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章贡区鼻部除皱价格百度助手

2019年02月16日 07:51:10 | 作者:导医互动 | 来源:新华社
Now there are more and more subatomic particles, but its still a hot, violent place. All this is happening in fractions of a second, too small to detect it, but the Big Bang is moving into a critical stage now, a titanic battle between matter and the one thing that can destroy the Universe before it even gets started, anti-matter.宇宙冷却后,次原子粒子越来越多,但是内部温度仍然很高,很不稳定。这一切都在短得无法探测的一瞬间完成。但是大爆炸正进入关键性阶段,将上演一场物质与反物质对抗的激烈战争,后者能在世界还没形成之前就将其摧毁。Everything in the Universe is made from matter, from the smallest rock to the largest star, and all the matter there will ever be was created from the pure energy of the Big Bang. Einsteins equation, EMC2, says that energy transforms into matter, but it was just a theory. Today science is able to test that theory.从最小的岩石到最大的星辰,宇宙中的每件事物都是有物质组成。所有物质将会一直存在,它们都是由大爆炸的纯能量转化而来。爱因斯坦的质能公式:EMC2,表示物质和能量可以互相转换,但当时这只是一个理论。如今科学家能够验这个理论。 This is CERN in Switzerland, home to the worlds largest machine. Its the size of a city and engineered to recreate the conditions millionths of a second after the Big Bang.这里是位于瑞士的欧洲核子研究中心,世界上最大的机器建于此地。这个大如城市的机器被用来模拟重现大爆炸后百万分之一秒时的环境条件。 ;If we wanna probe ever smaller scales, paradoxically we need an ever bigger machine. Theres just no other way of doing it. So big machine(s) means small physics, means early times and therefore getting closer and closer to the origin of Universe itself.;“说起来有点矛盾,如果我们想探测小尺度的时空,我们需要超大的机器。这只是以另一种方式来模拟。巨型机器才能模拟微粒子运动,才能回到时间之初,才能越来越接近宇宙的起源。”This monster machine is called the collider. Its designed to take us back to those first fractions of a second after the Big Bang. Its a 12-foot wide, concrete-lined circular tunnel, 17 miles around.这个巨型机器被称作粒子对撞机,它旨在模拟大爆炸后那短短的一瞬间。粒子对撞机建在宽12英尺,,周长17英里的圆形混凝土隧道内。The collider makes tiny particles of matter smashing into each other at almost the speed of light. For a split second, those collusions generate turbo-charged energy similar to the explosive force of the Big Bang.粒子对撞机能给微小的粒子束加速,使其以接近光速的速度进行对撞。瞬息之间,粒子束对撞产生了涡轮增压式能量,与大爆炸的爆炸力相似。201205/183370Yael:Whats the matter, Don? You look worried.雅艾尔:发生什么事了,唐?你看起来很担忧。Don:Well, Yael, you know how people are always predicting that one day women will be able to have babies without men? It turns out that some species of the Whiptail lizard have figured out how to do this and completely eliminated the male sex.唐:嗯,雅艾尔,人们通常预测,如果有一天没有男人,女人也可以自己生孩子,你知道是怎么回事吗?事实明鞭尾蜥蜴已经做到这一点,并将雄性蜥蜴完全消灭掉了。Yael:You mean that the species is all female?雅艾尔:你是说所有的鞭尾蜥蜴都是雌性?Don:Exactly. The females have the ability to lay eggs that hatch and grow into healthy lizards without needing to be fertilized by a male. The offspring are exact and complete genetic duplicates of the mothers.唐:正是这样。雌性鞭尾蜥蜴能不通过受精就产卵并孵化出健康的小蜥蜴。而其后代的基因与母亲的基因完全一致。Yael:So the females are cloning themselves.雅艾尔:那么说雌性蜥蜴是在克隆自己。Don:Thats right. And if that werent enough, the female lizards take turns role-playing. They perform a mating ritual in which one lizard acts like the male, and the second lizard acts like the female. The ritual causes the lizard acting as the female to ovulate and lay her eggs. Then, a few weeks later, the two lizards switch roles and repeat this process so that the second female will be able to ovulate and lay her eggs.唐:说得对。如果那样还不够的话,雌性蜥蜴会轮流进行角色扮演。她们进行一个交配仪式,其中一个扮演雄性,另一个扮演雌性。这种仪式会引起扮演雌性角色的蜥蜴排卵并产卵。然后过几个星期,两只蜥蜴再交换角色,重复这种交配仪式,这样另一只雌蜥蜴就可以排卵,产卵了。Yael:That is strange.雅艾尔:太奇怪了。Don:And it raises a lot of interesting questions. For example, its not clear how well an all-female species can evolve and adapt to environmental changes. A species survival depends in part on variation among its members. If all the members of a species are identical, chances are greater that something like a change in the climate or a disease will wipe them all out.唐:这也引发了许多有趣的问题。例如,对于这种全雌物种如何更好地进化以适应环境变化目前还不清楚。一个物种的生存要部分依靠成员的变异。如果所有的成员基因都一模一样,那么一遇到气候变化或者灾害,她们全军覆没的机会就很大。Yael:So it might be a little early to do away with males.雅艾尔:所以排除雄性还为之过早。Don:Well, you know what they say. You cant live with them.唐:嗯,你知道她们是怎么说的。你没办法和他们一起生活。Yael:You cant live without them.雅艾尔:但你的生活不能没有他们。原文译文属!201207/189587The Strength of Spinach?菠菜的神力?Don: Yaeuml;l, have you ever heard of Popeye the Sailorman? Whenever he is getting beaten up he eats some spinach and becomes really strong. His muscles bulge out and everything.你有听说过大力水手波沛吗?每次他被痛打的时候,他就会吃菠菜,吃完了之后他就变得非常强壮——肌肉凸出,一切的一切,变得好强壮啊!Yaeuml;l: I do burst your bubble Don. But eating spinach has nothing to do with strength.Don,我可就要打破你的幻想了!吃菠菜与变得强壮根本就没什么联系。D: Popeye is a lie?波沛是一个谎言?Y: Not a lie, exactly. See, some time in the 1920s it was reported that a half cup of cooked spinach has thirty-four milligrams of iron, which is a lot. Iron is important because it carries oxygen in the blood. We need oxygen for energy; without enough of it people become weak and tired.确切地说,不是谎言。在上世纪20年代,有报道称,每半杯已烹饪菠菜含有34毫克铁元素,含量相当的高。由于在血液中的运氧功能,铁元素颇为重要。氧是人类的动力之源——一旦缺氧,人类便会变得虚弱、易疲乏。D: So spinach does make you strong, or at least puts extra pep in your step.因而,菠菜确实能让人强壮——至少能积存下多余的精力。Y: Well, it might if it did have much iron. It turns out that the thirty-four milligrams was a typo. A half cup of cooked spinach really has only three point four milligrams of iron. Plus, spinach is actually worse than other iron-containing vegetables because it has a chemical that blocks most of its iron from being absorbed by the blood.But when the typo was published the idea caught on that spinach was a muscle-building vegetable. That’s where the idea for Popeye came from.嗯,如果铁元素的含量很多的时候确实如此。事实明,那34毫克的铁元素是排版的错误——每半杯已烹饪菠菜仅含3.4毫克铁元素。再者,事实上菠菜还不如其他含铁的蔬菜好。原因在于,菠菜含有一种化学物质会大大的阻碍铁元素被血液吸收。但是,当34毫克的“版本”出来的时候,人们就认定了菠菜有助于肌肉的塑成。这就是大力水手波沛的得来呐!D: So now I have to came up with another point.那么也就是说,我得重去找其他的方法啦!Y: Or, how about just being happy with who you are!抑或,就高高兴兴的做你自己!D: Or, maybe Ill learn koradji.或者,我还可以去学巫术!Y: Whatever!这个就要看你自己啦! /201211/208241

Science and Technology Stress and ageing A question of attitude科技 压力和老化 一个态度问题The link between chronic stress and a marker of old age is being disentangled科学家发现了长期压力与一个衰老标志间的联系TELOMERES are to chromosomes what plastic caps are to shoelaces—they stop them fraying at the ends.端粒(染色体终端)之于染色体,如同塑料帽之于鞋带——它们阻止了其末端的磨损。Unlike shoelaces, though, chromosomes replicate themselves from time to time as the cells they are in divide.和鞋带不同的是,随着它们所在细胞的分裂,染色体可以不断进行复制。This shortens the telomere and, after 50-70 such divisions (a number known as the Hayflick limit, after its discoverer),这种复制过程使端粒不断缩短,并且,在经过50到70次的细胞分裂后(这个分裂数目称之为海弗利克界限,因海弗利克的发现而得名),a chromosome can grow no shorter and the cell it is in can divide no more.染色体的缩短达到极限,细胞分裂活动也从此终止。That provides a backstop against cancer. The rapidly dividing cells in a tumour soon hit the Hayflick limit and the process is brought to a screeching halt.这一机制有助于对抗癌症。快速分裂的细胞不久就会到达其海弗利克界限,使得该过程能够急刹车。这是个好现象。Which is a good thing. The bad thing is that reaching the limit is one of the markers of old age.不利之处则是,细胞到达复制次数的极限是老化的标志之一。You do not want it to happen too quickly, particularly in tissues that have to do a lot of dividing in order to work properly, such as those in the immune system.人们不想让这个过程发生的太快,尤其对于那些需要不断分裂才能够得以正常运作的组织而言,例如免疫系统组织。It has been known for some time that chronic stress (caring for a child with a protracted illness, for example) causes premature shortening of the telomeres.人们已经得知,长期的压力(例如,照料一个疾病迁延不愈的儿童)可以使端粒的缩短提前发生。What has not been clear is whether this is a one-way trip, with each stressful period turning the telomeric ratchet irreversibly.然而人们对于该过程是否单向进行(即压力时期对端粒的改变作用不可逆转)尚不明确。This week, though, at a meeting of the American Association for Cancer Research in Orlando, Florida, a group of researchers led by Edward Nelson of the University of California, Irvine, showed that it isnt.然而,本周在美国癌症研究学会于佛罗里达州奥兰多召开的会议上,加州大学尔文分校由爱德华?尼尔森领导的研究团队发现,这一过程是可逆的。Their research suggests that stress management not only stops telomeres from shortening, it actually promotes their repair.他们指出,抗压力训练不仅可以组织端粒缩短,也可以促进其修复。Dr Nelson drew this welcome conclusion from a previous study that measured the impact of telephone counselling on women who had been treated for cervical cancer.尼尔森士通过对接受宫颈癌治疗的妇女电话咨询影响作用的研究,得出了这一可喜的结论。The study found that such counselling worked, both mentally and physically.他们之前的研究发现,咨询在心理和生理上都产生了作用。Women who had been counselled reported that the quality of their lives had improved, compared with those of a control group who had not been counselled.接受咨询的妇女报告其生活质量得到提高(与未接受咨询的对照组相比)。They also showed improvements in the strength of their immune systems.她们还显示出免疫系统功能的增强。Given those benefits, Dr Nelson wondered if he could find others, and he re-examined the participants samples to look at the lengths of the telomeres in their white blood cells (red cells have no nuclei, and therefore no chromosomes).由于咨询的上述益处,尼尔森士想知道该研究是否能有更多的发现。他重新检查了被试的血液样本,试图获得白细胞端粒长度的信息(红细胞没有细胞核,因此没有染色体)。What he found surprised him. Not only did counselling stop telomere shrinkage, it actually promoted telomere growth.研究发现令他十分惊讶:咨询不仅阻止了端粒的缩短,同时促进了端粒的生长。Those women for whom counselling had worked (ie, those who reported a decrease in emotional stress) had longer telomeres at the end than they did at the beginning.那些报告咨询产生效果的妇女(例如,报告情绪压力降低)其咨询后的端粒长度大于咨询前。Their Hayflick countdowns were being reset.她们的海弗利克倒计时得到了重新的设置。A single such result must, of course, be treated with caution.当然,我们应该谨慎看待单个研究的结论。But another study reported at the meeting, by Elizabeth Blackburn of the University of California, San Francisco (who shared the Nobel prize for the discovery of the enzyme that repairs telomeres), gave some support.但该会议上另一个来自加州大学旧金山分校伊丽莎白?布莱克本(她由于发现了端粒的修复酶而与其他研究者共同获得诺贝尔奖)的报告也给出了一些持据。This showed that exercise has a similar effect to counselling on the telomeres of the stressed.她们发现锻炼和咨询对压力个体的端粒有相似的作用。If Dr Nelsons work is successfully replicated, it will shine more light on the ill-understood relationship between the health of the mind and the health of the body.如果尼尔森士的研究得到成功的重复,将会为理解神秘复杂的身心健康关系点燃新的希望。For, as he points out, nothing actually changed in the lives of the women in question.就像他所指出的那样,这些妇女的生活没有任何变化。They still had cancer, albeit under treatment, and they were still under stress. Nothing, that is, except their attitude.尽管接受治疗,她们仍身患癌症,并处于压力之中。唯一改变的,就是她们的态度。 /201212/214209

Beetle: Stronger than Hulk?甲虫强过绿巨人?As we know from the movie, the Hulk is a guy who, when he gets angry, turns into the strongest, meanest creature on earth. The natural world features a few amazingly strong creatures of its own. In fact, the pound-for-pound strongest creature on earth is . . . drum roll please…看过电影《绿巨人》的都知道,每当班纳尔生气时,就会失去自我意识,变身成为地球上最强壮最具破坏力的生物-绿色巨人。其实,在自然界中,也有一些这样具有超凡力量的生物。这种实打实的地球最强生物就是——请击鼓......The rhinoceros beetle?犀牛甲虫?Is it possible that a little old beetle, an insect, can bear more weight than, say, an elephant? Of course not, but when it comes to proportional strength, the rhinoceros beetle is second to none. Elephants, after all, can only carry around 25% of their own weight. The rhino beetle can carry a whopping 850 times its own weight on its back.这么丁点大的小甲虫可以负重超过大象吗?当然不能,但是,如果是按体重和负重量的比例来算,犀牛甲虫可是当之无愧的冠军呢!毕竟,就算是大象也只能载动自身体重的四分之一左右,而我们小小的犀牛甲虫却能载动超过体重八百五十倍的东西呢!Why are rhino beetles so strong? First, these beetles are nearly an inch long and packed with powerful muscles. Second, they generally have at least three legs touching the ground at all times. This gives these beetles the extraordinary balance and leverage that enable them to lift heavy objects.那么犀牛甲虫为什么如此强大呢?首先,这种甲虫体短,只有一英寸长,但却浑身是强健的肌肉。其次,通常它能够做到至少三只脚同时着地,这就使得它具有超凡的平衡力和撑点来抬起重物。Since they live in tropical jungles along the equator, rhino beetles have to be strong to forage through the jungle floor. Named for the rhinoceros-like horn on its head, the rhino beetle uses its horn and proportional strength to move aside branches and other debris in search of food.因为犀牛甲虫生活在赤道附近的热带丛林,因此,它不得不足够强壮才能在炽热的地表搜寻到食物。正因为犀牛甲虫的角酷似犀牛角,所以它才叫做犀牛甲虫。犀牛甲虫利用自己的角和力量来移开树枝和其它障碍物来搜寻食物。Rhino beetles are neither ferocious nor particularly dangerous. They eat rotting fruit and sap, and despite their fierce horned appearance do not bite or sting when handled. These gentle insects may not be hulk-like in demeanor, but their strength might turn other creatures green with envy.犀牛甲虫既不残忍也不危险。它们食用的是腐烂的水果和树的汁液,即便它们的角及其锋利,但当你抓住它时它也不会叮咬你。因此,这些温柔的昆虫行为举止绝对不会像恐怖的绿色巨人,但是,恐怕它们强大的力量会轻而易举地让其它生物妒忌的两眼发红吧! /201302/224042

Science and Technology科技Art criticism and computers艺术和计算机Painting by numbers数字图画Digital analysis is invading the world of the connoisseur数字分析正侵蚀艺术品鉴赏界JUDGING artistic styles, and the similarities between them, might be thought one bastion of human skill that machines could never storm.对艺术风格,跟他们之间的相似之处的评价,可能被认为是一块机器无法侵犯的人类技艺圣地。Not so, if Lior Shamir at Lawrence Technological University in Michigan is correct.并非如此,加入密歇根州老孙死理工大学的Lior Shamir没错的话。A paper he has just published in Leonardo suggests that computers may have just as good an eye for style as humans do-and, in some cases, may see connections between artists that human critics have missed.他刚刚在李奥纳多发表的一篇文章之处电脑的眼力可能不必人类差——而且,某些情况下,电脑甚至能够发现一些家忽略的,艺术家之间的相似之处。Dr Shamir, a computer scientist, presented 57 images by each of nine painters-Salvador Dali, Giorgio de Chirico, Max Ernst, Vasily Kandinsky, Claude Monet, Jackson Pollock, Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Mark Rothko and Vincent van Gogh-to a computer, to see what it made of them.Shamir士,一位计算机专家,将Salvador Dali, Giorgio de Chirico, Max Ernst, Vasily Kandinsky, Claude Monet, Jackson Pollock, Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Mark Rothko和 Vincent van Gogh九位画家的每人57幅作品扫描到计算机中,看看它能得出什么。The computer broke the images into a number of so-called numerical descriptors.于是电脑将图像分解为许多所谓的数字描述符。These descriptors quantified textures and colours, the statistical distribution of edges across a canvas, the distributions of particular types of shape, the intensity of the colour of individual points on a painting, and also the nature of any fractal-like patterns within it (fractals are features that reproduce similar shapes at different scales; the edges of snowflakes, for example).这些符将质地和颜色量化,帆布的边缘的统计分布,特定种类的形状的分布,一幅作品上独立的点的颜色的深浅,还有任何蕾丝不规则碎片的本质,不规则碎片是指大小不同形状相似的特质,比如雪花的边缘。All told, the computer identified 4,027 different numerical descriptors.结果,电脑总共确认了4027种不同的符。Once their values had been established for each of the 513 artworks that had been fed into it, it was y to do the analysis.一旦它们对于这513件被反哺给电脑的每件艺术品的价值被确立,计算机马上可以开始分析。Dr Shamirs aim was to look for quantifiable ways of distinguishing between the work of different artists.Shamir士的目的事项寻找区分不同艺术家作品的可量化的方法。If such things could be established, it might make the task of deciding who painted what a little easier.如果上述事实能够被实成立,区分各个画家的作品的工作将会简单一点儿。Such decisions matter because, even excluding deliberate forgeries, there are many paintings in existence that cannot conclusively be attributed to a master rather than his pupils, or that may be honestly made copies whose provenance is now lost.这样的决定对我们很重要,因为即使是在排除有意伪造之后,任然有许多作品不能被确认出自某位画家,而非他的学生,或是某个出处无可探寻的逼真的复制品。To look for such distinguishing features, Dr Shamir programmed the computer to use a statistical method that scores the strength of the distance between the values of two or more descriptors for each pair of artists.为了寻找这种能有助于区分的特质,Shamir士设法使计算机能利用一个统计学方法来评价用来比较每两位画家的两个以上的描述符的价值之间距离的大小。As a result, he was able to rank each of the 4,027 descriptors by how useful it was at discriminating between artists.最后,他就能根据描述符分辨艺术家的能力来给它们打分。Surprisingly, the values of 19 of the 20 most informative descriptors showed dramatically higher similarities between Van Gogh (left below) and Pollock (right) than between Van Gogh and painters such as Monet and Renoir, who conventional art criticism would think more closely related to Van Goghs oeuvre than Pollocks is. (Dali and Ernst, by contrast, were farther apart then expected.)令人吃惊的是,在提供的消息最有用的20种描述符中,有19种显示出梵高和波洛克作品之间的相似度,要远远高于梵高和像莫内和雷诺瓦的画家之间,而传统的家认为后者的作品与梵高作品更接近。相反地,达利和恩斯特的作品的差距却比预期要大。What is interesting, according to Dr Shamir, is that no single feature makes Pollocks artistic style similar to Van Goghs.有趣的是,Shamir士指出,没有一个特质能单独明波洛克的艺术风格与梵高的相似。Instead, the connection is based on a broad set of image-content descriptors which reflect many aspects of the two artists styles, including a shared preference for low-level textures and shapes, and similarities in the ways they employed lines and edges.相反,他们的联系是在长长的一系列反映了这两名画家的许多艺术风格的图像内容符的基础上形成的,风格中包括,他们都偏爱低档面料跟外形,他们勾勒线和边的方式相似。What was intended, then, as a way of improving the ability to distinguish between different hands has also thrown up a new way of looking for stylistic similarities.于是,原本用来宜于区分不同画家的作品的方法,也能用来寻找艺术家的不同风格。Whether Pollock was actually influenced by Van Gogh, or merely happened upon a similar way of doing things through a similar artistic sensibility, is not clear.虽然波洛克实际上到底是受到了梵高的影响,还是仅仅是由于在处在相似的艺术风气下,不得而知。But it gives art historians a new line of investigation to pursue.但是它给艺术历史学家提供了一条新的线索。 /201211/210030

ON MARCH 15th the former governor of Illinois, Rod Blagojevich, will start to serve a 14-year sentence for corruption in a federal low-security prison. In this part of America, he is ting a well-worn path. Over four decades, four governors (out of seven) have been convicted of corruption.伊利诺斯州前州长罗德bull;布拉格耶维奇因在联邦低安全级别监狱中工作腐败,于3月15日开始为期14年的刑罚。在美国的这个地区,他走过了一条曲折的道路。在过去的四十年中,4个州长(共有7个)都因腐败而被定罪。A new report, by Dick Simpson and his colleagues at the University of Chicago, documents the extent to which the state of Illinois and the city of Chicago have been hotbeds of corruption. Chicago, they conclude, has the dubious distinction of being the federal district with the most convictions since 1976.在芝加哥大学迪克bull;辛普森和他的同事们一份新的报告中,他们描绘了作为滋生腐败的温床伊利诺斯州和芝加哥已经到了何种程度。他们宣称,从1976年开始芝加哥就很可能是美联邦中高犯罪率地区,而它也因此显著区别与其他地区。Since then, 1,828 elected officials, appointees, government employees and a few private individuals have been convicted of corruption in Illinois, and 84% of these were in its Northern District;a judicial zone which contains the entire Chicago metropolitan area. During this time around one-third of the cityrsquo;s aldermen have been convicted of corruption. No mayors have been convicted or indicted;not even Bill Thompson, who was backed by Al Capone.从那之后,1828名选举官员、指派官员、政府雇员和一小部分私人个体都因在伊利诺斯州实施腐败而被治罪。他们中的84%都来自于州北部地区;;这是一块包含芝加哥所有繁华区域的司法区。如今整个城市已经有1/3的商人都被定为腐败罪。没有一个市长因腐败被定罪或起诉,甚至在阿尔bull;卡彭持下的比尔bull;汤普森也不例外。Although Chicago is the capital of corruption, the state of Illinois as a whole ranks only third in the country;after the much more populous states of New York and California. But the report documents a pattern of crime that has become synonymous with the Chicago or Illinois ;way; of doing things. All the corrupt governors and 26 of the aldermen had tried to extract bribes from builders, developers, business owners and those seeking to do business with the city or the state. Those who paid bribes either assumed, or were told, that payment was necessary for zoning changes, building permits or any other government action.虽然芝加哥身为腐败之都,但是伊利诺斯州在全国的腐败排名位居第三;;纽约州和加利福尼亚州在这点上更为众望所归。不过报告中描述了一种犯罪方式,这种方式与芝加哥和伊利诺斯州行事方式有相似之处。所有行为腐败的市长和市参议员(市议会长老议员)都曾向建筑商、发展商、大商人以及意欲与城市或者州进行生意交易的人索取过贿赂。这些被索取贿赂的人认为,也有其他人告诉他们,那些作为贿赂的钱财都是为地区改变、建筑许可或是其他任何政府行为所必须的。Mr Blagojevich, notoriously, sought money in exchange for an appointment to a seat in the Senate. Other convictions may have been less spectacular, but the pattern of pay-offs for political favours has prevailed in these parts for 150 years.布拉格耶维奇寻找钱财为了在议会中享有一席之地的事情已经臭名昭著。他的其他罪名没有这么严重,但是通过金钱来交换政治这种方式已经在这个地区盛行了150年了。A project under way by the State Integrity Investigation, due out on March 19th, notes that some changes have been made in the light of past scandals. Mr Simpson thinks the ultimate solution lies in ending the culture of corruption, which would include prohibiting patronage (something he says is on the decline anyway), nepotism and the holding of two government jobs at the same time.国家正义调查局正进行一个于3月19号结束的项目,他们发现在过去的丑闻影响下,一些变化悄然兴起。辛普森先生认为禁止任命职务(他说这个已经在不断减少)、任人唯亲以及同时就职于政府两个职位,这才是断绝腐败问题的最终解决方案。Corruption has cost taxpayers hundreds of millions of dollars and sapped faith in government. Both the new governor of Illinois, Pat Quinn, and the new mayor of Chicago, Rahm Emanuel, have shown a willingness to reform. Many of Mr Emanuelrsquo;s early executive orders are designed to improve transparency and accountability. But Mr Simpson says too many loopholes remain. The devil, as ever, is in the detail.腐败问题以纳税人数以百万计的金钱作为代价,并且使得公众丧失了对政府的信任。伊利诺斯州的新州长奎恩和芝加哥的新市长拉姆bull;伊曼纽尔都表示了改革的决心。伊曼纽尔先生早期的行政命令也意在提高政府行政的透明度和信任感。但是辛普森先生说这个体制还是有太多的漏洞,而最终的魔鬼,仍然是在细节上。201203/173109

Frozen Smoke固体烟Male:Whats as light as smoke but strong as a brick?什么东西既可以跟烟一样轻,又可以跟砖块一样重?Female:Im gonna take a while guess and say... aerogel?让我想会儿……气凝胶?Male:Sorry,yaoyao,the answer is... Wait a second! Did you say aerogel? How did you know?瑶瑶,不好意思,是……等等!你说的是气凝胶吗?你是怎么知道的?F:Yeap! Did you know that aerogel is the lightest solid on earth?是的!你知道气凝胶是地球上最轻的固体吗?M:I was going to tell you that.我刚刚正要告诉你呢!F:Another cool thing is that it starts out as a kind of chemical Jello. Then the gel is dried in a powerful pressure cooker and emerges as a very lightweight, dry, sponge-like material that looks like frozen smoke.了不起的是,气凝胶开始是作为一种化学凝胶物的。然后胶体在压力很强的锅里变干,成为了一种重量很轻、很干燥、类似海绵状,看起来像固体烟雾的物体。M:OK! Did you know that aerogel is ninety-nine-point-eight percent air?是的!那你知道气凝胶中99.8%都是空气吗?F:Sure.That was in your notes.And its incredibly light-one thousand times less dense than glass. But its also really strong and an excellent insulator.知道啊!你的笔记中有的!气凝胶相当的轻,轻到密度只有玻璃的千分之一。但它也很结实,是几号的绝缘体。M:Is there anything you dont know about aerogel? For instance,scientists are using it to try to capture dust particles from the tail of a comet. When the particlesslam into an aerogelpanel aboard a space probe, theyll bury themselves inside and leave visible trails. Since aerogel is mostly air, it wont damage the particles.关于气凝胶,你还有什么不知道的吗?比如说,科学家正在试图用它捕捉彗星经过的微尘。当(微尘)颗粒猛烈撞击到航空探测器上的气凝胶板时,它们将会自然,从而留下可见的痕迹。因为气凝胶差不多等同于空气,并不会破坏(微尘)颗粒。F:Actually, I know that too.其实这个我也知道! /201208/197050

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