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2018年12月14日 04:32:23 | 作者:挂号生活 | 来源:新华社
It’s also a prime hunting ground for red-tailed hawks. And they have the perfect nesting site right next to it. They’d moved in on the top floor of this expensive Manhattan apartment block. It acts like a surrogate tree, supporting their large nest. Their high-rise residence also provides a perfect lookout and a launch pad for ambushing prey. 这里也同样是红尾鹰的主要猎场。右侧便是它们选择巢穴的最佳地点。红尾鹰移居到了曼哈顿一栋高档大楼的顶层。大楼就像是一棵撑树,撑着它们巨大的巢穴。较高的位置为红尾鹰提供了较好的视野,也为它们伏击猎物提供了一个起飞平台。A meaty New York diet means these birds continue to survive in North America’s most hectic city. Despite our increasingly urban lifestyles, we still have a deep-rooted desire to connect with nature. And in modern day North America, it’s possible to fulfill that desire in all manner of ways.因为纽约肉类食物很多,因此这些鸟儿能得以在北美这个最喧嚣的城市中继续生存。尽管我们的生活方式越来越城市化,但是我们仍然有一种想要接近自然的本性,这种本性根深蒂固。在北美的现代化生活中,实现这一愿望不是不可能,而且方式多样。英文文本来自普特英语,译文属未经许可不得转载。201401/273527For now, hes safe with his mom and sisters.但现在它还是安全的,和妈妈,们呆在一起。Heres Puck right here with India.帕克和因迪亚呆在一起是正确的。He just stroked her along the side.因迪亚拍打着它的妈妈。Right now, Puck seems to be very tolerant of India.现在帕克还能容忍因迪亚的行为。I dont know if that will happen when the baby is born, and she might really have to push India out of the way.但当它的宝宝出生后,情况就不得而知了。可能因迪亚会被赶走。Puck cant support two calves at once and certainly not a giant one along with the little one.帕克一次不可能带两个孩子。当然更不可能带着一大一小了。Home for the research team is this mobile caravan.这个流动房车就是研究小组的家。Its been a long day following different families in the Bay.研究不同的海豚家庭是个漫长的日子。The life stories of more than 1,600 dolphins are stored in this state-of-the-art database-every birth, every death, every interaction is input with pains-taking detail.有超过1600只海豚的生存信息记录在这个先进的数据库里,生老病死,密切合作等各种细节都被小心的记录下来。When I started this research project in the 1980s, literally nothing was known about wild bottlenose dolphins.这个项目始于20世纪80年代,关于野生宽吻海豚我们一无所知。And since then weve learned a tremendous amount.然后我们开始努力学习。But we still havent followed a single animal from birth to very old age.但我们还没有研究过一只海豚的生老病死。Puck could be the first wild dolphin whose entire life story is known.帕克是第一只生存情况全部为我们所知的野生海豚。Three weeks later, Pucks still waiting for her baby to be born.三周后,帕克孩子等待小宝宝的到来。Today, shes out hunting alone.今天,它独自外出狩猎。These grassy meadows are exceptionally rich feeding grounds, but its dangerous hunting out here.这些海草富含营养,但在这里狩猎很危险。The tiger sharks are arriving, and this is their favorite place to feed.虎鲨就要来了,这里是它们最喜欢的狩猎场。A stealth hunter, it uses the cover of the sea grass to creep up on its prey.一只隐秘的猎手,它用海草做掩护缓缓游向它的猎物。201404/288210

Japanese electronics firms日本电子企业Eclipsed by Apple苹果,你挡住了我的阳光Electronics companies in Japan are starting to turn themselves around, but they are a shadow of their former selves日本的电子公司的处境已经开始得到改善,但还是被旧模式所束缚FOR Sony it was a bittersweet moment. On July 1st the firm bid a final farewell to its Vaio personal computers, a global brand which won such a devoted following after its launch in 1996 that the late Steve Jobs, a fan of Sony in its glory days, once asked to equip it with his Apple Mac operating system. Cut off from its parent, Vaio is floundering. Since Sony announced its sale to a Japanese private-equity fund, in February, it has suffered a slump in its market share in Japan to just 2%, down from 10% at the start of 2014.对于索尼来说,这可谓是百味陈杂的一刻。7月1日,索尼正式告别它旗下的VAIO电脑。VAIO在1996年上市以来就广受欢迎,当年索尼的铁杆粉丝乔布斯曾经希望在VAIO上安装苹果的运行系统。如今独立经营的VAID正在苦苦挣扎:自从今年二月份索尼宣布将它出售给一家日本的私募基金后,它的市场份额从年初的10%暴跌至硕果仅存的2%。The vertiginous drop will have dismayed Sony, which had kept a tiny stake in the business. However, investors have put Sonys bosses under pressure to do something about the companys chronically poor performance. It has lost money in five of the past six years and is forecasting a further loss in the year to March 2015.由于索尼在此业务中仍持有少量股份,这种暴跌的确教人头疼。不过,投资者们已经开始督促索尼的高官们对该公司的长期疲软有所作为。在过去六年中就有长达五年的亏损,这样的情形预计还会持续到2015年三月。Vaio is the most significant business Sony has quit in recent times. Cutting it adrift may be the start of a far-reaching reorganisation. On the same day the firm shifted its loss-making televisions arm, once the core of its profits and brand image, into a separate legal entity. For now, Sonys chief executive, Kazuo Hirai, rules out an outright sale, and many people criticise him for not acting more drastically. Yet the firm admits that an alliance with another television-maker could be an option.VAID应当是近年来索尼所放弃的最为重要的业务了。这种放弃可能是长期机构调整的开始。就在同一天,索尼把曾经带来主要利润和品牌形象,最近却亏损连连的电视机业务转变成了独立的法人。目前,索尼公司的首席执行官平井一夫决定不采取直接出售的做法,因此而受到了行动不够彻底的批评。不过,索尼也承认还可能和其他电视制造商结成联盟。After years of denial that surgery was needed, optimism is rising that Japans consumer-electronics firms are facing up to their steady loss of global market share (see chart 1). In 1982 we published a briefing on how “The giants in Japanese electronics” were set to keep conquering the world with all manner of exciting new gadgets: Video cameras! Fax machines! CD players! And they did, for a while. But now they all struggle to compete in the most important categories of consumer electronics against rivals such as Samsung of South Korea and especially Apple of the ed States.在多年的讳疾忌医之后,越来越多的人们认为日本的消费电子公司终于开始面对它们全球市场份额日渐萎靡的现实。在1982年,我们曾经发表了一份简讯,说的是“日本电子巨头”将如何通过它们的全新电子工具来征世界:摄像机!传真机!CD播放机!它们确实做到了,不过这成为历史。目前在重要的电子消费品方面,南韩的三星和美国的苹果势头强劲,日本公司的对抗之路走得艰难。Even at home in Japans thriving consumer-electronics market—only Americans have more devices per person than the tech-obsessed Japanese—former champions, including Hitachi, Panasonic and Sharp as well as Sony, have lost much ground. Local firms have largely ceded the PC market, and they are losing out quickly in mobile phones. They never really made their mark in smartphones, todays most-desired gadgets. Sonys Trinitron TVs and Walkmans once helped build a fearsomely large Japanese trade surplus, but nowadays the country suffers a deficit, and foreign smartphones account for about a fifth of it.日本人痴迷技术产品,人均电子设备持有量紧随美国,居世界第二。但即使是在日本,过去那些电子消费品市场的领头羊—包括日立,松下和夏普以及索尼,都风光不再。日本本土公司已经基本放弃了电脑市场,而在手机方面也形势不妙。在当今最受欢迎的智能手机方面,它们表现平平。索尼的Trinitron电视和随身听曾经为日本实现了令人羡妒的贸易顺差,可如今日本却赤字不断,而来自日本的智能手机大概造成赤字的五分之一。One consolation is that consumer electronics is an impossible business for nearly all firms, says Eiichi Katayama of Bank of America Merrill Lynch in Tokyo, so competitive has it become. A strong brand is no longer enough to justify a sharply higher price. This week Samsung said its operating profits were down, for a third quarter in a row, in the three months to June, as it was pressed from below by cut-price rivals like Xiaomi, a three-year-old upstart from China, and squeezed from above by Apple.东京美国美林的片山荣一称,电子消费品领域竞争激烈,几乎对所有的公司来说都是极为难做的业务,这对日本公司来说算是小小的宽慰。要想设立高价,只有优秀的品牌已经远远不够了。本周三星透露自己的营销利润在四到六月期间持续走低,而这样的低迷状态已经持续了三个季度—原因在于手机的高低端市场分别被苹果和小米机占据。That said, the Japanese firms have blundered for the past decade. They continued to obsess about fancy hardware, neglecting fast-growing software and services (such as Apples iTunes) and failing to spot consumers changing tastes. They were slow to recognise the developing world as a fast-growing market and not just a low-cost manufacturing base, says Peter Kenevan, a consultant at McKinsey in Tokyo.话虽如此,日本企业在过去十年的处境都颇为艰难,源于它们过分沉迷于花哨的硬件,却忽视了飞速成长的软件和务领域,也没能及时发现消费者悄然变化的喜好。麦肯锡东京分部的顾问皮特·科内宛称,这些企业一向把发展中国家当做低成本的制造基地,对于这些快速增长的市场的巨大潜力却反应迟钝。The Japanese firms now have some hard decisions to make, about which existing products they should give up on and which new ones to pursue. Sonys bosses are reportedly studying reforms made by Philips, a Dutch firm which has quit a number of poorly performing businesses. Last year it got out of making televisions, and a chunk of its lighting division is next out of the door.日本众企业现在需要痛定思痛,辨别哪些现存产品应当毅然地放弃,哪些新产品又应当不舍地追求。据说索尼的高官们现在正在向荷兰公司飞利浦的一系列变革学习—该公司目前已经放弃了几项表现不佳的业务:去年停止了电视机的生产,接下来要精简的就是一系列照明业务了。Panasonic is aly making an abrupt change of direction. Under Kazuhiro Tsuga, its newish chief executive, it is exiting both plasma televisions and consumer smartphones. Its new focus is on making equipment for energy-efficient homes. Car parts, including battery cells for electric and hybrid vehicles, are another strong area of growth. Mr Tsuga is also seeking ways to serve emerging Asian markets better. He recently shocked his fellow managers by saying Panasonic would set up a product-development headquarters in India, staffed chiefly by locals.松下已经做出了大幅度的政策调整。在新上任的首席执行官铁杉和弘的带领下,松下正在淡出等离子电视和消费者智能手机领域,转而聚焦于节能住宅设备制造。此外汽车零件也是成长势头猛烈的领域之一,其中包括用于电动和混合动力汽车的电池。和弘先生同时也在探索如何更好的务欣欣向荣的亚洲市场。最近,和弘先生就声称有意在主要聘用当地人的印度建立松下的产品发展总部。此番言论在高管中激起了不小的波澜。Other firms, such as Toshiba and Hitachi, which were aly less reliant on consumer electronics, are paying new attention to their heavy industrial businesses. All these moves should help solve a common structural problem in Japanese industry, which is that too many firms all make similar products. Some electronics giants are moving into a surprising new field: high-tech farming. Fujitsu, Hitachi, Panasonic and Sharp are converting disused factory space and opening high-tech greenhouses to grow vegetables, which are expensive in Japan.其他对于消费者电器依赖较少的日企,例如东芝和日立,则开始更多的关注它们的重工业业务。这些变动将有利于改善日本工业普遍存在的结构性问题,那就是企业的产品相似度太高。还有一些电子巨头则开始挺进全新的领域:高科技农业。富士通,日立,松下和夏普都在把废弃不用的工厂改造成为高科技温室,以种植在日本卖价颇高的蔬菜。The financial results of the changes have started to emerge. Aided also by a recent fall in the value of the yen, Fujitsu, Panasonic and Sharp all returned to profit in 2013. The other big electronics firms all improved their bottom lines, with the exceptions of Sony and NEC. Sony promises that 2015-16 will be the year in which it returns to profit. Its smartphones and tablets are at last gaining some traction, with the help of one simple, customer-centred innovation—making them waterproof. It will take little short of a miracle for it to make up the ground lost to Apple but such hints that the worst may soon be over have helped Sony, so far, to fend off calls by Daniel Loeb, an American activist investor, for a radical break-up of the company.这些改变已经在经济上面初见成效。在日元贬值的天时地利之际,富士通、松下和夏普都在2013年重新盈利。除了索尼和NEC以外的大型电子公司也都有所进步。索尼承诺自己将会在2015-16开始盈利。现在索尼的智能手机和平板电脑越来越受欢迎,这还要归功于一项简单而颇有人情味的创新—防水设计。当然,要想从苹果手里收复失地可谓天方夜谭;不过,这些转机还是能够暂时帮助索尼抵御丹尼尔·勒布要求分化该公司的激烈言论。此人是一位来自美国的激进投资者。Seeking a path to growth寻求成长道路For the foreseeable future, Panasonic, Sharp and Sony will continue to rely on consumer electronics for much of their sales and profits. Although Mr Tsuga has done a lot of restructuring and redirection at Panasonic, say executives in the industry, he has not yet found a reliable path towards growth. Films, music, television and financial services are solid businesses for Sony, but consumer electronics still accounts for 60% of its revenues.在可预见的未来,松下、夏普和索尼还是会继续依赖消费者电子产品来拉动销售额和利润。业内管理人士称,尽管松下的和弘先生已经在结构和策略上做出了不小的调整,他依旧还未找到一条持续成长的道路;尽管索尼的主要业务涵盖电影,音乐,电视,以及金融务,消费者电子依旧占据销售量的六成。If their chief executives were visionary leaders willing to take risks, Japanese electronics firms could do much to regain their lost lustre, says Roderick Lappin, who heads the Japanese operations of Chinas fast-rising Lenovo. Their unrivalled engineering, though often in excess of customers needs, is still an advantage, he says. They sit on a trove of intellectual property in the form of patents. Much of this could prove invaluable in the field of “wearable” technology or in the much-hyped “internet of things”, in which appliances, equipment and even pets may in future be wirelessly web-connected.罗德克·拉宾是中国新兴品牌联想在日本业务的负责人。他认为,只要这些日企的执行者们富有远见,甘愿冒险,回复往日荣耀不在话下。日本人的工程技术高超,虽然与客户的需求相比可能过犹不及,其数一数二的地位依旧是一项竞争优势。日本人拥有大量受专利保护的知识产权,这些在“可消耗”技术和炒的火热的“物联网”领域都非常宝贵。“物联网”可能在将来能把电器、设备甚至宠物通过无线网络连接起来。However, the Japanese firms will find themselves hindered by their old-fashioned corporate cultures. With a few exceptions such as Mr Tsuga, Japanese bosses, with an average age of 60, are extremely cautious. Years of losses and restructuring make it still harder for them to place bold bets on future technologies.可惜的是,日本企业受其传统企业文化掣肘不小。日企老板的平均年龄高达花甲,行事谨小慎微—和弘先生算是为数不多的特例之一。再加上连年亏损和结构调整,让这些老板们放手投资未来高科技可谓难上加难。In particular, they are still too attached to Japans culture of lifetime employment. At most large Japanese firms, around a third of permanent staff are surplus to requirements, yet cannot be fired due to the countrys unclear labour rules.最为突出的是,老板们依旧非常留恋日本文化特有的终身聘用制度。在大多数日本公司里面,大概三分之一的正式员工都是多余的,可是由于日本劳动法暧昧不轻,裁员基本没有可能。There is some hope that Shinzo Abes reforming government may take steps to make the labour market more flexible, which would help electronics more than any other industry. Had lay-offs been easier, Panasonic, Sony and others would have had far greater financial flexibility to cope with changing market conditions. Instead, their limited voluntary severance packages, typically offering two to three years pay, are cripplingly expensive. Those who accept them are often the most talented.安倍晋三的政府改革有望使劳动市场变得更为灵活,而电子产业将是其中最大的受益者。如果裁员能变得更容易的话,松下、索尼和其他公司都能从财务方面更好的适应千变万化的市场。现实情况却是,对企业来说,数量有限的资源遣散费(通常提供两至三年的工资)变得越来越昂贵,而愿意接受这些遣散费离职的往往还是企业中最有才华的员工。Since the firms are no longer run by their high-powered founders but by employees who rose through the same lifetime system, says Hidemi Moue, boss of Japan Industrial Partners, the private-equity buyer of Vaio, there is too little willingness to tackle these problems. In all, it will take a lot more than a few whizzy new gadgets to fix the Japanese electronics firms.接手VAIO的私募企业是日本产业合作伙伴。它的老板秀美马上称,由于这些日企的运营者已不再是那些效率奇高的创始人,而是跟企业共同成长起来的员工,所以解决这方面问题的决心自然而然就比较小了。总而言之,日本电子企业的问题可不是发明几个新式电子小工具就能解决的。 /201407/312741

Yael: What are all those pills youre taking, Don? Don,你在吃的都是什么药?Don: Vitamins, Yael. Im really into my health these days. I take a pill for nearly every vitamin my body needs. Im insuring myself against vitamin deficiency. Yael, 是维他命。这些天我很关注自己的身体健康,所以我每种维他命都吃一片来补充各种身体所需的,确保不会出现维他命缺乏的情况。Y: I hope you know what youre doing. Just as vitamin deficiency can make you sick so can vitamin toxicity. Vitamins can be very dangerous if you take them in high quantities. 我希望你知道你现在在做什么。维他命是有毒性的,就像维他命缺乏一样会致你生病。如果你摄入过多维他命也是很危险的。D: Oh, you mean vitamins A and D. Ive heard about that. I dont understand, though, why its okay to take lots of one vitamin, but not another. 哦,你说的是维生素A和维生素D。我听说过。但是我仍然不明白为什么能大量吃一种维生素,但却不能吃另一种。Y: First off, vitamins A and D are the most likely to make you sick if you take too much of them, but they arent the only vitamins that can be dangerous. All vitamins have the potential to be toxic if you ingest too much of them. 首先,如果一次摄入过量的话,维生素A和D是最有可能威胁你的健康的,但并不是只有他们才是危险物质。如果你摄入量过多的话,任何维他命都是有毒性的。Part of the reason why A and D put you at higher risk than Vitamin C and others has to do with the way vitamins are dissolved. 维生素A和D比维生素C和其他的维生素具有更高毒性的部分原因是维生素有不同的溶解方式。Vitamin C dissolves in water. Thus, if you take in excess Vitamin C, your body flushes it out through urine. Vitamins A and D dissolve in oils and melted fat. 维生素C是水溶性的。因此,如果你用过多的维他命C的话,你的身体可以通过尿液将其排出。而维他命A和D是油溶性和脂溶性的。When you take too much of one of these vitamins, rather than flushing the excess out, the body stores the surplus in fat or in fatty tissues such as the liver and the brain. 当你用了过多的这种维他命的话,身体不能通过尿液将其排出,剩余部分只能储存至脂肪或者脂肪组织,例如肝和大脑。Accumulation of water in the brain, severe headaches, and birth defects are just three of the problems toxic levels of Vitamin A can cause. 脑积水,剧烈头痛,先天缺失正是维他命A的毒副作用能导致的三种疾病。If you keep a relatively well-balanced diet, youll most likely get the vitamins your body needs without the use of supplements. 如果你能保持一个相对均衡的饮食,你就能够保身体所需的维生素,而不需要额外的补充了。201308/252974

Marmosets are small primates.绒猴是很小的灵长类。Think of a monkey with huge fuzzy ears.试想一下,猴子长者一对大大的毛绒绒的耳朵。Primatologists have oftenwondered whether nonhuman males evaluated their potential mates, or whether their sex drivewas more like an on/off switch.动物学家时常有这样的疑惑:雄性动物选择“另一半”或者控制性欲是否更像是一个开关键。We may think of animals as just responding to sexual invitations without thinking, but a studyconducted in both the U.S. and Germany shows this isnt necessarily so.我们也许会认为动物对于性邀请基本是不假思索的,但最近美国和德国有研究称事实并非如此。Male marmosets havingtheir brains scanned were given sniffs of genital-gland secretions from ovulating females.雄性绒猴用它们的大脑扫描,闻正在排卵的磁性动物生殖腺的分泌物。Thats a scent that should trigger a mating response in the brain, and it did!有一种气味会引起大脑里的交配反应,这样它们才会进行交配。But guess what elsehappened?但你猜还会发生什么情况?Many other brain areas lit up as well, such as memory formation, informationintegration–in other words, areas associated with decision-making.很多其它的大脑叶都会被“激活”,像信息形成,信息整合,也就是说,所有和决策相关的区域。Researchers are still studying the effect, but apparently a lot more happens in a marmoset brainthan a simple “have sex now” program.研究人员还在观察其影响,但很显然,绒猴的脑部有很多活动而不是一个简单的“性行为”指定。The specific areas of brain activity suggest that the malesare evaluating potential mates before agreeing to a sexual union.特定区域的大脑活动暗示雄性绒猴在性结合之前会评估潜在的交配对象。This makes special sense for marmosets, because they are monogamous and both partners raise the offspring.这对于绒猴有特殊的意义,因为它们是单配制,并且共同抚养后代。Under those circumstances you wouldnt want to enter into a relationship without any thought.在这种情况下,就不会不假思索地介入这段关系了。 201405/296632

Science and technology科学技术Bees and insecticides蜜蜂和杀虫剂Subtle poison慢性毒药Evidence is growing that commonly used pesticides, even when employed carefully, are bad for bees据逐步表明,即使小心地喷施普通杀虫剂,也会对蜜蜂构成危害IN THE winter of 2006 beekeepers in America noticed something odd—lots of their hives were dying for no obvious reason.2006年冬,美国养蜂人注意到奇怪的现象,他们的蜜蜂成批死掉,原因不明。As the months passed, reports of similar phenomena began coming in from their European counterparts.几个月后,类似的现象也出现在欧洲同行的报告上。Mystified scientists coined the label colony collapse disorderto describe what was happening.困惑的科学家们给这个现象贴上了蜂群衰竭失调的标签。Since then, much brow-sweat has been expended trying to work out just what CCD really is.自那时起,为揭开CCD的面纱,人们不知道多少次抹去额头的汗水。Dying bees are a problem, and not just for apiarists.蜜蜂之死不仅令养蜂家头痛。Bees pollinate many of the worlds crops—a service estimated to be worth 15 billion a year in America alone.蜜蜂给世界上的很多庄稼授粉,仅在美国,这种务每年价值150亿美元。And there is no shortage of theories to explain the insects decline,Climate change, habitat destruction, a paralysing virus, fungal infection and even a plague of parasitic mites have all been proposed.尽管对蜜蜂数量下降的原因提出了形形色色的理论,如气候变化、栖息地遭破坏、麻痹病毒、霉菌感染,甚至还有寄生虫肆虐。But one of the leading ideas is that the bees are suffering from the effects of neonicotinoids, a class of commonly used pesticides, introduced in the 1990s, which are toxic to insects but much less so to mammals.但其中一个主导观点是蜜蜂正在遭受新烟碱的侵害,二十世纪九十年代人们引入这种杀虫剂,它对昆虫有毒,但对哺乳动物的毒性较小,使用范围广泛。Two papers published this week in Science lend weight to this idea.本期科学杂志刊登的两篇论文实了这种观点。The first, from a group led by Penelope Whitehorn and David Goulson of the University of Stirling, in Britain, examined the effects these insecticides have on bumblebees, which are closely related to honeybees.第一篇出自英国斯特林大学Penelope Whitehorn 和 David Goulson 指导的团队,他们检验了这些杀虫剂给大黄蜂带来的影响,大黄蜂和蜜蜂的关系密切。Bumblebees are less studied than their honeybee cousins, but they also pollinate many commonly eaten crops, including strawberries, raspberries and runner beans.和同宗的蜜蜂比起来,对大黄蜂的研究要少一些。但它们给很多可食作物传粉,如草莓、树莓和红花菜豆。The two researchers and their colleagues raised 75 bumblebee colonies in their laboratory.两位研究人员和同事们在实验室饲养了七十五个大黄蜂蜂群。They exposed some, via contaminated pollen and sugar water, to high doses of imidacloprid, a type of neonicotinoid insecticide.他们用受污染的花粉、糖水将一些蜂群暴露在高剂量吡虫啉的环境里,Others were exposed to low doses, or to no dose at all.一些蜂群暴露在低剂量杀虫剂的环境里,或者不加一点杀虫剂。Then, after two weeks of this treatment, the colonies were taken into the outside world and left there for six weeks, to see how the bees did.接着经过两周的处理,把这些蜂群放在室外六周,观察蜂的行动。All of the doses of imidacloprid, both high and low, that Dr Whitehorn gave her bees were sublethal—in other words, insufficient to kill the insects outright.使用吡虫啉的蜂群,无论剂量大小,Whitehorn士把亚致死量用在她的蜜蜂上,换句话说,不足以彻底杀死昆虫。Firms that produce pesticides, and the authorities that regulate them, are aware of the importance of bees to food production, and new products must be tested to make sure they are not fatal to helpful insects.杀虫剂生产厂家和管理他们的机构意识到蜜蜂对食品生产的重要性,新产品要经过检测,保它们不会对有益的昆虫造成致命伤害。But Dr Whitehorn found that even non-lethal doses of pesticide were bad for bees.但Whitehorn士发现即使非致命性杀虫剂也会对蜜蜂有害。Both the high-dose and the low-dose colonies grew more slowly than the undosed ones, gaining 8-12% less weight on average.受到高剂量和低剂量杀虫剂影响的蜂群和没有受杀虫剂影响的同类比起来长得要慢。体重平均降低8-12%。More importantly, the pesticides drastically inhibited the production of queens, which are needed to establish new nests each spring.最重要的是,杀虫剂强烈地影响到春季筑造新巢所需的蚁后的生产。The undosed colonies produced 13.7 queens, on average.未受杀虫剂影响的蜂群产生13.7个蚁后。Those given a small dose of insecticide produced two.受低剂量影响的蜂群产生两个,Those given a high dose produced just 1.4.受高剂量杀虫剂影响的蜂群产生1.4个。Worryingly, even colonies given the high dose may have got off lightly compared with their wild brethren.令人忧心的是,即便受高剂量杀虫剂影响的蜂群可能要比它们在野外的同伴受到的危害低一些。The researchers note that another British study found levels of imidacloprid in rape crops that were seven times higher than the food supplied by the researchers.研究人员指出另一个英国研究项目发现油菜作物里的吡虫啉含量要比研究人员提供的食物里的吡虫啉含量高七倍。Dr Whitehorns paper does not propose a mechanism by which pesticides do their damage.士Whitehorn的论文没有说明杀虫剂实施破坏的方法。But the second study, by a group led by Mickal Henry at the French National Institute for Agricultural Research, in Avignon, may shed some light on the matter.由法国国家农业研究院的Mickal Henry带队实施的第二项研究可能这个事情带来曙光。Inspired by previous laboratory-based work, which had suggested that sublethal doses of neonicotinoids damage honeybees memories, their ability to forage, and their ability to navigate back to their hive afterwards, Dr Henry decided to conduct some tests in the wild.先前实验室工作表明亚致死剂量的新烟碱会损害蜜蜂的记忆、它们的觅食能力和它们返回蜂群的能力,受此启发,Henry士决定在野外做一些测试。To that end, he and his colleagues glued tiny radio transmitters to the thoraxes of worker bees.为此,他和同事们将微型无线电广播发射机系在工蜂的胸前。These triggered a detector on the hive whenever a worker bearing one returned from a foraging trip.在工蜂觅食返回的途中,会在蜂群里触发探测器。Some hives were given realistic doses of thiamtethoxam, a variety of neonicotinoid, while others were left alone.给一些蜂群用一定剂量的阿克泰,其他的则不用,Dr Henry found that around twice as many treated bees as untreated ones failed to return to the hive.Henry士发现用药的不能返巢的蜜蜂数量是没有用药的两倍。That, mathematical models indicate, might easily cause a hive to collapse.所以数学模型更容易的显示出一个蜂群的瓦解。Colony club蜂群俱乐部Moreover, even if it did not do so alone, it could be a contributing factor.此外,如果没有单独做这些工作,这会是一个起作用的因素。Many researchers believe the label colony collapse disorder covers a multitude of problems; that would account for the long list of possible causes.很多研究人员相信蜂群衰竭失调涵盖了很多问题,可以列出很多原因。But neonicotinoids have the explanatory virtue of being a fairly recent development and also one which, as these two pieces of work suggest, could be a common factor in weakening a colony without actually pushing it over the edge.但是新烟碱在最近的研究和这两项工作中做给出了解释,它是在没有外部因素的作用下削弱蜂群的一个原因。The killer blow would then be administered by something else: a mite infestation, perhaps, or a fungal infection, or whatever else happened to turn up that a healthy hive would have shrugged off.以下原因也可以被视为蜂群杀手如寄生虫肆虐、霉菌感染,或者导致蜂群健康降低的其他事情。A paper published earlier this year in Naturwissenschaften, for example, showed that even small doses of neonicotinoids weakened bees resistance to Nosema, a common fungal parasite.今年早些时候自然科学杂志刊登的一篇论文说小剂量的新烟碱削弱蜜蜂对小孢子虫的抵抗力。A few countries, including France, Germany and Slovenia, have aly restricted the use of neonicotinoids because of worries about their effects on bees.包括法国、德国和斯洛文尼亚在内的一些国家已经限制了新盐碱的使用,他们担心这种杀虫剂会给蜜蜂造成影响。It would help other places that are thinking of following suit if more realistic trials were conducted in the future, in conditions that mimic nature as closely as possible in the way that these two experiments have done.这有助于其他地方考虑是否要在将来在模拟自然环境的条件和以上两个试验的条件尽可能接近的条件下更多的实际试验。That might be more expensive than the present way of doing things, in which tests are mostly confined to laboratories and are concerned with finding out how much insecticide is needed to kill bees outright.试验受实验室的约束,并且为了能知道多大剂量才能杀死蜜蜂,花费可能要比当前昂贵。But the growing evidence that insecticides damage bees in subtle ways means it would be money well spent.越来越多的据表明杀虫剂对蜜蜂的损害是慢性的,所以这个钱值得花。 /201403/279135

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