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2018年12月18日 19:28:20来源:兰州晨报


  • If youve ever driven in LA, you know that people dont cooperate terribly well.如果你在洛杉矶开过车,你就会知道那里路上人们配合得不是很好,Traffic jams, folks cutting folks off,people shouting at you out their windows . . .its a real headache.致使交通阻塞,水泄不通,人们透过车窗口大嚷大叫,真是让人头痛!Wed all do a lot better–at least, wed all movethrough congestion a lot faster–if we were ants.如果我们能效仿蚂蚁,那么,至少拥堵的交通移动地可以更快些!Why ants, you ask?你可能会问:为什么是蚂蚁呢?Thats what Ian Couzin of Princeton University wanted to know.普林斯顿大学的Ian Couzin也曾经疑惑过。You mayhave seen films of huge numbers of South American Army Ants zooming across the grass onraids and coming back with all sorts of goodies to eat.你可能曾看过电影里成群结队的南美洲军蚁 “行军”穿过草丛,而后满载而归。So why dont they crash into each otherand suffer ant-gridlock the way humans do?那么,为什么他们不会撞上对方,像人类一样,交通阻塞呢?One answer: Couzin found is that army ants follow asimple procedure:Couzin 发现有个原因能解释:军蚁行进的方式很简单,everybody coming home has the right-of-way.所有蚂蚁回家都有“优先权”。Even a simple rule like that: if you going out, same-phrase side; if you coming home, dont same-phrase side; works terrifically.很简单的守则:出门就走同向边;回家就走逆向边,屡试不爽。It results in a stream of home-going ants passing unobstructedthrough the center of a crowd of out-going ants.这样一来,回家的一群蚂蚁会畅通无阻地穿过成群结队的出门蚂蚁群。Among other things, this means raiding partiescan go any direction from the anthill, because nobody has to remember some complicated ruleabout turning left or turning right.这样,蚁冢中的蚂蚁群可以自由行进,因为无须忌讳向左或向右的复杂规则。Also, the guys bringing home the goodies will always beprotected on both sides by out-going ants. Simple!两侧要出门的蚂蚁也会保护背着东西回家的蚂蚁群。再简单不过了!So, would this work in LA?那么,洛杉矶能借鉴吗?Probably not. Thousands of human beings just cant be made to followa behavioral rule like that.也许不行,成千上万的人是不可能遵守蚂蚁群的规则的。Somebody would try to get a little bit ahead, then somebody else wouldsee that and get angry, and pretty soon, youre back to LA traffic.有些人想方设法在更前面,其他人看到了就会生气,不一会儿,又会回到洛杉矶交通的状态。For better or worse, people justdont think like ants.不管怎样,人们是无法像蚂蚁般思考的。 201408/318061
  • The jaws of T-Rex are infamous and lethal, housing sixty teeth with some as long as 30 centimeters. Its skull is constructed of 64 bones designed to be light but strong. It’s 16 times stronger than the jaws of an alligator. The front teeth are dagger-shaped, with serrated edges designed to tear flesh. The larger side teeth are rounded, perfect for crunching bone. Solidly anchored into muscle, they could withstand pressure from any direction. 雷克斯霸王龙的颚令人胆寒,这是一个致命的武器,颚内生长60颗牙齿,一些牙齿的长度达到30厘米。雷克斯霸王龙的头骨由64块骨头组成,轻巧但十分强壮。雷克斯霸王龙的颚比短吻鳄的颚强壮16倍。雷克斯霸王龙的前牙犹如匕首状,牙齿边缘呈锯形,以便撕咬。边部稍大些的牙齿呈圆形,是碾碎骨头的利器。这些骨头都稳固地嵌入肌肉中,可以承受来自任何方向的压力。We have a pretty good idea of how it killed its prey. It seems to have just walked right up to them, taken a bite, and whatever happens happens. 我们能清楚地认识到雷克斯霸王龙是怎么不杀猎物的。他们似乎就是上去横冲直撞,咬上一口,接下来刚发生的就都发生了。Unlike many dinosaurs, they wouldn’t just take the flesh of the carcass. They basically eat most of the carcass.与其他恐龙不一样的是,雷克斯霸王龙不仅吃猎物残骸上的肉,它们也食用猎物的大部分残骸。T-Rex’s huge legs and pelvis make up half its total body weight. Its tail weighs almost a ton. This is because it has to balance out nearly half a ton of head and jaws. Their head is two thirds muscle, which power jaws capable of enough force to bite through a steel oil drum. 雷克斯霸王龙巨大的前腿和骨盆占据他们整个身体重量的一半。它们的尾巴有一吨重,这是为了平衡来自头和颚一吨的重量。它们头部的三分之二都是肌肉,这能带动颚产生足够的力量,能将钢油桶咬穿。All that muscle delivers a bite strong enough to defeat the toughest prey of the Cretaceous. 这些肌肉可以使雷克斯霸王龙的咬击足够杀死白垩纪防御力最高的猎物。T-Rex’s teeth are among the bluntest teeth, bluntest, least sharp of the whole family of Tyrannosaurs. Those teeth are designed to crush, to penetrate thick layers of armor, and muscle, in a crushing, massive hemorrhaging blow. 雷克斯霸王龙的牙齿在整个霸王龙家庭中是最迟钝的。但是它们是用来碾压的,用来穿透坚硬的盔甲壳,仅仅致命一击。The muscles in T-Rex’s neck are nearly as powerful as the muscles of its legs. At half a meter thick, they’re strong enough to lift a hippo or bring down the most well-armed, best-defended herbivore nature has ever produced, Triceratops. 雷克斯霸王龙颈部的肌肉几乎和腿部的肌肉一样强壮有力。它们足有半米厚,并且强壮到可以将一头河马咬起,或者扳倒有史以来盔甲最厚,防御力最强的食草动物——三角恐龙。The best way to attack Triceratops is with a long-barreled, 75 millimeter antitank gun.攻击三角恐龙的最好方法就是用一个管超长的,径口75毫米的反坦克炮。英文文本来自普特英语,译文属未经许可不得转载。201402/275541
  • Asian business亚洲商业A world to conquer征世界Asian business is reforming. Its emerging multinationals will change the way we all live亚洲商业正在改革,其新兴的跨国公司将改变我们的生活BUSINESS power follows economic power. In the 1920s British firms owned 40% of the global stock of foreign direct investment. By 1967 America was top dog, with a 50% share. Behind those figures lie cultural revolutions. The British sp the telegraph and trains in Latin America. American firms sold a vision of the good life, honed by Hollywood and advertising. Kelloggs changed what the rich world ate for breakfast, and Kodak how it remembered holidays. The next corporate revolution, as we describe in our special report this week, is happening in Asia. This too will change how the world lives.商业能力紧随经济实力。1920年代,英国公司拥有40%的全球海外直接投资股票。截至1967年,美国以50%的市场份额雄霸世界。这些数字的背后是文化革命。英国将电报机和铁路传至拉丁美洲。美国公司则通过好莱坞和广告营造了一副美好生活的憧憬。氏公司改变了发达国家人们桌上的早餐,柯达则定格了人们对于假期的美好回忆。下一场公司革命,就如同我们在本周的特别报道中描述的一样,将发生在亚洲。这也同样会改变我们生活的世界。Arrested development发展受阻Asian capitalism has brawn. The continents share of global GDP has risen from a fifth to 28% since 1984. It is the worlds factory, a diverse region of rivals bound together by supply chains. But it lacks brains and global savvy. Asia smelts 76% of the worlds iron and emits 44% of its pollution, but hosts only a tenth of its most valuable brands and venture-capital activity. Its multinationals punch below their weight, owning 17% of the worlds foreign direct investment. Wealthy Japan and South Korea have a cast of superstars, such as Toyota and Samsung. But few other firms command the world stage.亚洲资本强劲有力。亚洲大陆占全球GDP的份额自1984年以来已经增长了五分之一,至28%。 这里是世界工厂,由供应链连结起来的竞争多元化的地区。但是它“力大无脑”,缺乏对全球市场的领悟能力。亚洲熔炼了76%的世界钢铁并排放了44%的污染物,但是只掌握了十分之一最有价值的品牌和风险资本活动。这里,跨国公司的实力与其规模并不相称,只拥有世界17%的外国直接投资。富裕的日本和韩国有众多的明星企业,例如丰田和三星。但是,其他能够在世界舞台上占领一席之地的公司却是屈指可数。That is because Asian capitalism has been too cosy. In the boom between 2002 and 2010 easy profits were made at home—growth was fast and labour and credit cheap. Two-thirds of big Asian firms are state-controlled or “business houses” (often family-run). These incumbents tend to be chummy with the government and get cheap land and loans. Half of all billionaire wealth in Asia has been made in sectors, such as property, that are prone to cronyism, versus 15% in the West. Outside Japan, Taiwan and South Korea, innovation has been neglected. Mahindra amp; Mahindra and Great Wall, car champions from India and China, have a combined research-and-development (Ramp;D) budget that is 3% of Volkswagens.这是因为亚洲的资本主义是“温室里的花朵”。从2002到2010年,唾手可得的利润在家里就能轻松赚到——快速的增长以及廉价劳动力和信贷。三分之二的亚洲大公司都是国有的或者家族式经营的商号。它们都与政府有着密切的关系,能够得到廉价的土地和贷款。亚洲近半数的亿万富豪都是从政府有关部门发家的,例如极易产生裙带关系的房地产业,相比之下在西方只占15%。除了日本、台湾和南韩之外,创新都遭到了忽视。马恒达和长城这两个印度和中国的汽车业龙头,其研究开发经费加起来也不过是大众汽车的3%。For Western firms, Asias shortcomings have been a relief. The iPhone shows why: although it is made by the hands of Chinese workers, it is the brains behind it, at Apple and at high-tech component-makers in the rich world, that take nearly all the profits. Now, however, the rules that have governed Asian capitalism for the past two decades are changing. Asian firms are having to become brainier, more nimble and more global.对于西方公司来说,亚洲的短板令他们从中得利。iPhone就是和很好的例子:尽管都是出自中国工人的双手,但从中赚取几乎全部利润的“大脑”,是背后的苹果公司和发达国家的高科技元件市场。然而,这个曾经在过去二十年里管理着亚洲资本的游戏规则正在改变。亚洲企业正在变成更为灵活和全球化的“大脑”。The immediate motivation is underperformance: growth has slowed, and Asian shares have lagged American ones by 40% in the past three years. Three deeper trends are also at work. First, labour costs are rising, not least in China, and East Asias workforce is ageing. Second, Asias middle class is becoming more demanding. They are no longer satisfied with fake Louis Vuitton handbags; they want clean air, safe food and more leisure, and are madly in love with the internet. Third, competition has intensified from Western multinationals, which have invested trillion in Asia. They also now use the same cheapish labour, and they generally have much more sophisticated supply chains, brands and Ramp;D.最直接的动力是表现不佳:增长在减缓,在过去的3年里,亚洲的份额滞后于美国40%。三个更深层次的趋势正在起作用。首先,劳动力成本在上升,尤其是在中国,东亚的劳动力正在面临老龄化。其次,亚洲中产阶级的需求正在变高。他们不再仅仅满足于山寨LV手包,他们想要干净的空气、安全的食品和更多的休闲,同时也越来越迷恋网络世界。第三,来自西方跨国公司的竞争愈发激烈,他们已经在亚洲投资超过2万亿美元。他们现在也有相对廉价的劳动力,除此之外他们大都还拥有成熟的供应链、品牌和研发。With their home markets no longer quite so safe, Asian firms are adapting—and becoming stronger. In response to rising wages, production (of clothes, for example) is shifting from China to South-East Asia and Africa, led by Japanese firms which are also worried about a war with the Middle Kingdom. Chinese firms such as Haier, which makes fridges, plan to automate factories and get into cleverer products. And as the Chinese push upmarket, the Koreans are redoubling efforts to stay ahead. Samsungs spending on Ramp;D rose by 24% in 2013. If they get their act together, India and Indonesia, Asias bumbling giants, will attract lots of factory jobs. Their best firms are also getting brainier. Once dismissed as “body shops”, Indias IT-outsourcing firms are now leaders in big data.亚洲企业的本土市场不再是高枕无忧,所以他们也在适应——同时也在变强。由于上升的工资成本,产品生产(例如装)正在从中国转到东南亚和非洲,日本公司由于担心与中国将爆发战争所以首先采取了这种措施。中国公司例如生产冰箱的海尔,计划加强工厂自动化并生产更智能的产品。随着中国高端市场的发展,韩国正竭力保持其领先地位。三星在2013年的研发经费增长了24%。如果印度和印尼能共同进退,这两个笨手笨脚的亚洲巨人将会吸引大量的工厂就业。他们中最好的公司也正变成“大脑”。曾经被忽略为代工车间的印度IT外包公司现在已经成为大数据的领军者。Rising consumer aspirations are helping internet firms disrupt traditional industries. Alibaba, a Chinese internet giant, is expanding into banking, telecoms and logistics. Analysts think it might be worth 0 billion, more than Chinas steel industry. Chinas drive to reform its state-owned firms is meant to make them more responsive to customers. Xi Guohua, the boss of China Mobile, plans to give shares to his staff. Across Asia demand for health care is likely to create a whole new generation of companies—the industry comprises only 4% of the regions stockmarket, compared with 12% in the rich world.消费者日益增长的需求意愿正帮助互联网企业打破行业传统。阿里巴巴作为一个中国互联网企业巨头,已经将业务扩张到业、电信业和物流业。分析师认为其市值可能达到1500亿美元,超过了中国钢铁行业总和。中国实施国企改革的决心意味着国企要更多的回应消费者的需求。中国移动董事长奚国华计划让自己的员工持有本企业的股份。纵观亚洲,对于医疗保健的需求很有可能会创造一批全新的公司——该行业的份额只占地区股票市场的4%,而在发达国家则占12%。In order to challenge foreign rivals, Asian firms are globalising, following the example of Samsung and Toyota. Lenovo, a thriving Chinese computer firm, has Western-style governance and many foreign staff. Huawei has overtaken Ericsson in telecoms equipment. Indias Sun Pharma is now one of the worlds biggest generic-drugs firms. Tencent, Chinas Facebook, has hired the footballer Lionel Messi to advertise its services abroad. Sprawling business houses are evolving into focused multinationals. Tata Sons is now a superb IT firm and luxury-car maker tied to a ragbag of Indian assets.为了应对国外竞争对手,亚洲公司(例如三星和丰田)正在全球化。作为一家繁荣兴旺的中国计算机企业,联想拥有西式的管理和众多外籍员工。华为在电信设备方面也超越了爱立信公司。印度的太阳药业现在已经跻身为全球最大的非注册商标类药品公司之一。腾讯是中国版的facebook,聘任足球明星莱昂内尔·梅西为其务进行海外宣传。粗放式发展的商业模式已经进化成集中而专业的跨国企业。塔塔之子公司这家优秀的IT公司和豪华汽车制造商,已经成为印度资产大杂烩中的一员。Cereal killers麦片杀手Asian business needs to do much more. Big firms are spending 50% more on Ramp;D than five years ago, but must get better at breakthrough innovations. Conglomerates must focus on a few areas where they can achieve global scale. Governments can do their bit, by freeing state firms from meddling and ensuring that powerful incumbents do not stifle entrepreneurs.亚洲商业前路依然漫长。跟5年前相比,大公司的研发开增加了50%,但仍需突破性的创新。企业集团需要集中优势到某一些领域并做大到国际规模。政府能帮忙的地方就是解放国企、停止插手并确保大权在握的现任领导不会扼杀企业的发展。Western firms should pay attention. In some industries—aircraft manufacturing, for example—the barriers to entry are still immense, but in other sectors brands and technology will no longer be a shield from emerging Asian competition. The threat to low-paid Western jobs may recede. Haiers Chinese workers are paid 25% of what its American workers get, up from 5% in 2000. Instead it may be copywriters, scientists and designers who feel the chill of competition from the East.西方企业需要注意。某些行业(例如航空制造业)的准入门槛仍然很高,但在其他领域,品牌和科技不再是阻挡新兴亚洲竞争对手的避风港。西方国家低收入工作所面临的威胁可能会减少。海尔中国工人的收入是美国工人的25%,自2000年以来增加了5%。相反的,广告文案、科学家和设计师这些人更有可能需要面对来自来亚洲的竞争。History suggests consumers will adapt fast. In 20 years, miracle cures for the old will come from Japan, the best web apps from India and couture from China. And cornflakes, once a cutting-edge food, will be rivalled by congee and dosas, sold in boxes by a global brand. Asian capitalism will change the world—even, maybe, what it has for breakfast.历史明,消费者需要迅速适应新情况。在未来20年,治愈老人的医疗奇迹将发生在日本,最好的网络应用程序来自印度,而高级时装则来自中国。玉米片这个一度被认为是高科技的食品,将被装在盒子里、贴着全球品牌的稀饭和印度薄饼所取代。亚洲资本将改变世界——甚至有可能是桌上的早餐。 /201406/306687
  • Business商业报道Entrepreneurs in Japan日本的企业家Time to get started到了该开始的时间了Shinzo Abe is giving new hope to Japans unappreciated entrepreneurs安倍晋三给了日本不被看好的企业家们希望IT BEGINS from now, tweeted Takafumi Horie, the former boss of Livedoor, an internet firm, two months after emerging from prison this spring.信息技术时代从现在开始, 堀江贵文说道。Mr Horie is involved in no fewer than 30 new companies, including a space-tourism venture.堀江贵文是门户网站活力门的前总经理,前两个月刚从监狱中被释放。If any of them grow to be big, Mr Horie, who was convicted of fraud in 2011, may show that a fallen Japanese entrepreneur can make a comeback.堀江贵文涉足于不少于30家的新公司,包括一家太空旅行企业。如果这些公司中的任何一家发展起来了,堀江贵文,这个曾在2011年被告有罪的企业家,将明一个失败的日本企业家可以东山再起。The mood among Japans would-be business moguls is at its most buoyant since the dotcom bubble burst a decade or so ago.由于十几年前的互联网泡沫的破裂,日本那些想要成为商业精英的人正怀着十分沉重的心情。A higher stockmarket is boosting the chances of a successful initial public offering.股票市场正在提高它首次成功公开募股的机会。The prime minister, Shinzo Abe, is Japans first leader to treat entrepreneurs as something more than greedy hustlers.安倍晋三首相,是日本第一位处理这些如贪婪的骗子般的企业家们的问题。For the past few years Mr Horie, a brash self-publicist, has been exhibit A in the case for holding that view.在过去的几年里,堀江贵文,一个傲慢又自我的公关,在那起案件中率先出示据来阐明自己的观点。But now Mr Horie says he is being welcomed back into the business world.但是现在,堀江贵文说他回到企业界这件事倍受欢迎。Mr Abes three-part plan to revive the economy, known asAbenomics, is designed to help start-ups as well as big business.安倍晋三复苏经济的三步计划被称为安倍经济复苏计划,是用来帮助新兴小企业和已有的大企业的。First came monetary loosening from the Bank of Japan, and a fiscal stimulus.首先是日本中央的货币放松政策,紧接着加大财政开。The third part, a series of reforms to boost long-term growth rates, includes radical deregulation in newspecial economic zones sp across the country.第三部分是一系列的刺激长期增长率的改革,包括在经济特区放松管制。If this pledge is honoured, many new opportunities could emerge for entrepreneurs in industries ranging from medical care to agriculture.如果这个经济计划成功了,很多给企业家的新机会就会大量的涌来,横跨医疗务业和农业。The reforms also involve pressing the banks to stop demanding onerous personal guarantees when entrepreneurs seek loans for their businesses.这个改革同时施压给,让停止向企业家索要大量的个人担保当企业家们想要为他们的企业借贷时。Most of all, Mr Abe admits, Japan needs to become more accepting of initial failure.最重要的是,安倍晋三承认,日本需要去接受首次失败。As a second-time prime minister after a disastrous first term, he is himself a comeback kid.作为一个第一次以失败告终,第二次登上首相位置的领导人,安倍晋三自己就是一个东山再起的例子。He reportedly described for guests at his home this summer how the young Walt Disney ran his business into the ground five times before he at last succeeded.有报道称,他这个夏天邀请客人到自己家中,并向客人描述年轻的华特迪士尼在最终成功前是怎样经历了五次失败的。Digital types were delighted when he attended a meeting of the Japan Association of New Economy, chaired by Hiroshi Mikitani, the founder of Rakuten, an online-commerce giant.数字类型企业很乐观,当安倍晋三参加新经济联盟的一个会议时。此次会议由三木谷浩史主办。Mr Mikitani has been brought in to advise the government on its deregulation efforts.三木谷浩史,日本乐天公司的创始人,一位网上贸易伟人。三木谷浩史建议过日本政府实行货币放松政策。For now, Japans vital signs on entrepreneurship are dire.现在,日本企业家的状况不容乐观。The overall number of firms is shrinking, and the rate at which new companies are born as a proportion of existing ones is less than half that in America and Britain.公司的总数正在大量减少,新公司的诞生率比英美的一半还少。In 2012 the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor, a survey by a group of universities, put Japan in joint last place out of 24 developed nations for levels of entrepreneurial activity.根据2012年的全球创业观察报告的一份调查显示,日本由于创业活动长期不景气的水平,被放到了24个发达国家之外。 Japans record on fostering new firms is worse even than continental Europes.日本的一份关于发展新兴企的报告结果甚至比欧洲大陆的还要糟糕。Just 6% of Japanese participants in the survey thought there were opportunities to start a business in their country, and only 9% believed they personally had the skills required.调查显示,只有6%的参与者认为在他们本国家日本创建新企业是有机会发展的,9%的人认为他们已经掌握了创建新企业所需要的技术。The equivalent figures for the French were 38% and 36%.相同的调查问题在法国的结果是38%和36%。Other Asians, in contrast, were bursting with optimism.相反地,在其他亚洲地区新兴企业的发展很乐观。That lack of ambition means venture-capital firms have few big payoffs to look forward to, with the result that there is a limited pool of cash available for those who do want to have a go at starting a business: a vicious circle that will be hard to break.抱负心的缺乏使得风险投资公司很难下定决心去投资,从而使得那些确实想要经营一家企业的企业家缺少现金持,这将会成为一个很难打破的恶性循环。Young Japanese firms attract around one-twentieth of the venture-capital money that start-ups in America pull in.新兴的日本公司会吸引二十分之一的新兴美国风投公司的资金投入。The outlook for creating new businesses could begin to improve if Mr Abe succeeds in leaning on the banks to stop demanding extensive debt guarantees.如果安倍晋三成功的让不再要求借贷企业家提供大量的借贷凭,创建新型公司的前景可能会有所发展。Now many would-be entrepreneurs, faced with the risk of losing their homes, give up before they start.现在,很多想要进入企业家行列的人由于会担有失去家的风险,所以他们在开始之前就放弃了。In the short term the reform may make capital a little scarcer as banks t cautiously.在短期内,此项改革会使得放出更少的资金投资,因为的每一步都会走的很慎重。But in the long run it could transform Japans attitude to entrepreneurship, says Yoshito Hori, the founder of GLOBIS, a business school.但是长期来看,这项改革将会改变日本人对企业家原有的态度,堀义人说道。堀义人,商业学校GLOBIS的创建人。The industry ministry is promising to provide generous funding with the aim of doubling Japans rate of business start-ups by 2020.工业部门保,他们会提供大量资金,让日本在2020年前实现新兴企业增长率变为两倍。To do that it will have to add another 100,000 start-ups to the current annual tally.为了实现这个目标,必须在当前的基础上,每年再增加100,000个的新兴企业才可以。However, its record on picking winners is not great:然而,挑选赢家的报告却不是很好:its bureaucrats famously tried to stop the young Sony importing transistor technology and Honda from moving into cars.官员们已经烦透了去阻止索尼进口三极管科技和本田公司转向汽车行业。So the risk is that it ends up backing many duds, draining the public coffers to little benefit.所以这样做的风险是,会对很多已有的企业不利,所得的利润也微乎其微。The mother-in-law factor岳母的因素There are other reasons to be optimistic.当然也存在着乐观原因。The success of the big firms born in Japans great period of post-war entrepreneurialism later discouraged graduates from joining newer ventures.大公司在日本战后鼎盛时期的成功诞生削弱了毕业生们加入这场商业冒险的想法。Experienced managers are seldom keen to leave large companies.有经验的管理者很少会离开大公司。Wives, mothers and mothers-in-law exert a strong influence on men not to join risky start-ups, says Yoshiaki Ishii, head of new-business policy at the industry ministry.妻子,妈妈,以及岳母给了男人们很大的影响,让他们不要踏入有风险的新兴企业,石井说道。石井,工业部门新兴企业的管理者。But the perceived balance of risk is shifting.但是这种感知到的风险正在转移。Many of the giants are struggling.很多的领袖搜在努力着。The cost of starting a firm is plunging thanks to cloud computing and other innovations.创建一家新企业的花费得益于云计算和其他一些创新。Mr Horie says he is financing his new ventures through crowdfunding networks such as Campfire.堀江贵文说,他正在通过群众募资网站为他的企业筹资,例如: 萤火网站。The government could help to remove plenty of other hurdles to entrepreneurship.政府可以帮助去除很多阻碍企业家精神的障碍。One difficulty for science and technology start-ups is that large Japanese firms have signed up exclusive rights for the bulk of university discoveries. 创业的科学技术难点之一就是日本的大公司会签约买下大量的大学研究成果。Small, disruptive firms are not usually able to access and develop them. And a widespnot invented here mindset stops established firms joining up with small ones to commercialise new ideas.这样子就会导致小公司无法很好的发展。一个广为流传的不要在这里起家的心态也使得公司不想要去和小公司合并。As a result many recent ventures—such as DeNA and GREE, two social-gaming operators—have been internet and software businesses that depend less on research, notes Daisuke Iwase, a founder of Lifenet, an online insurance firm.结果使得现在很多的企业—像DeNA和格力,两家社交类游戏经营公司—都经营着网络和软件这些不太依赖于调查的业务,一家网上保险公司救生网的创建人Daisuke Iwase阐述道。There is too much talent chasing after smartphone apps and social gaming, he says.继智能手机应用软件和社交类游戏之后,有太多类似的很棒的应用陆续出现,他说道。So, some experts have recommended forcing large firms either to develop the discoveries to which they have the rights, or else to pass them on.因此,一些专家建议,强制大公司继续买断大学研究成果,或者把研究成果转让。Japans entrepreneurs still feel vulnerable to sudden crackdowns, and fear they would be punished more harshly than big-business chiefs.日本的企业家们因为这样的制裁而身心疲惫,他们害怕自己会受到比这些大公司领导更为严厉的惩罚。Last year GREE unexpectedly found itself under investigation for possibly violating gambling laws.去年,格力公司意外地发现自己可能由于违反法律,而处于被监视状态。Its young, billionaire founder, Yoshikazu Tanaka, has since tried to ingratiate himself with the establishment:格力旗下年轻的亿万富翁田中良和试图让自己符合与公司制度:he now appears in a suit, not a T-shirt.现在,他在公司不穿体恤衫而改为西装了。In all, much has to change before Japan becomes a kinder place for those trying to create businesses.总而言之,在日本变得很适合创业者们生存之前,还有许多的改变需要去做。There is a risk that Abenomics fails and brings about quite a different sort of rupture in the corporate climate, says Jeffrey Char, an entrepreneur and investor.安倍经济复苏计划存在着失败的风险,这将会使得公司合作风气破裂,杰弗里查说道。杰弗里查是一位企业家,也是一位投资商。If the central banks radical monetary loosening is not followed by thorough deregulation and strong growth, the result could be a sovereign-debt crisis.如果中央的货币放松政策没有彻底的实施和强有的巩固的话,可能会导致严重的主权债务危机。In such a crisis many of Japans biggest firms could collapse, says Mr Char:在这样一种危机下,很多日本的大公司都将会瓦解,杰弗里查说道:that would leave people with no choice but to start their own businesses. Boosting entrepreneurship through reforms would certainly be less painful.这将会使人们没得选择,只能创建新公司。通过改革而刺激企业家精神明显是一个更好的选择。 /201309/255800
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