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2019年02月19日 03:17:03 | 作者:大河指南 | 来源:新华社
My grandfather was born in Manchester in 1912. His parents had only recently arrived from Lithuania, and they soon moved on: after losing two children to scarlet fever in filthy industrial Manchester, they left for much healthier Rhodesia.我祖父1912年生于曼彻斯特,他的父母是来自立陶宛的新移民。很快,他们一家就再度远迁他乡:在两个孩子在这座污浊的工业城市死于腥红热后,他们移民到了环境健康得多的罗得西亚。Thanks to my grandfather#39;s birthplace, I was born British, though admittedly not very British. ;Birth in the district of West Mengo in the Republic of Uganda;, records my birth certificate, signed by a local official named Louis Mugonoki Kinkuheire Keitirima. We soon moved on, too. I grew up everywhere, and my children were born in Paris. Now Britain is refusing them citizenship. It seems my grandfather#39;s 15 minutes in Manchester weren#39;t sufficient to confer Britishness on generations of descendants.拜我祖父的出生地所赐,我生下来就是英国籍,但不可否认的是,我并不那么像英国人。我的出生明上写着;生于乌干达共和国West Mengo区;,明上还有当地一位名叫;Louis Mugonoki Kinkuheire Keitirima;的官员的签名。很快,我们也开始踏上移民的进程。在我的成长过程中,我的足迹遍及世界各地。我的孩子出生在巴黎。现在,英国拒绝授予他们英国公民身份。我祖父在曼彻斯特呆过的15分钟,似乎不足以让他的多代子孙获得英国国籍。So when it comes to emigration, I#39;m biased. We Kupers are serial migrants. However, it is objective fact that perhaps a third of young people in western countries should emigrate tomorrow. Now that emigration has become a cinch, it#39;s a no-brainer. Just go aly.因此,当谈到移民问题时,我的态度是有倾向性的。我们库柏家族属于“连环移民”。然而,一个客观事实是,或许西方国家三分之一的年轻人未来都应移民。既然移民已变成了小事一桩,那就没必要再考虑太多。尽管移吧。Emigration used to be hard. When my great-grandparents sailed to Africa, they probably knew it was for life. A bad choice was hard to rectify. In Argentina 20 years ago, just after South America#39;s ;lost decade;, I encountered a nation of nostalgic immigrants who seemed to feel they#39;d got on the wrong boat. They should have gone to the US instead.过去,移民曾经很是困难。我曾祖父母坐船到非洲时,他们大概清楚自己得一辈子呆在非洲了。当时,糟糕的选择是很难纠正的。20年前在阿根廷(当时南美刚刚经历了;失去的十年;),我所看到的是,这个移民国家的人民非常想回到过去,他们似乎认为自己上错了船——当初本应移民到美国。Sometimes the wrong choice was personal rather than political. A friend of my grandmother#39;s met a Czech refugee in wartime London. Postwar, she followed him to quiet, bourgeois Czechoslovakia. Then suddenly communism arrived. When she finally made it back to London in the 1990s, I commiserated with her on her decades behind the Iron Curtain. ;Oh, I didn#39;t mind the regime,; she said. ;It was my husband I couldn#39;t stand.;有时错误的选择涉及个人,而非国家。我祖母的一位朋友在战时的伦敦邂逅了一位捷克难民。战后,她跟随他去了宁静的资产阶级国家捷克斯洛伐克。但突然之间,共产主义来了。当她在上世纪90年代终于回到伦敦时,我对她在;铁幕;后度过的几十年表示了同情。“哦,我并不介意那个政权,”她说道,“我无法忍受的是我的丈夫。”In the old days, even emigrants who found happiness lost their homeland. An Italian consul in Rio de Janeiro once told me about the émigré Italians who showed up at the consulate every few years to renew their passports. Each time they returned, he said, they looked a little more Brazilian. Instead of ironed Italian shirts they#39;d come in vests, and eventually (here the consul winced) even shorts. I remarked that the consul himself, in his impeccable cream suit and bow tie, had remained Italian. ;I make a point of it,; he replied.过去,即便是找到幸福的移民也会失去祖国的印记。驻里约热内卢的一位意大利领事曾给我讲了一些在巴西的意大利移民的故事,这些意大利移民每隔几年就出现在领事馆,来更新他们的护照。领事说道,每次他们来领事馆时,都可以看出他们身上的巴西印记又深了几分。他们穿的不再是熨过的意大利衬衫,而是穿上了背心,最后竟然穿上了短裤(说到这里,领事皱了一下眉)。我说道,穿着极为得体的米色西装、系着蝶形领结的领事本人,仍然保持着意大利人本色。他回答道:“我是刻意穿成这样的。”People have emigrated since the first humans walked out of Africa, but since the 1990s emigration has changed its nature. It#39;s no longer forever. Nowadays, you get on a cheap flight, Skype your mother from the airport, and if you don#39;t like the place, fly home again.自人类首次走出非洲以来,就一直在移民。但上世纪90年代以后,移民的性质发生了变化,它不再是只能一条道走到黑了。如今,你可以登上一架廉价航班,在机场通过Skype与你妈妈聊天;如果你不喜欢那个地方,飞回家就是了。That#39;s why emigration is the right option for tens of millions today. About a fifth of young people in western countries are unemployed. In Spain and Greece, about half are. They could stick around at home, perhaps eventually find work, and then spend their careers paying for the previous generation#39;s pensions, healthcare and debt. Or they could emigrate. It is hard to make a start in Brazil, Canada or Germany, but the alternative might be watching TV in your parents#39; house for the next four years. Similarly, elderly Americans drowning in healthcare costs should consider hotfooting it to Britain or India pronto.这就是为什么现在对数千万人来说,移民才是正确的选择。在西方国家,约五分之一的年轻人没有工作。在西班牙和希腊,约一半的年轻人失业。他们可以呆在本国,或许有朝一日会找到工作,然后工作到退休、来为上一代人的养老金、医疗费用和债务埋单。或者他们也可以移民。在巴西、加拿大或德国,想要立足的确并非易事,但不走这条路的话,他们未来4年可能就只能呆在父母家里看电视了。类似的是,承担不起医疗费用的美国老年人也应考虑马上移民到英国或印度。Emigration is probably the quickest way of improving your career prospects, both now and for your lifetime. You make a new set of contacts. You learn survival skills. You probably learn a new language. The anthropologist Susan Ossman, author of the forthcoming Paths of Serial Migration, writes: ;The experience of moving from place to place without the aid of a multi-national, when one is not a diplomat, tends not only to build a person#39;s bureaucratic acumen. It opens up new geographic, linguistic and political spaces for action as well as contemplation.; Better still, it annoys xenophobes.移民或许是改善我们职业前景的最迅捷方式,无论对于现在还是对于你的一生来说都是如此。你会建立新的人际关系,学会生存技能,可能还会学会一门新的语言。人类学家、即将出版的新书《连环移民之路》(Paths of Serial Migration)的作者苏珊#8226;奥斯曼(Susan Ossman)写道:“如果某人不是外交官,又没有多重国籍的优势,那么他从一地移民到另一地的经历,带给他的往往不只是在与官僚打交道时能更加自如地应对。它还为行动和思考开辟了新的地理、语言和政治空间。”更妙的是,它还令仇外者感到头疼。Even when emigration is a bad experience, it#39;s a good experience: perhaps you desert your car at the airport, but if you#39;ve made friends then you can always trade with the country, move hither and back depending on the business cycle, and one distant day send your kids to bunk at a friend#39;s place across the water for free.甚至连不愉快的移民经历,也能成为有益的经历:或许你把你的汽车遗弃在了机场,但如果你在住在国交了朋友,你就可以永远与那个国家有贸易往来,依照商业周期在祖国和住在国之间来回迁移,在遥远的某一天把你孩子送到大洋彼岸的朋友家免费寄宿。There#39;s much speculation – often quite dark – about why Mormons and Jews tend to succeed in business. It might simply be because they emigrate. Jews typically cross borders fleeing persecution, while all young Mormon men are sent on a two-year ;mission;. Half go abroad, where they must learn the language, and then work six days a week trying to convert sceptical foreigners to a faith that bans not only alcohol but coffee, too. As many Mormon businessmen have noted, this is excellent preparation for business, and especially international business. L. Todd Budge, the first foreign chief executive of a Japanese bank, was once a Mormon missionary in Japan.关于门教徒和犹太人在商界为何往往混得很成功,人们有着很多猜测,这些猜测通常相当阴暗。然而,这可能只是因为他们属于移民人群。犹太人常常跨越边境逃避迫害,而门教的所有年轻男性教徒都要从事为期两年的“传教活动”。其中一半的人会远赴海外,在那里他们必须学习当地语言,然后每周工作6天,努力让持怀疑态度的外国人改信这种不仅禁止饮酒还禁止喝咖啡的宗教。正如很多门教商人指出的那样,这段经历为经商、特别是跨国经商做了很好的准备。L#8226;托德#8226;巴奇(L. Todd Budge)是一家日本的首位外籍首席执行官,他就曾经在日本传播过门教。In 1981, the British cabinet minister Norman Tebbit urged the unemployed to get on their bikes and find work. Today, they could get on their cheap flights. We are all Kupers now.1981年,英国内阁大臣谭百德(Norman Tebbit)曾力劝失业者骑上自行车去找工作。今天,他们可以搭廉价航班去找。现在我们全都是;库柏一族;。 /201206/185680

U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton faces a Chinese government and public increasingly skeptical of heightened U.S. strategic engagement in the Asian-Pacific region when she meets with Chinese leaders here. 美国国务卿克林顿(Hillary Clinton)在北京与中国领导人会晤之际,她正受到来自中国政府和民间对美国在亚太地区加强战略接触意图的日益强烈的质疑。 Mrs. Clinton was welcomed by Foreign Minister Yang Jiechi after she arrived in Beijing from Indonesia on Tuesday evening, the latest leg of a closely watched Asia-Pacific tour. The trip has once again underlined the Obama administration#39;s desire to refocus its foreign policy on Asia, a region critical to global economic growth yet fraught with territorial disputes, military build-ups and heightened nationalism. 周二晚间,克林顿从印度尼西亚飞抵北京,受到了中国外交部长杨洁篪的欢迎。北京是外界密切关注的克林顿亚太之行的最新一站。此次访问再次凸显了奥巴马政府把外交政策重新聚焦到亚洲的意愿。亚洲对于全球经济增长至关重要,但同时也存在领土争端、军备加强和民族主义情绪加剧的问题。 #39;We are committed to building a cooperative partnership with China; it is a key aspect of our rebalancing in the Asia-Pacific,#39; Mrs. Clinton told Mr. Yang, according to a State Department statement. 美国国务院的一份声明称,克林顿对杨洁篪说,美国致力于与中国建立合作伙伴关系,这是我们在亚太地区实现再平衡的一个关键方面。 Mrs. Clinton is also expected to meet with Chinese President Hu Jintao and Vice President Xi Jinping during her visit. Mr. Xi is expected to succeed Mr. Hu as Communist Party chief during a once-a-decade leadership transition beginning later this year. 预计克林顿将在访问期间与中国国家主席胡锦涛和副主席习近平会晤。外界预计,习近平将在今年晚些时候开始的10年一次的领导层换届选举中接替胡锦涛,担任中国共产党中央委员会总书记一职。 Among her most difficult tasks, Mrs. Clinton will likely press Chinese leaders over deepening territorial disputes with neighbors over portions of the South China and East China seas. Washington has repeatedly said it doesn#39;t take sides in territorial disputes but maintains an interest in protecting freedom of navigation in the region. 克林顿很可能就中国与邻国在南中国海(South China Sea, 中国称南海)和东中国海(East China Sea, 中国称东海)领土争议日益深化的问题上向中国施压,这是她此行最艰难的任务之一。美国政府曾反复声称,在领土争议问题上没有立场倾向,但是保护该地区的通航自由符合美国的利益。 The visit isn#39;t expected to spur diplomatic breakthroughs. Rather, it is viewed by diplomats and analysts as paving the way for a regional summit in November, where the U.S. and some territorial claimants will likely push to discuss territorial disputes in a multilateral setting. Beijing has resisted similar efforts in the past, and prefers handling disputes on a bilateral basis. 外界预计,这次访问不会带来任何外交上的突破。相反,外交和分析人士认为,这次访问旨在为11月份的一次区域性峰会铺路,美国和一些卷入领土争议的国家在这次峰会上将有可能促请在多边框架下讨论领土争议。中国政府过去曾经反对类似的努力,更倾向于通过双边渠道解决争议。 A barrage of commentaries in state media in recent days underscored mistrust of Mrs. Clinton#39;s strategy. Many in China fear the U.S. is attempting to contain China#39;s rapid economic and political ascent. 最近几日,中国国有媒体上接二连三的凸显了对克林顿战略的不信任。许多人担心美国正在试图遏制中国经济和政治地位的迅速上升。 The trip is possibly Mrs. Clinton#39;s last to Beijing as secretary of state. She is expected to step down from the position following November#39;s presidential election. 此次访问可能是克林顿作为国务卿最后一次访华。预计她将在今年11月的总统大选之后卸任。 #39;We hope Clinton can reflect upon the deep harm she is bringing to the Sino-U.S. relationship in the last few months before she leaves office and try to make up for it,#39; an editorial in the Global Times, a popular tabloid affiliated with the Communist Party#39;s flagship People#39;s Daily. 中国共产党的旗舰媒体《人民日报》主办的报纸《环球时报》(Global Times)发表的一篇文章说,我们希望克林顿在距离卸任还有几个月的时间内能够反思她为中美关系带来的严重伤害,并努力予以弥补。 The Chinese Foreign Ministry last month in a strongly worded statement questioned U.S. intentions in the region. A spokesman for the ministry sounded a cautious note ahead of Mrs. Clinton#39;s visit during a daily press briefing on Tuesday. 中国外交部上个月发表了一份措辞强硬的声明,对美国在该地区的意图提出了质疑。在克林顿访华前,外交部的一名发言人周二在每天例行记者会上语气谨慎。 #39;We hope the U.S. side can keep relevant promises and do more to boost regional peace and stability and not the opposite,#39; said Hong Lei, the ministry spokesman. 外交部发言人洪磊说:我们希望美方言行一致,多做有利于地区和平稳定的事,而不是相反。 During her visit, analysts say, Mrs. Clinton will be looking to balance pressing for China#39;s cooperation on regional hot-button issues with a need for China#39;s broader cooperation on wider diplomatic concerns over Syria and Iran. 分析人士说,在访问期间,克林顿会力求找到平衡,一方面要向中国施压,要求中国合作解决地区热点问题,一方面需要中国在与叙利亚和伊朗有关的更广泛的外交关切上参与更大范围的合作。 But Chinese analysts say there is concern among Chinese officials and the public that the U.S. is being disingenuous when it say its refocus on Asia isn#39;t designed to contain China#39;s influence, even as its strategy appears to increasingly be driving a wedge between China and some of its neighbors, including Vietnam and the Philippines. 但是,中国的分析人士说,中国官员和民众担心,美国声称重新关注亚洲并非意在遏制中国的影响力,这并不真诚,美国的战略看起来正在为中国和一些邻国的关系带来越来越严重的破坏,比如越南和菲律宾。 #39;Sometimes it#39;s not a matter of being soft or tough,#39; said Wu Xinbo, who researches U.S.-China relations at Fudan University in Shanghai. #39;It#39;s a matter of trust and credibility.#39; 上海复旦大学(Fudan University)研究美中关系的吴心伯说,有时侯并不是软硬的问题,而是信任和可信度的问题。 /201209/198333

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