明星资讯腾讯娱乐2019年02月19日 00:08:34
Whatever happened to the human touch? If you believe the latest fad from the tech world, it won’t be long before we give up talking to real people and start talking instead to machines — or “bots”. Or it might be machines pretending to be people, or people pretending to be machines. The permutations of human and artificial intelligence are about to become interesting.人际互动到底发生了什么?如果你将科技界的最新时尚当真,过不了多久,我们将不再与真人对话,而开始与机器或者“机器人”交谈。或者,我们谈话的对象可能是假扮成人的机器人,或是假扮成机器人的人类。人类与人工智能之间的组合变化将变得越来越有趣。But if it works as advertised, we will move one step further beyond a world of direct human interaction towards a future when screens — and new ways of engaging with computer intelligence — govern much of our lives. For sheer convenience, it will be hard to resist. Less obvious is what might be lost in the process.但如果这样做的效果像宣传的那么好,我们将更进一步远离人际直接互动的世界,迈向一个由屏幕——以及与计算机智能交流的新方式——操控我们大部分生活的未来。如果纯粹为了便利,这种诱惑将难以抗拒。但较不易被察觉的是这个过程中我们可能失去什么。Facebook has just given this trend its biggest lift with the release this week of a way for companies to plug their bots into Messenger, its chat system. Want to know the weather? Ask a question and an intelligent agent will answer. Interested in buying something? Bots on hand will show you the latest offers and guide you through to the checkout.Facebook刚刚为这一趋势带来了史上最大幅度的提振,该公司上周发布了一种让企业将自己的机器人接入其聊天系统Messenger的方法。如果想了解天气,只需提问,智能机器人就会作答。如果你对购物感兴趣,身旁的机器人将向你展示最新报价,并指导你直到完成付款。If people take to the idea, entire call centres could be rendered obsolete. Why hold on waiting for a human when you can get an immediate response from a bot on your smartphone? The call-centre reps are operating from scripts anyway and these are interactions that could be programmed into a piece of software.如果人类接受这一理念,所有电话务中心将被淘汰。如果你可以立刻在自己的智能手机上得到机器人的回应,还有什么理由继续等待人工应答呢?反正电话务中心人员是按脚本应答,这些互动完全可以被编入一款软件。Whether the bots catch on will depend on not stretching the technology beyond its limits. Microsoft’s wayward chatbot Tay, the algorithm pretending to be an adolescent girl that started spouting racist comments on Twitter, is Exhibit A for what can go wrong. Most artificial intelligence is not very intelligent and when the main technique for training the new systems involves something called machine learning, it turns out that machines can be taught bad behaviour as well as good.要想让机器人受欢迎,必须不让这一技术走过界。微软(Microsoft)任性的聊天机器人Tay就展现了机器人可能出现怎样的错误,这个扮成一名青春期少女的算法程序已开始在Twitter上散布种族主义言论。大多数人工智能并不是很聪明,当培训新系统的主要技术涉及所谓的机器学习时,事实明,机器人既可能学好,也可能学坏。Not that the chatbots on Facebook are about to have a mind of their own and turn rogue. Most take a very limited approach to AI, using machine learning to “understand” the questions being put to them and returning largely pre-scripted answers. They try to identify a need, then draw you down a chain of conversation to a result.并不是说Facebook上的聊天机器人很快会有自己的思想,而且变得下流。大多数机器人的人工智能模式都很有限,它们利用机器学习来“理解”接收到的问题,并主要反馈预设的。它们尝试先确定需求,然后在和你交谈的过程中给出。Deeper levels of intelligence will also be on tap. But it is as likely to involve a human brain as one made from silicon. M, another Facebook chat service, relies on real people sitting in the background, returning answers, though to the user, it is not at all clear whether information is being generated by a person or a computer. As the machines become smarter they will take over more of the responses, eventually pushing human workers out of the loop altogether.更深层次的人工智能也将随时派上用场。但它既可能涉及硅脑,也可能涉及人脑。Facebook推出的另一款聊天务M,依靠真人坐在幕后反馈,不过对用户而言,他们根本不知道自己得到的信息是由人还是由计算机生成。随着机器人变得越来越聪明,它们将承担更多的应答务,最终将人工完全挤出反馈流程。The prospect of another layer of human interaction being lost to technology is bound to bring a pang of regret, not to mention a wave of concern about the impact on jobs. But then, who would want to give up ATMs and go back to queueing up for a bank teller? Most people won’t mind at all when the days of call-centre queueing have receded into history.人际互动在又一个层面上败于技术的前景必然会让人类感到痛惜,更不用说对影响就业的大量担忧。但谁愿意放弃自动取款机而回去排队等待柜员务呢?当排队等待电话务中心应答渐渐成为历史时,大多数人都不会介意。 /201605/445575One Japanese woman has proved that age really is just a number.一位来自日本的女性已经明,年龄真的只是一个数字而已。Masako Wakamiya learned how to use a computer at the age of 60 and now, at 81-years-old, she has released an app that shows people how to properly display traditional dolls for Hinamatsuri.若宫雅子在60岁的时候开始学习如何使用电脑,而今,81岁的她成功地发行了一款教人们怎样正确摆放传统娃娃雏祭的app。Wakamiya spent 43 years of her life leading in a bank in Japan and only started using computers at the age of 60, reports RocketNews24.据日本RocketNews24网站报道,若宫退休前曾在一家日本工作了43年,直到在60岁时才开始学习计算机技术。However, she is showing others that not all elderly individuals are afraid of technology and refers to herself as an ICT Evangelists, which stands for #39;information#39;, #39;communication#39; and #39;technology#39;.然而,若宫向世人明了,并不是所有的老年人都对科技望而生畏,她自诩ICT的倡导者,即“信息”(information)、“沟通(communication)”和“技术(technology)”。Wakamiya bought her first computer at the age of 60 and joined an online computer club to become more familiar with the technology – but this was after she setup and connected the computer to the web on her own.60岁的时候,若宫给自己买了第一台电脑,而后,为了更熟悉计算机技术,她加入了一个网上计算机俱乐部--这是在她自己将电脑设置好并连接到网上之后的事情了。After learning more about computers, Wakamiya came up with an Excel art that fills the cells with different functions that create patterns that produce colorful works of art – and now she is designing her own apps.在学了更多计算机知识之后,若宫创造出一种Excel艺术,就是在Excel表格中插入不同的函数公式,然后做出不同图案,最终创作出色斑斓的艺术作品。而现在,她已经在自主开发手机应用了。The app, called Hinadan, asks players to place 12 dolls in their respective positions on a standard display with four tiers.该应用程序名为“雏坛”,雏坛一共有四行,玩家必须将12个代表不同角色的娃娃摆放到各自的位置上。If you place the doll in the wrong spot, the app will play a #39;Boo#39; sound, but if it is correct, players should hear #39;Pon#39; and the sounds of a drum.如果把娃娃放在错误的地方,该程序将会发出嘘声,如果放对了,玩家就会听见“咚”的一下鼓声。The game will then finished once the dolls are arranged in their proper order, which is important to honor the traditional of Hinamatsuri, or Girl#39;s Day, which takes place on March 3rd.所有的娃娃都放到了正确的位置时游戏方告结束,在日本的传统里,雏祭人偶必须放到正确的位置。雏祭,又称女儿节,在日本每年三月三日进行庆祝。Although Wakamiya may break the stereotypes of most elderly individuals, a study does suggest that she is heading down the right path to avoid other health risks.虽然若宫可能与大多数老年人刻板的样子有所不同,但确实有研究表明,她这样的生活方式的确可以预防其它健康问题。A team at the Mayo Clinic in Arizona linked numerous activities with preserving brain power in the elderly – but logging on seems particularly effective.一个来自亚利桑那州梅奥医学中心的团队列举了多种保持老年人大脑活力的活动--但上网冲浪的效果好像尤为突出。The American study found that those who used a computer at least once a week were 42 percent less likely than those who didn#39;t to develop mild cognitive impairment, which is often a warning sign for dementia.这个美国团队的研究发现,那些每周至少使用一次电脑的人比那些从不用电脑的人患上认知障碍的几率要小42%。认知障碍一般是老年痴呆的前兆。 /201703/497093

  Yahoo has confirmed that it is the victim of a cyber security breach affecting at least 500m accounts, perhaps the largest in history. 雅虎(Yahoo)实,该公司遭遇也许是史上最大规模的的网络安全侵入,至少影响5亿账户。Data breaches of email and social media accounts, retail stores, health insurance companies and even governments are now routine. 如今,电子邮件、社交媒体账户、零售店、医疗保险公司、甚至政府的数据被窃已成家常便饭。The lesson to be learnt from the Yahoo breach may be that, when it comes to cyber security, we are not learning the right lessons.雅虎事件的教训或许是,在网络安全方面,我们没有汲取正确的教训。Following major breaches, companies often deflect responsibility by pointing the finger at state-sponsored actors, as Yahoo did. 在遭遇重大侵入后,企业往往将矛头指向国家持的黑客来躲避责任,雅虎正是这么做的。Certainly, states do engage in this kind of activity and in some cases leave enough of a trail to be blamed.政府肯定在从事这类活动,在某些情况下还留下了足够的痕迹,难以推脱责任。But there is also reason to be sceptical of Yahoo’s claim. 但人们也有理由怀疑雅虎的说法。Presenting breaches as nation-state attacks suggests that there was nothing the company could have done to defend its users. 将黑客侵入事件形容为国家发动的攻击,字里行间等于在说雅虎没办法捍卫用户隐私。It is better PR to blame a foreign intelligence service than for a company to admit it lacked basic security features. 企业指责外国情报机构,而不是承认自己缺乏基本的安全措施,显然是更好的公关战略。It also puts companies on a stronger legal footing against users who may seek to sue them.这也使企业面对可能起诉自己的用户在法律上处在更有力的地位。The trouble is that most cyber security breaches — including those by nations — exploit known vulnerabilities, such as where a patch was either not developed or deployed. 问题是,多数网络安全侵入——包括国家发动的侵入——利用的是已知的漏洞,比如针对漏洞的补丁尚未开发或应用。Most breaches are preventable yet attacks continue to increase in number and scale. 多数侵入都是可阻止的,然而攻击的次数和规模继续升级。The woeful state of cyber security is, simply, a market failure.简单地说,网络安全的糟糕状态是市场失灵的表现。The reasons are numerous and complex. 原因有很多,而且较为复杂。Consumers are unable to make informed judgments about security when choosing where to entrust their information. 当选择把信息委托给哪一方时,消费者无法对安全作出明智的判断。Companies hesitate to share cyber threat information with industry competitors. 企业不愿与业内竞争对手分享网络威胁信息。Threats are distributed such that the relative probability that any one company will be the victim of a breach remains low. 威胁的分布方式意味着任何一家企业遭遇侵入的相对几率仍然较低。The bottom line is that companies do not have adequate economic incentive to invest in security infrastructure.归根结底,企业没有足够的经济动机去投资网络安全基础设施。Governments must find ways to encourage companies to undertake more responsible practices. 政府必须找到方法鼓励企业采取更负责任的做法。One way will be by developing liability mechanisms to impose costs on organisations that fail to protect customers’ data. 一个方法是建立赔偿责任机制,对没能保护客户数据的组织施加惩罚。And where the consequences of cyber security breaches are especially dire — networked medical devices or autonomous vehicles, for example — governments will need to enact robust regulatory standards to ensure safety.同时,在网络安全侵入后果尤其可怕的领域——比如联网的医疗装置或自动驾驶汽车——政府需要实行健全的监管标准以确保安全。But companies are not the only problem. 但是企业并非唯一的问题。Consumers are largely unwilling to accept even minor inconveniences for better security. 消费者大多不愿为了提高安全而接受轻微的不便。Systems remain unpatched because individuals cannot be bothered to install updates. 系统一直没有装上补丁,因为用户懒得安装更新。Users chafe against imposed security measures like the rejection of weak passwords. 用户对拒绝脆弱密码的安全措施感到烦躁。Conscientious companies walk a fine line between encouraging customers to be safe and imposing burdens that individuals will circumvent with even more vulnerable workarounds, or running the risk of driving users to more convenient and less secure platforms.有责任心的企业在两大风险之间艰难把握平衡:一是鼓励客户保安全,加大安全负担,而人们会以更加脆弱的变通方法躲避这些负担,二是把用户赶到比较便利、但不那么安全的平台。Until we address failures at corporate and collective levels, the lesson of the Yahoo breach for the individual is that cyber security is every man for himself. 在我们解决企业和集体层面的问题之前,雅虎数据被窃事件对个人的教训是:网络安全是每个人自己的事。When people cannot rely on large companies to protect personal information, the only responsible approach is to presume breaches are inevitable and try to mitigate the damage. 当人们无法依靠大企业来保护个人信息时,唯一负责任的办法是假设数据被窃是不可避免的,然后尝试缓解损害。Not reusing passwords prevents a single attack from compromising multiple accounts. 不重复使用同一密码可以阻止单次攻击影响多个账户。Adopting two-factor authentication features reduces individual risk. 采用双重身份认可以降低个体风险。And users should consider what information to store and share online.同时,用户应该考虑在网上储存和分享什么信息。But ultimately self-help will fall short. 但是,自救终究不够。We have limited choice about what data about us are produced and stored and participating in modern society necessitates volunteering a great deal more. 对于有关我们的哪些数据被生成和存储,我们的选择有限,而参与现代社会意味着有必要自愿提供多得多的信息。Preventing large-scale data breaches is similar to countering disease epidemics — individual practices can protect us only so much and, where we are unable to wall ourselves off, large-scale institutional responses are required.阻止大规模数据泄露事件类似于抗击传染病——个体行为只能在一定程度上保护我们,当我们无法隔离自己时,便需要采取大规模的制度性回应了。 /201609/468912



  BACK UP YOUR PHONE备份手机数据If you do have to remotely wipe the phone#39;s data, it#39;s comforting to know that you won#39;t lose all your photos and other important data.备份的好处令人欣慰,就算您不得不抹掉手机数据,也不会丢光照片和其他重要数据。It#39;s helpful, too, if your toddler dunks your phone in a glass of water.熊孩子把你手机泡在一杯水里的时候,备份也派得上用场。As mentioned before, apps such as Find My iPhone and Android Device Manager will allow you to do this, provided you set them up ahead of time.如上所述,在事先备份的前提下,您可以通过“查找我的iPhone”和“安卓设备管理器”等应用恢复备份数据。KEEP YOUR SOFTWARE UP TO DATE更新软件Software updates often contain fixes to known flaws that might give hackers a way into your device.软件更新是为了修复旧版本中的缺陷和漏洞,将黑客入侵您手机设备的可能性降到最低。On iPhones, Apple prompts you to get the update. Alternatively, you can go to Settings, General and Software Update to check which version you are running.iPhone会自动提醒您更新系统。或者,您也可以通过“设置”-“通用”-“软件更新”栏目查看自己正使用的版本。It#39;s more complicated with Android because updates need to go through various phone manufacturers and wireless carriers first. But do install updates when asked.安卓系统的更新情况更为复杂,因为更新数据需要通过多家手机制造商和无线运营商完成。即便如此,也请在系统要求时更新软件。This also applies to apps. Keep them updated to make sure bugs and flaws can#39;t be exploited.这一建议同样适用于各种应用。务必保持更新,以防错误和漏洞被不法分子所利用。 /201605/440500






  Formula sun! Driver in China covers his tiny hatchback front to back in solar panels to cut back on petrol中国司机用太阳能板覆盖小的掀背车,减少汽油的消耗A driver in China is harnessing the power of the sun – by converting his tiny hatchback into a solar-powered car.中国一位司机把自己小的掀背车改装成太阳能车。 The small red vehicle has become a hit in Tianjin, a major port city in North China, after its owner fixed a number of solar-panels all over its body.车主在车身上安装了许多太阳能板,这辆红色小车在天津火了。But the motorist could not store and generate enough energy just by covering the car back to front – so he had to build a bizarre extension making his boot longer.然而,太阳能板如果只覆盖原有车身,收集的能量是不够用的,所以他给小车加长了 /201606/451984

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