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九龙坡南岸区治疗斜视眼睛哪家好绵阳市第二人民医院耳聋好吗Several theories have been proposed for why religions and religious beliefs have evolved, but before now none of them have involved parasites.Previous theories have suggested that religions help enforce group cooperation. Another suggestion is that religious thoughts and practices are a side-effect of mental abilities that have evolved for other purposes. For example, prayer is a small step from our evolved ability to rehearse what we plan to say to someone who isn't physically with us right now.Crucially, none of these accounts can ily explain why the diversity of religions varies so much around the world. Brazil, for example, has 159 religions compared with Canada's 15, even though both countries are of comparable size.Now Corey Fincher and Randy Thornhill have tested the idea that religious diversity is a side-effect of the fragmentation of cultures that tends to occur in the face of increased threat from infectious disease.Fincher and Thornhill used the World Christian Encyclopedia and the Global Infectious Disease and Epidemiology Network to compare the sp of infections and religions across 219 countries. Their results were clear: in regions with a greater variety of infectious parasites, the diversity of religions also tends to be greater. This association held strong even after exploring the impact of other potential factors, such as differences in democratisation and histories of colonisation.The researchers say the association between religion and parasites occurs because reducing contact with outsiders can help protect against disease. In turn, when cultures fragment and groups avoid making contact with each other, more religions are likely to spring up."Although religion apparently is for establishing a social marker of group alliance and allegiance, at the most fundamental level, it may be for the avoidance and management of infectious disease," Fincher and Thornhill said. The pair also believe that the diversity of languages and parasites tends to co-vary across the globe for similar reasons. 一些探索宗教和宗教信仰的演变原因的理论已经有人提出了,但到现在为止还没有任何相关理论涉及寄生虫。以前的理论认为,宗教促进人类的团体合作。也有的认为,宗教思想和实践是人类用于其它目的所形成的心智能力的一种副作用。举例来说,祈祷来源于人们排练对不在身旁的人说话的内容。最重要的是,所有这些理论都不能解释世界上宗教多样性的原因。例如,巴西有159种类型的宗教,而加拿大却只有15种,即使这两个国家的面积大小相关不大。现在科里#8231;芬奇和兰蒂#8231;陶希尔已经实他们的想法:宗教的多样性是文明分散的一种副效应。而文明分散往往是因为面临来自传染病不断扩大的威胁产生的。利用世界基督教百科全书、全球传染病和流行病学网络,芬奇和陶希尔在219个国家内对传染病传播与宗教传播进行比较。其结果是明确的:在传染性寄生虫种类繁多的区域,宗教的多样性也往往会更明显。这种联系对之后探讨其他潜在因素有很大的影响,如不同的民主化历程和不同的殖民统治历史。研究人员表示,宗教和寄生虫之间的关联是因为减少与外界接触可以帮助抵御疾病。反过来,当文明的片段或人类群体避免彼此接触,更多的宗教就有可能涌现。“虽然宗教表面是为团体同盟或忠诚建立一种社会标志,但根本上,它可能是为了避免和控制传染病, ”芬奇和陶希尔说。两人还认为,语言和寄生虫在世界各地的多样性可能出于同样的原因。 /200811/56479重庆看耳膜穿孔哪家好 It's probably still best to check which look your boss prefers before marching into an important meeting with a loved one’s name engraved on your knuckles. But office workers are now just as likely to have a tattoo on open display as wear a suit to work, according to a survey. Only one in ten British office staff still wears a suit to work on a daily basis, claims the study.  前日热播的影视剧作《杜拉拉升职记》算是近期主流媒体对于白领的职场生活受到舆论关注最多的一部影视作品,白领的影视代表徐静蕾在剧中身穿的有型职业装受到影迷的热捧。而在现实生活中,职场白领上班真的都穿职业装吗?有调查显示,只有10%的英国职业白领在上班时候穿正装,此外,还有越来越多的“个性白领”在穿着正装的同时故意露出自己身体上的“纹身”似乎在宣告:即使是正装也能展现自己有个性、有创意的一面。  Smart or casual? A new survey has confirmed changing attitudes to office attire Yet the same number go to work proudly showing off shy;tattoos at least once a week. The study shows traditional formal attire is being replaced by much more casual clothing, with 37 per cent wearing a suit and tie only when they have an important meeting. Thirty-eight per cent wear jeans at least once a week, with only 18 per cent of workers regularly wearing a tie.  有调查显示,越来越多的白领“舍弃”严肃的正装,更愿意在工作场合穿着舒的休闲装,甚至每周一次在工作场合中展示自己的个性纹身。据悉,有37%的白领只有在特别特别重要的会议、以及工作场合中穿着正规西、和正装,有38%的白领在工作场合每周至少穿一次牛仔裤,与此相对,只有18%的白领平日在工作中打领带。  It seems this trend is likely to grow over coming years, with two-thirds of us believing dress codes will continue to relax.Paul Say, head of marketing at online bank First Direct, which commissioned the study, said: ‘The research shows British employees are becoming ever more liberated in terms of their appearance.‘A third of workers say a casual dress code would boost productivity and nearly two thirds feel it would ultimately make them happier.’  目前来看,这种抛弃正装推崇职业装的趋势逐步在都市白领中蔓延,原本被誉为职场“穿衣法则”的老规矩逐步逐步被淘汰。一位网上市场主导该调查的负责人Paul说:“我们所进行的调查表明在英国,越来越多的普通职工在对工作穿着的选择上持开放的态度,有30%的白领觉得穿着舒的衣工作能提高工作效率,有60%的白领感觉穿着职业装能让他们更加开心!” /201102/126016摘要:数字3 3对于古希腊人是个神秘数字。哲学家毕达哥拉斯说3是完美无缺的数字,因为世间万物无不有首、中、尾三段。因而它与神有关。Ancient Greeks believed the number was sacred. Pythagoras calls three the perfect number, since everything has three parts — beginning, middle and end. Therefore it is a good symbol of anything related to gods. In Greek and Roman mythology, the world was supposed to be under the rule of three gods, that is, Jupiter(Zeus), the ruler of Heaven; Neptune(Poseidon), the ruler of the sea; Pluto(Hades), the king of the Underworld. Jupiter’s weapon was three-forked lightning, Neptune’s, a trident, and Pluto’s, a three-headed dog. The Fates were three, the Furies three, the Graces three. Superstitious people believe that man is made up of three parts, that is, body, soul, and spirit. Most Christians believe in the doctrine of the Trinity, that is, God is in three persons: the Father, the Son(Jesus Christ), and the Holy Ghost, or Holy Spirit. Some Christians also believe that the enemies of man are three: the world, the flesh, and the devil. In the Bible, the baby Jesus was visited by the three Magi; before the cock crowed, Peter denied Jesus for three times. When things are difficult, people think they will be successful the third time. /200907/76852重庆市人民医院声带息肉怎么样

绵阳市中心医院咽喉炎怎么样Blog offers potted history of life as a plantIt has long been accepted that talking to plants can help them flourish, but have you ever wondered what they'd say in response?Well a plant in Japan has its own blog that may help you understand."Midori-san," a 40 cm (16 inches)potted plant on a cafe counter in Kamakura, near Tokyo, blogs every day with the help of a sensor that measures electric signals and a computer algorithm that translates them into Japanese.The plant, a hoya kerrii, is commonly called a "sweetheart plant" because of its leaf shape."We were initially interested in what plants are feeling and what they are reacting to where we can't see," said Satoshi Kuribayashi, a researcher involved in the project at Japan's Keio University.The strength of electronic signals on the surface of Midori-san's heart-shaped green leaves, which react to light and human touch, are measured by a sensor attached to the plant, and this data is sent to a computer in the cafe.The computer uses an algorithm to translate the signal data, as well as other factors -- including weather and temperature -- to translate them into words, which are automatically posted on Midori-san's blog (http://plant.bowls-cafe.jp/index.php)"Today was a sunny day and I was able to sunbathe a lot... I had quite a bit of fun today," Midori-san, whose name means "green" in Japanese, posted on Oct 16.The latest entry s: "It was cloudy today. It was a cold day."Kuribayashi said he hopes that in the future, the blog will reflect even more accurately of Midori-san's feelings.Blogging with computers and mobile phones is popular in Japan, which had the greatest number of blog posts by language at 37 percent, followed by English and Chinese posts, a study from blog search engine Technocrati in 2007 showed. 大家都知道,与植物说话有助于促进它们的生长,但你有没有想过它们会怎样回应?现在,日本一颗植物的“客”或许能为你解开这个疑问。日本一颗名叫“绿(Midori-san)”的盆栽植物每天在一个传感器和电脑的帮助下“写”客,传感器的作用是测量电子信号,而电脑则通过一个运算程序将这些信号翻译成文字。这株盆栽植物生长在东京附近镰仓市一家咖啡厅的柜台上,高40厘米(16英寸)。这颗植物是一株心形球兰,因其叶子呈心形,常被称为“开心草”。日本庆应义塾大学参与该项目的研究员栗林说:“最初我们是想了解植物的‘情绪变化’,以及在人不知晓的情况下,会做出怎样的回应。”“绿”的心形绿叶被光照射和人触摸后会产生回应,而它所携带的传感器则能够测量其叶子表面的电子信号的强弱,然后再将这些数据传输到咖啡馆的一台电脑上。电脑通过一个运算程序将这些信号数据以及天气和温度等其它信息转化成文字,然后将其贴在:“绿”的客(http://plant.bowls-cafe.jp/index.php)上。“绿”在本月16日的客中写道:“今天阳光明媚,美美地享受了日光浴,真开心哪。”最近的一篇客写道:“今天多云,有点冷。”栗林士说,他希望今后这个客能更准确地反映“绿”的“心情”。日本人很喜欢用电脑和手机写客,根据Techocrati客搜索引擎去年的一项统计数据,日语客占全球客总数的37%,居世界首位,其次是英语客和中文客。 Vocabulary: potted plant:盆栽植物 /200810/53817内江市妇幼保健院外耳道炎好吗 圣诞树一致是庆祝圣诞节不可少的装饰物,如果家中没有圣诞树,就大大减少了过节气氛。关于圣诞树的来源有多种不同的传说。Legend suggests that, in the late 16th century, Martin Luther (the founder of the Protestant religion) was the first to decorate an indoor tree with candles when he attempted to recreate the stars shining over a forest of evergreens.The first mention of decorated trees being taken indoors came in 1605 in Germany - a country with a long Christmas tree history! The trees were initially decorated with fruit and sweets together with hand made objects such as quilled snowflakes and stars. German Christmas Markets began to sell shaped gingerbs and wax ornaments which people bought as souvenirs of the fair and took home to hang on their tree.其中一个是说:大约在十六世纪,圣诞树最先出现在德国,德国人把长青的松柏枝拿到屋中去摆设,将之成为圣诞树。后来,由德国人马丁路德把蜡烛放在树林中的枞树枝上,然后点燃蜡烛,使它看起来像是引导人们到伯利恒去。而近今日,人们已经改用粉色的小灯泡了。Tinsel was also invented in Germany in about 1610. Up until fairly recently real silver was used, which was pulled into wafer thin strips by special machines. This was durable but tarnished quickly and many experiments took place to try and find an alternative - including a mix of lead and tin, which was too heavy and kept breaking. It was only in the mid 20th century that a viable alternative was found.另一个传说记载。据说有一位农民在一个风雪交加的圣诞夜里接待了一个饥寒交迫的小孩,让他吃了一顿丰盛的圣诞晚餐,这个孩子告别时折了一根杉树枝插在地上并祝福说:“年年此日,礼物满枝,留此美丽的杉村,报答你的好意。”小孩走后,农民发现那树枝竟变成了一棵小树,他才明白自己接待的原来是一位上帝的使者。这个故事就成为圣诞树的来源。在西方,不论是否基督徒,过圣诞节时都要准备一棵圣诞树,以增加节日的欢乐气氛。圣诞树一般是用杉柏之类的常绿树做成,象征生命长存。树上装饰着各种灯烛、花、玩具、星星,挂上各种圣诞礼物。圣诞之夜,人们围着圣诞树唱歌跳舞,尽情欢乐。Artificial trees were invented in the 1880's in a bid to try and stop some of the damage being caused to real trees due to people lopping the tip off large trees, thus preventing the trees from growing any further. It got so bad in Germany that laws had to be brought in to prevent people having more than one tree.圣诞树真正出现在圣诞节时,首先见于德国,之后又传入欧洲和美国,并以其优美的姿态,成为圣诞节不可缺少的装饰。圣诞树的种类繁多,有天然松柏圣诞树、也有人造圣诞树及白色圣诞树。每棵圣诞树上都挂满琳琅满目的装饰品,但每棵树的顶端必定有个特大的星星,象徵三士跟随该星而找到耶稣,而且也只有该家庭的一家之主可以把这棵希望之星挂上。 /201002/96022重庆市治疗小儿鼾症哪家医院最好

成都市妇女儿童中心医院慢性咽炎好吗Children Find Meaning In Old Family TalesWhen C. Stephen Guyer's three children were growing up, he told them stories about how his grandfather, a banker, lost all in the 1930s, but didn't lose sight of what he valued most. In one of the darkest times, Mr. Guyer says, when his grandfather was nearly broke, he loaded his family into the car and took them to see family members in Canada. The message: 'There are more important things in life than money,' says Mr. Guyer, of Littleton, Colo.The tale took on new relevance recently, when Mr. Guyer downsized to a small house from a more luxurious one. He was worried that his children, a daughter, 15, and twins, 22, would be upset. To his surprise, they weren't. Instead, their reaction echoed their great-grandfather's. 'What they care about,' Mr. Guyer says his children told him, 'is how warm are the people in the house, how much of their heart is accessible.'As parents cut budgets, many are finding family stories have surprising power to help children through hard times. Storytelling experts say the phenomenon reflects a growing national interest in telling tales, evidenced by a rise in storytelling events and festivals. New research bears out the value of family stories, linking teens' knowledge of them to better behavior and mental health.An Emory University study of 65 families with children ages 14 to 16 found kids' ability to retell parents' stories was linked to a lower rate of depression and anxiety and less acting-out of frustration or anger, says Robyn Fivush, a psychology professor. Knowing family stories 'helps children put their own experience in perspective,' Dr. Fivush says.The trick is telling the stories in a way children can hear. We're not talking here about the kind of story that begins, 'When I was a kid, I walked to school every day uphill both ways, barefoot in the snow.' Instead, choose a story suited to your child's needs, and make eye contact to create 'a personal experience,' says Sherry Norfolk, chairman of the National Storytelling Network, a Jonesborough, Tenn., nonprofit. 'You don't have to tell children what they should take from the story,' she says. 'They can intuitively understand what the moral is.'When Carla Freeman's daughter became anxious a few years ago about having to change schools, the Atlanta mother related her own childhood stories of switching to another school in her community. Her old friends dropped her and, at her new school, 'I was kind of an oddball' at first, she told her daughter. But Ms. Freeman bounced back and made new friends. She credits the stories with helping her daughter, now 12, develop resiliency and the ability to 'hold herself together' against challenges.A touch of humor helps. At Scott Prengle's Dallas home, his son Bobby, 17, has heard tales about his grandfather growing up in times so hard that his hungry schoolmates would devour apple cores left over from his lunch. As Bobby tapped a nearly empty salad-dressing bottle over his salad at dinner one evening, Scott laughed and invited him to do as his grandfather did: Put water in the bottle and shake it up, to use every last drop. Scott says his father's frugal habits 'drove us crazy, but the idea was that nothing went to waste.'While Bobby declined to water down his dressing, he says of his grandfather that 'I follow in his footsteps' in other ways, saving paper clips and rubber bands. And when Scott recently trimmed the family budget, he thought he saw an echo of his late father in Bobby, in the way he calmly accepted the loss of his oft-used gym membership.Even when you think your children aren't listening to your stories, Dr. Fivush says, they probably are. Thomas Pontes thought his children, 12, 14 and 16, shrugged off tales of his grandfather, an immigrant farmhand who worked his way up from living in a barn to owning a home. To Mr. Pontes, of Providence, R.I., the story shows 'the kind of optimism you need to pick yourself up from a field somewhere tending cattle' to cross the Atlantic, fueled solely by hope.But when I asked his daughter Katie, 16, about the stories, she not only remembered them, but said they've 'helped me become more appreciative of my life and how easy things are for me.' Even if kids don't seem to appreciate family stories, she says, in time they'll 'realize just how important they are.'From:http://chinese.wsj.com/gb/20090319/wvh081052.asp?sourceUpFeature /200903/65527 Unhappy marriage? Blame the kids, claims eight-year studyIt may not come as a surprise to parents, but having children really does impinge on marital bliss.Nine in ten couples suffer a downturn in 'marital satisfaction' once the first child is born, according to an eight-year study.And relationship and stress problems are worse for those who live together before getting married and starting a family.The findings will ring true for millions of parents who found everything from their finances to their sex lives suddenly changed with a new arrival.But the researchers insist the findings should not be seen as a reason to remain childless as bringing children into the world can bring a 'whole dimension of family happiness'.Psychologists at the universities of Denver and Texas examined the marriages of around 220 couples over an eight-year period.They found 90 per cent suffered what they called a 'decrease in marital satisfaction' after the birth of a child.Childless couples suffered the same problems - only a little later, explained Denver University psychology professor Scott Stanley.He said: 'Couples who do not have children also show diminished marital quality over time.However, having a baby accelerates the deterioration, especially seen during periods of adjustment right after the birth of a child.'The research, published in the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, found relationship problems were worse for those who had lived together first - possibly because long-established shared routines are more disrupted by new arrivals /200904/66929邛崃市妇幼保健院咽喉炎怎么样广元市第九人民医院耳鼻喉好吗



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