NHS建议,每日盐摄入量不要超过6克,也就是说,钠摄入量不超过2.4克。Prof Touyz says that cutting salt intake is only one of several lifestyle changes she recommends. The others include exercising four times a week for 30-40 minutes, cutting alcohol consumption and eating a diet high in fruit and vegetables.托志教授表示,减少盐摄入量只是通过改变生活方式降低血压的几种建议之一。其他还包括每周锻炼四次、每次30至40分钟,少喝酒,多吃水果和蔬菜。So get your blood pressure checked. For those who have high blood pressure, it would help to increase consumption of kale, spinach, beets and beetroot juice, which are rich in nitrates. The nitrates become nitric oxide in the body, which is a natural dilator of blood vessels, significantly lowering blood pressure.所以,把你的血压控制住。对于高血压患者,多摄入羽衣甘蓝、菠菜、甜菜和甜菜根汁等富含硝酸盐的食物是有好处的。硝酸盐在人体内会变成一氧化氮,一氧化氮是天然的血管扩张器,能够明显降低血压。 /201510/405252
  • Bill Gates, the co-founder of Microsoft, has emerged as a force in the publishing industry, thanks to the book reviews he posts on his blog, Gates Notes. Mr. Gates, who says he s about 50 books a year, discussed his love of ing, how he makes his selections and what book Warren Buffett recommended. Below are excerpts from a recent email interview.微软公司的联合创始人比尔·盖茨(Bill Gates)因为在自己的客Gates Notes上发表书评,成了出版界一股新力量。盖茨先生说自己每年大约读50本书,他在这里谈了自己对阅读的爱好,如何选择书籍,沃伦·巴菲特(Warren Buffett)推荐他读了什么书。下面是最近的一次电子邮件采访节选。What role does ing play in your life?问:阅读在你的生活中扮演什么样的角色?It is one of the chief ways that I learn, and has been since I was a kid. These days, I also get to visit interesting places, meet with scientists and watch a lot of lectures online. But ing is still the main way that I both learn new things and test my understanding.答:它是我最主要的学习方式之一,从我小时候就是这样了。这些日子以来,我也去拜访有趣的地方、同科学家会面,在网上看很多讲座。但阅读仍然是我学习新鲜事物与测试自己理解力的重要方式。For example, this year I enjoyed Richard Dawkins’s “The Magic of Reality,” which explains various scientific ideas and is aimed at teenagers. Although I aly understood all the concepts, Dawkins helped me think about the topics in new ways. If you can’t explain something simply, you don’t really understand it.比如说,今年我很喜欢理查德·道金斯(Richard Dawkins)的《真相的魔力》(The Magic of Reality),它解释了各种科学概念,目标读者是青少年。尽管那些概念我都理解,道金斯还是能够帮助我以新的方式思考这些话题。如果你无法简单明了地解释某种东西,你就没有真正理解它。What made you decide to start the books blog and write reviews?问:你为什么决定开始写荐书客和书评呢?I have always loved ing and learning, so it is great if people see a book review and feel encouraged to and share what they think online or with their friends.答:我一直都喜欢阅读和学习,所以如果人们看到一篇书评,于是就去读这本书,并且在网上,或者与朋友们分享自己的想法,这会是很棒的一件事。It also helps to have a platform for talking about the work I’m doing, both through the foundation and separate from it, because I find people are curious about it.另外,有一个平台来讲一讲我手头在做的工作也很好,不管是不是基金会的事,因为我发现人们对此很感兴趣。How do you choose the books you ? Recommendations from family/friends/media?问:你怎样选择要读什么书呢?是通过家人、朋友或媒体的推荐吗?It’s a mix of things. Melinda and I will sometimes exchange books we like. I also get recommendations from friends. After I finish something great, I will often try to find other books by that author or similar ones on the same subject.答:各种因素都有。梅林达(Melinda)和我有时候交换自己喜欢的书。朋友们也向我推荐书。我读完一本好书,也经常会去找这个作者的其他著作,或是类似题材的其他书籍。Earlier this year Melinda and I saw the musical “Hamilton,” which inspired me to Ron Chernow’s biography.今年年初,我和梅林达看了音乐剧《汉密尔顿》(Hamilton),所以我就去读了洛恩·彻诺(Ron Chernow)的这本汉密尔顿传记。What was the process of selecting the books for the best-of-the-year list? Any tough choices?问:你是怎么选择你的年度最佳书籍清单的?有没有难以取舍的情况?I didn’t set out to do this intentionally, but when I looked back at the books I this year, I realized that a lot of them touch on the theme “how things work.”答:我不是有意这么做的,但回忆今年读过的书,我发现很多都与“事物如何运行”这个主题有关。Some, like Randall Munroe’s “Thing Explainer,” are written exactly for that reason. He uses diagrams paired with the most common 1,000 words in the English language to explain complicated ideas.有些书,比如兰道尔·门罗(Randall Munroe)的《解释者》(Thing Explainer)就是完全为这个目的而写的。他使用图表,配上最普通的1000来个英文单词,去解释复杂的概念。Other books on my list offer insights into human beings, our values, our strengths and flaws.我的最佳名单里的其他书籍还提供了对人类自身、我们的价值观、我们的优点与弱点的观察。Is there one book that was an unexpected choice for you that you unexpectedly loved?问:有没有什么书对你来说是意外之选,你本来没想到自己会喜欢上它。One of the main reasons I started my blog was to share thoughts about what I’m ing. So it is nice to see people sharing their own reactions and recommendations in the comments section of the site.答:我开这个客的主要原因之一就是希望分享自己的阅读心得。所以看到别人在网站里分享他们的反馈和推荐是非常愉快的事情。One book that was especially fun to highlight was “Business Adventures,” by John Brooks. This is the first book Warren Buffett recommended to me after we met in 1991, and it is still the best business book I have ever . Brooks deserves to be much better known than he is.约翰·布鲁克斯(John Brooks)的《商业冒险》(Business Adventures)是一本特别有意思的书。我和沃伦·巴菲特是1991年认识的,这是他推荐给我的第一本书,到现在仍然是我读过的最好的商业书籍。布鲁克斯配得上比现在更响亮的名气。Although he wrote in the 1960s, the issues he talks about are still relevant today. “Business Adventures” went out of print decades ago and Brooks died in 1993, but his family was nice enough to let me post one chapter called “Xerox Xerox Xerox Xerox” on my blog.尽管他创作的时期是20世纪60年代,但他讨论的话题在今天仍然很重要。《商业冒险》几十年前就已经绝版了,布鲁克斯也于1993年去世,但他的家人很慷慨,允许我在自己的客上贴出了书中的一章,名为“复印,复印,复印,复印”。I don’t a lot of fiction but was surprised by how much I loved the novel “The Rosie Project,” by Graeme Simsion. Melinda it first and kept stopping to recite parts of it out loud to me. Eventually, I decided to take a look.我没有读过很多虚构文学,但是却喜欢上了格拉伊姆·西姆森(Graeme Simsion)的小说《罗西方案》(The Rosie Project),让我自己也很吃惊。这本书是梅林达先读的,她不断停下来给我读里面的章节。最后我也决定看一看。I started it one night at 11 p.m. and stayed up with it until 3 a.m. It is very funny, while also showing a lot of empathy for people who struggle in social situations.我是夜里11点开始读的,一直读到凌晨三点。它非常有意思,也对那些拼命应付社交场合的人表现出了许多共情心。After I sent it and the sequel (“The Rosie Effect”) to dozens of friends and wrote about it on my blog, I heard from a lot of people who were touched by it. There is talk of turning it into a movie, which I hope happens. Rosie and Don Tillman would make a great on-screen couple.后来我把这本书和它的续集《罗西效应》(The Rosie Effect)拿给几十个朋友读,还在客上写了书评,然后很多人都说他们读过之后受到了感动。听说有人想把它拍成电影,我很希望这能实现。罗西和堂·迪尔曼(Don Tillman)肯定能成为不错的银幕情侣。I like highlighting the work of Vaclav Smil. He has written more than 30 books, and I have them all. He takes on huge topics like energy or transportation and gives them a thorough examination.我还想强调一下瓦克拉夫·斯米尔(Vaclav Smil)的著作。他写的30多本书我全都读过。他讲述能源和交通之类重大题材,并且对之进行详尽的阐释。Smil’s books are not for casual ers and I don’t agree with him on everything, but I like to feature his work because the world would be a better place if more people thought as rigorously and systematically as he does.斯米尔的书不适合随手翻阅的读者,我也并不赞同他的所有观点,但是我想特别提一下他的作品,因为加入更多人都能像他这样进行缜密而有系统的思考,世界就能变得更好。 /201601/421321
  • In a chilling turn of events, some taxi drivers in Japan are claiming to have picked up #39;ghost passengers#39; in the aftermath of the tsunami that devastated the nation in March 2011. As many as seven of the 100 drivers interviewed by Yuka Kudo, a student of sociology at Tohoku, admitted to having encountered phantom fares.2011年3月,东日本海域发生地震,席卷而来的大海啸重创全国。灾难过后,曾传出的士司机在灾区载到“鬼乘客”的报道,听来颇为骇人。就读日本东北大学社会学系的工藤优花采访了百位的士司机,七人承认曾载到过鬼魂。Kudo conducted the interviews as a part of her graduation thesis, traveling to the coastal town of Ishinomaki every week for a year to speak to taxi drivers waiting for fares. She asked over 100 drivers the same question: ;Did you have any unusual experiences after the disaster?; Many of them ignored her, some even got angry, but seven drivers agreed to describe their strange encounters.工藤优花每周都会前往海滨城市石卷,采访当地正在候客的的士司机,为自己的毕业论文做准备。一年来,她采访了一百多位的士司机,问题只有一个:“海啸过后,你碰到过什么离奇事件吗?”不少人闭口不谈,有些人甚至对她恶语相向,但其中有七人则向她讲述了自己的灵异遭遇。One driver recounted a particularly unsettling story—in the summer of 2011, a woman dressed in a coat climbed into his taxi near Ishinomaki station. She said, ;Please go to the Mianmihama Station.; When he pointed out that there was nothing left standing in the district, she asked him in a shivering voice, ;Have I died?” The driver immediately turned around, only to find the back seat empty.有位司机的故事格外惊悚。那是2011年的夏天,一位身着大衣的女士在石卷车站附近坐上了他的车,并告诉他:“麻烦去南滨车站。”这位司机告诉她,南滨已在海啸中被夷为平地了。听到这儿,女乘客哆嗦着问他:“我是不是已经死了?”一句话,吓得司机赶紧扭头,发现后座竟空无一人。Another driver recalled how a young man who looked to be in his 20s got into his taxi. When the driver looked in the rear-view mirror for directions, the man kept pointing towards the front. The driver then asked for a destination, to which he replied, ;Hiyoriyama; (mountain). When the taxi reached the area, the man had disappeared from the taxi.另一位司机回忆道,自己曾载过一名20多岁的男子。他盯着后视镜,问乘客要往哪儿开,可这名男子只是一直往前指。于是他不得不问了句,到底去哪儿?男子答道:“日和山。”当司机开到目的地时,发现男子早已无影无踪了。It’s easy to dismiss these stories as hallucinations or imaginations, but the drivers#39; logs are proof that they really might have occurred. When these #39;ghosts#39; got into their cabs, the drivers started the meter, which is recorded. So even though these passengers disappeared during the ride, they were still counted as clients. The drivers then had to pay their fares out of their own pockets. Some of the drivers even wrote down their experiences in their logs.不少人会说,他们一定是产生幻觉了,或者故事是编的。可的士上的计程仪不会骗人啊。“鬼乘客”一上车,计程仪便开始运作,记录着行车全程。哪怕乘客半路消失,依旧算一次行车记录,也就是说,司机们不得不自掏腰包,付车费。有些司机甚至在行车册上写下了他们的遭遇。All these phantom travelers were described to be young, which compels Kudo to believe that they were indeed victims of the 2011 tsunami. ;Young people feel strongly chagrined (at their deaths) when they cannot meet people they love,; she said. ;As they want to convey their bitterness, they may have chosen taxis, which are like private rooms, as a medium to do so.;据司机们的描述,所有的鬼乘客都是些年轻人,因此工藤优花认为,他们确实是2011年的海啸遇难者。“年轻人死不瞑目,放不下对爱人的牵挂,”她说,“为了宣泄痛苦,他们选择坐的士,因为的士空间密闭,是理想的载体。”Interestingly, none of the drivers reported feeling any fear, instead holding their special passengers in reverence. Having lost loved ones in the disaster themselves, they perceived the encounters as a spiritual experience, meant to be remembered and cherished forever. ;It is not strange to see a ghost here,; a driver said. If I encounter a ghost again, I will accept it as my passenger.”有趣的是,接受采访的司机纷纷表示,自己并不害怕,反而对这些特殊的乘客心生敬畏。不少司机也在海啸中失去了他们的至爱,因此,他们将搭载鬼乘客视作通灵的经历,值得铭记与珍惜。“在这里见鬼并不稀奇,”一位司机坦言,“如果我再载到鬼,肯定会送它到目的地。”Kudo herself was moved by the interviews. ;I learned that the death of each victim carries importance,; she said. ;I want to convey that to other people.;此番采访,让工藤优花深受感动。她说:“这些司机让我明白了,每一位遇难者的死都意义重大。我要让更多人了解这点。”According to official records, over 15,000 people died during the magnitude-9 earthquake that lasted for six minutes and triggered a 133-ft high tsunami that swept six miles inland. Numerous sightings of #39;ghosts#39; and #39;spectral figures#39; have been reported in residential districts in the affected areas in the aftermath of the disaster.官方资料称,东日本地震强度高达9级,虽仅持续6分钟,却引发了133英尺(约合40米)高的海啸,深入内陆达6英里(约合9.6公里),共造成1.5万多人丧生。海啸过后,多人曾在灾区目睹了“鬼魂”或“幽灵”出没。 /201601/424510
  • Mrs Williams lived in a small street in London, and now she had a new neighbour.威廉姆斯太太住在伦敦的的一条小街上,现在她有了一位新邻居。Her name was Mrs Briggs, and she talked a lot about her expensive furniture, her beautiful carpets and her new kitchen.这邻居叫布里格斯太太,她对她的高档家具,漂亮地毯和新厨房谈论很多。;Do you know,; she said to Mrs Williams one day, ;I#39;ve got a new dishwasher1. It washes the plates and glasses and knives and forks beautifully.;“你知道吗?” 有一天她对威廉姆斯太太说道:“我有一台新洗碗机。它洗盘子、杯子和刀叉洗得非常好。”;Oh? ; Mrs Williams answered.; And does it dry them and put them in the cupboard, too ?;“哦?”威廉姆斯太太回答说,“它能弄干盘子、杯子和刀叉吗?还可以把它们放进碗柜吗?”Mrs Briggs was surprised. ;Well,; she answered, ;the things in the machine are dry after an hour, but it doesn#39;t put them away, of course.;布里格斯太太很吃惊。“ 嗯,”她回答说,“洗碗机里的盘子、杯子和刀叉一小时后就干了,但当然啰,洗碗机不能把它们收起来。”;I#39;ve had a dishwasher for twelve and a half years,; Mrs Williams said.威廉姆斯太太说:“我有一台洗碗机已经12年半了。”;Oh?; Mrs Briggs answered, ;And does yours put the things in the cupboard when it has washed them?;“哦?”布里格斯太太回答说,“你的洗碗机在洗完盘子、杯子和刀叉后能把它们放进碗柜吗?”她不怀好意地大笑起来。She laughed nastily2. ;Yes, he does,; Mrs Williams answered.;He dries the dishes and puts them away.;“是的,他可以。”威廉姆斯太太回答说,“他把碗盘刀叉弄干后就把它们收起来。” /201511/409907
  • 3.Lotus Headstand Variation with Bound Legs3.头倒立莲花式改良版Headstands are like handstands, but you balance yourself on your forearms and head instead of just your hands. As you get into a headstand position, keep your elbows firmly in place so you don’t end up doing a scorpion face plant. To do the bound-leg variation, touch the soles of your feet together while in the headstand. Then bend at the knees so your legs for a diamond shape. When you get really good at this inversion, put your hands together as if you#39;re praying.头倒立与手倒立大体相似,仅有一点,头倒立通过前臂平衡身体,而手倒立通过双手平衡。头倒立时,务必保持双肘固定以防跌的鼻青脸肿。同时将脚底相碰以进行腿的变化动作。然后双膝弯曲,使双腿成菱形。熟悉掌握这一倒立姿势时,双手并拢成祈祷状。4.Eight-Angle Pose4.八角式When you do this move, you kind of look like you’re doing a pushup. Instead of having your legs and feet behind you, they’re off to your side and in the air. At the same time, one arm is between your legs, so you look like a human knot. To do this pose, do a forward bend so your hands are on either side of your feet; keep your knees slightly bent. Move your right arm so it’s between your legs. As you do this, bend your knees and elbows, and slowly move your right leg so it’s over the back of your upper right arm. At this point, your right toes still touch the ground. Slowly move your left leg to the right side of your body, cross your ankles and lift yourself off the floor.做这一动作,看起来就像做俯卧撑。将双腿悬在空中,伸向侧面而非身后。同时,将一只手臂夹在双腿之间,看起来就像个手结。身体前倾,使双手放在双脚两边,保持双膝稍弯。此时,将右脚趾接触地面,缓缓将左腿移至身体右侧,交叉脚踝,使身体离开地面。5.Forearm-Stand Scorpion Pose5.前臂倒立蝎子式Talk about an extreme back bend: To get into a forearm-stand scorpion pose, get into a simple headstand. To do a headstand, place your forearms into a triangle shape on the floor, with your hands clasped. Place the crown of your head between your arms so your clasped hands touch the back of your head. Lift your knees off the floor and slowly raise them so your body is parallel to the wall. Unclasp your hands, look up with your head and sp your fingers out on your yoga mat to help you keep your balance. Now you’re doing a forearm-stand. After finding your balance, bring your legs together and slowly bend your knees. If your back is flexible, your feet will be near your head.这是一种下腰的极端姿势:要想做到前臂倒立蝎子式,首先进行简单的头倒立:将前臂在地板上成三角形,双手合十。将头顶置于双臂之间,使双手接触到后脑勺。将双膝离开地面,缓慢提升,使身体与墙壁平行。打开双手,仰头向上看,在瑜伽垫上展开手指保持平衡。现在已经做好前臂倒立。保持平衡后,将双腿合拢,缓缓弯曲双膝。如果背部灵活,可将双脚接近头部。译文属原创,,不得转载。 /201509/401537
  • Ice Cream That Does Not Melt (Immediately)? Sweet!超赞!不融化的冰激凌What#39;s better than a scoop of ice cream on a hot summer day? How about one that doesn#39;t melt into a sticky puddle within minutes? That, believe it or not, could soon become a reality thanks to the ingenious scientists at the Universities of Edinburgh and Dundee.没有比在酷热天气来一勺冰激凌更美的事了。如果冰激凌不再分分钟化掉,岂不更美?信不信由你,爱丁堡和邓迪大学的科学家很快就能将此实现。The secret behind this amazing ice cream that could hit grocery shelves within three years, is a naturally occurring protein called BsIA (Bacterial Surface Layer A). Present in foods like Natto, a Japanese breakfast made from fermented soybeans, it is extracted from the Bacillus subtilis bacteria. The scientists who revealed the exciting news on August 31, say that the microorganisms use the BsIA protein to encase and protect their colonies.这种即将热卖的冰激凌之所以不易融化,其秘密在于加入了一种叫BsIA的天然蛋白质。日本早餐常见的由大豆发酵而来的纳豆里就包含这种蛋白质,主要从枯草芽孢杆菌提取出来。科学家们在8月31人公布了这个令人兴奋的发现,表示微生物可以用BsIA蛋白保护和包围它们的族群。University of Edinburgh#39;s Cait MacPhee, who is leading this sweet effort, says the protein works perfectly for ice cream. That#39;s because it has the physical properties to ;protect; the frozen treat by binding together the air, fat, and water. This makes the ice cream more resistant to melting and allows it to remain firm for longer periods of time, even during hot summer days.爱丁堡大学这项实验的带头人Cait MacPhee说,这种蛋白质用在冰激凌上效果相当不错。它能促使冰淇淋的空气、脂肪和水等各种成分结合在一起,更久地保持冷冻状态。即使在炎热的夏天也能让冰激凌长时间免于融化。The icing on the cake or should we say ice cream ? Bacillus or hay subtilis as it is also called because of its presence in the upper layers of the soil, is a very common bacteria. It can be found everywhere - in water, air, ground and even our gastrointestinal tract. This means that it is a ;friendly; bacteria and, therefore, perfectly safe to consume.蛋糕上的这层冰真的是冰奶油吗?其实,这层物质也被称作杆菌,是一种存在于地表的常见菌种。除此之外,水、空气、地面甚至我们的肠道里都有它的身影。这说明它属于无害菌种,可以放心食用。As to how long the ice cream will stay frozen? The scientists say that depends on the weather and the flavor. Though some may melt faster than others, they will still last a lot longer than current ice creams. This means we will finally be able to relax and savor the treat, one lick at a time - YUM!那么这种冰激凌究竟能维持多久不化呢?科学家表示,这还需要考虑天气和口味。虽然有些口味保持较短,但也比普通冰激凌给力的多。这说明我们终于可以在不久的将来,轻轻松松,一口一口的享受美味的冰激凌了。译文属原创,仅供学习和交流使用,未经许可,。 /201510/404846
  • In 208 Cao Cao led his army to march south, seized Prefect Jingzhou (now Hubei province) and posed a direct menace to Sun Quan, who ruled in the middle and lower course of the Yangtze River.建安十三年(208),曹操又率军南下,占荆州,与在长江中下游的孙权对垒。Meanwhile, Liu Bei, the descendant from the rulers of the former Han, although in exile, striving to restore the power of Han, led his remaining soldiers to seek support from Sun Quan.此时正在流亡中的汉皇室后代刘备也起兵欲兴汉室,率荆州的残余势力与江东的孙权结合。In the Yangtze River valley, Sun Quan was uncertain of his best course of action, and Liu Bei sent his brain-trust Zhuge Liang to state the reasoning.孙权犹豫不定,是否与刘共同抗曹。At Zhuge Liang, s instance ,Sun Quan decided after a hot debate at his headquarters, however, to send troops forward under the command of Zhou Yu to join Liu Bei and to test Cao Cao’s strength.刘备派军师诸葛 亮到孙权处说孙出兵,在军中一番讨论之后,孙权决定派大将周瑜与刘备联合出兵以探曹操兵力虚实。If their defence should be unsuccessful, he could withdraw most of his men and still have a reserve army with which to negotiate terms.这样即便不能胜曹,自己也还有一定实力与曹操和谈。The allies met Cao Cao ’ s forces at the Red Cliffs (on the Yangtze between present-day Wuhan and Yueyang) and for a few days the two groups faced one the other across the river.孙、曹大军在赤壁(现武汉和岳阳一带)会战。战初几日,两军隔江对峙。The men of Cao Cao from the north had aly taken part in a long campaign with several forced marches and they were not used to the southern waterways and marshlands, therefore there was sickness in the camp.曹操的军士多为北方人,又长途跋涉来南方作战,他们不熟水性和南方的地势,因而军中许多人病倒。Besides some of the Cao Cao#39;s army and all of the fleet had formerly served Liu Bi-ao, they were undecided about their new master.此外曹军中还有许多步兵和全部的水兵是刘表的降兵,许多人并不真心忠于曹操。For his own part, Cao Cao probably regarded the operation as a reconnaissance in force: if he was successful in defeating the allies and driving them to separate surrenders, so much the better; if not, he could withdraw and look for another occasion in the future.对曹操而言,这一次的战争也是检验其实力的时候,如果能打败孙刘联军,将其各个击破是再好不过;如果战败,自己还能撤回日后寻找机会再战。Cao Cao#39;s first attack was driven back and then the wind changed against him and Zhou Yu sent in an attack with fire-ships.曹操的首次进攻被击退,此时风向逆刮,周瑜乘势用火攻。In the technology of warfare at that time,fire was a common weapon,and when used in the right circumstance it could create large-scale destruction.在当时,火是一种常见的武器,在适当的条件下能造成很大的杀伤力。Whatever preparations Cao Cao may have made against the threat, he was compelled to abandon his position and retreat, and the allies enhanced their victory with tales of slaughter.尽管曹操是有备而来,此时也不得不弃船后撤。After Cao Cao pulled back to his northern base, Sun Quan consolidated his position of the south. While Liu Bei seized part of the regions under the jurisdiction of Jingzhou Prefecture and later took Yizhou( mostly in present-day Sichuan Province) in the West.曹操大败,退回北方,刘备得以占据荆州,后人益州(今四川境内)。And so situation arose in which the country was divided and ruled by the three feudal lords.从此,曹、孙、刘三大势力成鼎足之势。The battle at the Red Cliffs has become one of the most celebrated battles in Chinese history, and it was the last chance for many years to re-unite the empire, for it was the control of the middle Yangtze which meant survival or surrender of the south.赤壁之战成为中国历史上有名的战役,它也是最后一次统一中国南北的机会,因为对长江中游地带的控制就意味着南方是继续存在还是归顺北方。It is also the theme of several plays and poems and the centre-piece of the great historical novel Romance of the Three Kingdoms .同时它也是许多短剧和诗歌的主题,著名的历史题材小说《三国演义》就是据此而成。In 215 Sun Quan ’ s field marshal Lv Meng was sent to seize the southern com-manderies of Jingzhou province. Liu Bei ’ s general Guan Yu brought an army in counter-attack. Taking advantage of their fighting in Jingzhou, Cao Cao attacked from Chang ’an across the Qinling Range Divide,seized Hanzhong and opened the way for a direct attack on Liu Bei.公元215年,孙权大将吕蒙夺取了荆州以南的城池,刘备的大将关羽欲夺回失地,曹操趁机出兵攻占了汉中,直接威胁着刘备的蜀地。Both were concerned by the threat from the northern Cao, Liu Bei and Sun Quan reconciled, defeated Cao Cao and killed one of Cao’s general Xiahou Yuan in Hanzhong.刘备与孙权和解回兵汉中,击溃曹军,并斩杀曹操大将夏侯渊。Cao Cao brought reinforcements in an attempt to remedy the damage, but he could not regain the territory, and was compelled to retreat across the Qinling Divide.曹操集合兵力以求挽回损失,但未能夺回汉中,只得撤回秦岭以北。So Liu Bei ’ s borders were secured against the north, and in celebration of the victory he proclaimed himself King of Hanzhong.刘备在北的疆域得到了巩固,并称汉中王。In the autumn of 219, as Guan Yu was committed to the attack up the Han River and the siege of Fan city, Cao Cao sent envoy to unite with Sun Quan, thus Lu AAeng prepared a secret invasion and struck westwards along the Yangtze against Jiangling.公元219年秋,刘备的大将关羽进攻曹操的樊城,曹操遣使与东吴联盟。孙权的大将吕蒙便借机袭取江陵。The surprise was complete, Guan Yu’s position collapsed in ruins, he himself was killed in Maicheng and the greater part of his army surrendered.计谋得逞,于是孙曹两军夹击,斩关羽于麦城,大多军士投降。Sun-Liu ally was totally destroyed,Cao Cao’s position in the Han valley was restored, and Sun Quan held all the territory east of the Yangzi gorges.孙刘联盟被彻底破坏,北方的局势得以缓和。孙权占据了长江以东的地区。After Cao Cao#39;s death in 220, his son, Cao Pi, deposed the Eastern Han emperor of Xian and proclaimed him Emperor of Wei.建安二十五年(220)曹操病逝,其子曹丕逼献帝退位,自立为帝,国号为魏。In thevfollowing year, Liu Bei declared himself Emperor of Han being descendant of former Han, which historically known as the Kingdom of Shu or Shu Han, and made Chengdu his capital.次年,刘备也在成都称帝,刘备因身为汉室宗亲,故国号仍为汉,史称蜀国或蜀汉。In 229, following the example of Cao Pi and Liu Bei, Sun Quan called himself Emperor of Wu with the capital at Jianye(now Nanjing City, Jiangsu Province) which marked the real beginning of the era of the three kingdoms in Chinese history.公元229年,仿曹丕和刘备,吴王孙权在建业(今江苏南京一带)称帝,国号吴。三国分立时代正式开始。 /201512/415712
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