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宁都县中医院冰点脱毛多少钱

2018年12月19日 11:41:02 | 作者:普及诊疗 | 来源:新华社
Forensics辩论术/ 法医学A murder has been committed. The scene of the crime is a secluded area. There were no witnesses, and the body is considerably decayed.有一场凶手案。凶案现场是一个隐蔽的地方,没有目击人,尸体也严重腐烂了。As the chief investigator, you have a suspect who was in town a week ago. But to convict him, youll need to know the date and time that the victim was murdered. How can you tell? And besides, whats that annoying buzzing in your ear? Wait, dont swat that fly! Hes your star witness. In fact, that little fly just told you the date of the crime!身为首席侦查员,你在一周前就在镇子里有一个怀疑对象。但是要明其有罪,你需要知道受害人被害的日期和时间。你要怎么说呢?除此之外,你耳朵里那些恼人的嘈杂声又是什么呢?等等,不要拍打这只“苍蝇”,它就是你的重要目击人。事实上,这只小苍蝇就告知了你犯罪日期。Flies dont carry pocket calendars, and they cant testify before a jury. How can a crime-scene insect help a police investigation? By doing what it naturally does—eating and laying eggs.苍蝇并没有在兜里自带日历,它们也不能在陪审团面前作。那一只在犯罪现场的虫子是怎样帮助警察调查的呢?通过它们正常的方式—— 食用(尸体)并产卵。When someone dies outdoors, the first investigators on the scene are usually bright greenbottle blowflies. Attracted by the smell of decaying flesh, these usually arrive within ten minutes of the death. While this smell might make us retch, for the blowfly its as savory as grandmas apple pie. The blowflys scientific name is ;Sarcophagi;, which means ;corpse eater;.当一个人死于户外时,到现场的第一批侦查员通常都是亮亮的绿头苍蝇。他们被正在腐烂的肉味所吸引,通常在死亡后十分钟内就到来了。这些(腐肉)气味或许会令我们作呕,但对于绿头苍蝇来说他们就像是外婆做的苹果派一样可口。绿头苍蝇的学名是“Sarcophagi(中文意思为“石棺”)”,意思是“尸体食用者”。While they eat, the blowflies lay eggs in the softer parts of the body, and these hatch into maggots twenty-four hours later. These maggots attract other insects, like the predatory rove beetle(隐翅虫), who feast on them. And so on. Wave after wave of hungry insects arrive, marking time as accurately as a clock.这些苍蝇一边嗜(尸体),一边在尸体较软的地方产卵,然后这些卵又会在24小时后会孵化称蛆。蛆又会引来其它的昆虫,比如说以蛆为食的肉食型隐翅虫等。饥饿的昆虫们一波接一波的到来,时间精准的跟时钟一样。Meanwhile, the blowflies follow their natural life cycle. Maggots become pupae, the pupae become adults. By surveying the insects in and around a corpse, forensic scientists can help a police investigator determine how long ago a victim was murdered.与此同时,绿头苍蝇们继续这它们的正常生命循环。蛆变成蛹,蛹再长大。通过调查尸体周围的昆虫,法医可以帮助警方调查人员确定受害者遇害的时间。 /201209/201312The right to vote has always been fundamental to our system of representative democracy, yet most African-American voters in southern states were denied this right for almost a hundred years, despite the ratification of the 15th Amendment in 1870. Southern voter registration boards imposed overwhelming bureaucratic impediments to qualified black voters and subjected them to harassment, economic reprisals and physical violence. With their voices unheard, they had little, if any, political power.选举权一直是代议民主体系的基础,然而美国南部各州大部分的非裔选民却不被赋予这一基本权利,尽管1870年第15项修正案批准了选举权利法案,但这种状况仍持续了近一百年。南方选民注册委员会对合格的黑人选民施加了压倒性的官僚障碍,包括骚扰,经济报复和身体暴力等手段。因为统治阶级无视选民的呼声,所以他们没有任何政治权利。In early 1965, during the Civil Rights Movement, peaceful demonstrators in Birmingham and Selma, Alabama were met with violent police resistance, including nightsticks, water hoses, tear gas, attack dogs, and imprisonment. Televised newscast images of these events outraged Americans, and persuaded President Lyndon B. Johnson and Congress to make voting rights legislation a priority.在1965年早期的民权运动期间,伯明翰、塞尔玛和阿拉巴马市的和平示威者遭到防暴警察的镇压,他们用木棒、软管、催泪弹、击棒袭击示威者,并逮捕示威者入狱。事件一经电视播出,便激怒了美国人,这也迫使林顿·约翰逊总统和国会优先考虑选举权立法。The Voting Rights Bill passed quickly in both houses, and was signed into law on August 6th, 1965. It gave the Federal government power to oversee the registration and election process in problematic counties. The Voting Rights Act was amended in 1970, 75, and 82, extending protection to other minorities and disenfranchised voters. Though the voting process in America continues to spark debate, the Voting Rights Act remains a significant piece of legislation, guaranteeing that no citizen will be denied the right to vote on account of race, color, or disability.《选举权法案》很快通过两院的批准,最终于1965年8月6日签署生效。这赋予联邦政府在问题城市监督注册和选举进程的权利。1970年、1975年和1982年的选举法案修正案给予少数民族和被剥夺权利的选民以保护。尽管美国的选举程序将继续引发争论,但选举权法案仍然是一项重要立法,它确保居民不因种族,肤色和残疾而被剥夺选举权。原文译文属!201211/209372Science and Technology A not-so-hard graft科技 一个不那么难的移植Transplantable blood vessels can now be grown as desired可移植的血管现可随意培育Medical technology医学技术ANOTHER advance in the emerging technology of regenerative medicine has just been announced.新兴再生医学技术的又一项进展刚刚被公布。It should soon be possible to make blood vessels that can be stored and used ;off the shelf; for surgery that requires arteries or veins to be bypassed.该项技术应该不久就可能制造血管,这种血管可以储存,需要进行绕过动静脉的外科手术时可以;现货供应;。The vessels, prototypes of which are described this week in a paper in Science Translational Medicine, are made by Humacyte, a small firm based in Durham, North Carolina, that was founded by Shannon Dahl, the papers principal author, and two colleagues.本周《科学转化医学》上的一篇论文描述了这种血管的原型,它是由北卡罗来纳州达勒姆的一家小公司Humacyte制造的,而公司的创立者为该论文的主要作者夏伦?达尔和其两位同事。The recipe Dr Dahl and her colleagues concocted begins with smooth-muscle cells. Smooth muscle is different from the familiar sort that cloaks bones and enables bodily movement. It is a component of organs such as the gut and the blood vessels that sometimes need to change shape while they are functioning.达尔士及其同事的制做方法是由平滑肌细胞开始。平滑肌不同于我们熟悉的那种包覆骨骼并使身体运动的肌肉。它是肠道和血管等器官的组成部分,这些器官有时需要改变形状才能行使功能。To make artificial blood vessels the team took smooth-muscle cells from fresh corpses and cultured them on tubular scaffolds made of a material called polyglycolic acid. Grown this way, smooth muscle secretes collagen, a structural protein that is, among several other things in the body, an important component of the walls of blood vessels. The polyglycolic acid degrades spontaneously over the course of a few weeks with the consequence that it is, in effect, replaced by the collagen. The result is a tube of the length and diameter of the original scaffold, that is composed of collagen and smooth-muscle cells—a structure similar to a natural blood vessel.为了制造人造血管,这个小组从新鲜尸体上采集平滑肌细胞,将其放在聚羟基乙酸材料制成的管式架上培养。采取这种方式生长,平滑肌可分泌胶原,一种结构蛋白,是人体中除其它几种物质外组成血管壁的重要成分。聚羟基乙酸在几个星期内自发降解,实际结果就是被胶原蛋白取代了。所得物保持原来架的长度和直径,由胶原蛋白和平滑肌细胞组成,其结构类似天然血管。Transplanting that into a patient, however, would risk provoking an immune reaction, since the muscle cells are ;foreign; tissue. To get around this, Dr Dahl and her colleagues wash the muscle cells away with a detergent, leaving just the collagen. Though the end product is a nonliving simulacrum of a blood vessel rather than an artificial version of the real, biologically active thing, experiments on animals suggest that it works well enough to substitute for a diseased natural vessel (for example, a clogged coronary artery that might otherwise cause a heart attack). It can also act as a ;tap; from which the blood of people whose kidneys have failed might be drawn for dialysis.不过将其移植到患者身上会有引发免疫反应的风险,因为人造血管上的肌肉细胞是;外来;组织。为了避免这个问题,达尔士和其同事用洗涤剂洗去这些肌肉细胞,只留下胶原蛋白。虽然最终产品是无生命的模拟血管,而不是真正的、具有生物活性的人造血管,但是动物实验表明,它足以代替患病的天然血管(例如,冠状动脉,阻塞的血管可能导致心脏病发作)。它也可以充当肾病患者;龙头;,引出患者的血液进行透析。At the moment, the optons for either of these things are limited. The best approach is to use a length of vessel taken from elsewhere in the patients body (commonly, his leg). But that requires such transplants to be healthy themselves—and each length of transplanted vessel can be used only once. Synthetic vessels made of Teflon exist, but they are prone to infection and blockage by blood clots, and tend to work for only a few months.目前,适合这些用途的任一用途的血管选择都很有限。最好的方法就是采用来自病患身体其它部位(通常为腿部)的一段血管。但这要求这样的移植对患者无害,而且每根移植的血管只能使用一次。现已存在聚四氟乙烯制成的人造血管,但它们很容易感染和形成血栓,且往往只能起几个月的作用。The animal experiments suggest the new, all-collagen vessels are capable of lasting at least a year without noticeable deterioration. They are also, once implanted, able to remodel themselves in ways that improve their function—changing shape in response to blood flow, being colonised by cells from the patients body, and showing signs of incorporating elastin, another structural protein found in natural vessels.动物实验表明,新型全胶原蛋白的血管有能力至少维持一年而没有明显恶化。一旦植入,它们也能按照提高其功能的方式自我改造——针对血流改变形状,让病患的身体细胞在其上生长,并显示出混合了天然血管中发现的另一个结构蛋白弹性蛋白的迹象。Also, if kept in a suitable saline buffer at 4°C, they can be transplanted a year after they were made without a perceptible degradation of their properties. So, if human trials confirm these results, the surgical-repairers toolkit will have acquired a useful additional instrument—and the age of the cyborg will be just that little bit nearer.此外,如果保存在4 ° C合适的盐水缓冲液中,它们可以在制成一年后被移植,而没有可察觉的性能退化。所以,如果人体试验实了这些结果,外科修复师的工具包就会增添一个有用的额外工具,且生控体系统时代的来临就又接近了一点点。 /201301/219747Now from the Boston Museum of Science. Sci Tech today on NECN.有线新闻波士顿消息。In Sci Tech today, could the New England coastline hold the key to reducing greenhouse gas emissions? Researchers are considering a plan to bury carbon dioxide emissions under water. Doctor Julie Sable is joining us live, from the museum of Boston and talk about the idea. Julie, thanks for being here. Hey, Beth.今天的Sci-tech Today我们将讨论的是,新英格兰海岸线会成为减少温室气体排放的关键吗?研究人员正试图把二氧化碳深埋进水下。来自波士顿物馆的Julie Sable士将向我们做详细介绍,Julie,欢迎你。谢谢主持人,Beth。So there has been a lot of concerns that these emissions are behind climate change, whats the theory behind storing carbon dioxide under ground?人们认为这些气体的排放是由气候变化造成的,把二氧化碳埋入地下的理论基础是什么?We are facing a big problem with greenhouse gases. Carbon dioxide alone, the world emits thirty billion tons per year. And even though, a lot of nations are trying to cut back on emissions, it looks like that overall number will increase more in coming years. So as one of several solutions to offset those emissions, experts are looking at carbon capture and storage when you collect carbon dioxide from emitters like power plants and then inject it under ground. But there are some challenges with that on the storage side which I am particular talking about here. You have to choose the right areas to put that carbon dioxide. You need a lot of volume to store on a really large scale. And also choose safe areas that minimize risk of leakage.温室气体排放问题十分严峻。全球每年光是二氧化碳就要排放30亿吨。虽然许多国家试图减少排放量,但未来几年的总排放量还是会增加。因此,作为抵消这些排放的解决办法之一,专家们正在寻找适合的容器和储藏地来收集发电厂等排放的二氧化碳,并把封存好的容器注入地下。但是对于储藏地点的选择还存在一些问题,这也是我正要详细说明的,你必须选择合适的地点储存二氧化碳。首先你需要大量的空间储存温室气体。其次,你需要选择安全的地区,减小气体泄露的危险。Which brings us to the topic of Basalt, the idea is to store the CO2 in Basalt. What exactly is it? Why would it be a good home for storing CO2?这让我们联想到了玄武岩,用玄武岩来盛放二氧化碳。这究竟是怎么回事?用玄武岩有什么好处?Basalt is a really common rock, I have some of them here, makes most of the ancient crust. And some researchers from Colombia and Rutgers are recently pointed out that there are some areas of basalt offshore the east coast, including off Massachusetts going down into New Jersey where that could be a specially good reservoir for storing carbon dioxide. One advantage to basalt, is that there is lots of volume, lots of space where we can pump the carbon dioxide in. And thats because basalt is often bubbly, they have a lot of holes and there are some here, I have a photo to show, closer up. And also the tops of basalt level flows are often broken up and fractured and that rubbly top creates lot of interconnected space to inject carbon dioxide.玄武岩是很常见的岩石,我手里拿着的就是,多由古地壳构成。来自哥伦比亚和罗格斯的研究人员最近指出一些近海地区拥有大量玄武岩,包括马萨诸塞州到新泽西的近海区域可能是很好的二氧化碳储存地。这里的一个优点是空间大,可以注入大量的二氧化碳。另一个优点是玄武岩上有许多孔,我有一张特写图片可以显示出这里有许多小洞。此外,表面上的玄武岩通常是破碎的断裂的由碎石堆积而成的,这造就了许多可以注入二氧化碳的相连的空间。So why the east coast, why this area?那么,为什么是东海岸呢?为什么是这篇区域?Oh, if you dont mind I wanna to finish up with the very special thing about basalt that make the scientist especially excited. Yes, go ahead.如果你不介意我想介绍完玄武岩,它有一项特质让科学家们兴奋不已。好的,请。OK, that is that basalt naturally reacts with carbon dioxide and water to form another rock, limestone. This is also a very common rock and the idea is that over time you will be able to lock the carbon dioxide into solid rock in these reservoirs.玄武岩和二氧化碳,水会自然而然产生化学反应,形成一种新的岩石,石灰岩,也是一种常见的岩石。也就是说,随着时间的推移,你可以通过固体岩石来锁住二氧化碳。And why the east coast?那么为什么是东海岸呢?So, a few advantages to the east coast. One is that these basalts are confined to some ancient basins. So that there they should have abundant outside and also capped up to a thousand feet of impermeable sediments. So that reduces the risk of leakage. Another advantage is that its pretty close to population centers where we make a lot of power but not too close for comfort. And also compared to the west coast, the east coast is much less volcanically and seismically active. So its safer for that too.选择东海岸有几个好处。其一是玄武岩只存在于部分古老的盆地地区。因此,东海岸外部有大量玄武岩覆盖不透水的沉积岩。另一个好处是这里距离人口稠密区较近,但又不是特别近,距离适中。另外,相对于西海岸,东海岸火山和地震因素相对稳定,更加安全。All right, interesting stuff, Doctor Julie Sable, Thanks for so much for joining us. Thanks a lot.好的,十分有趣,Julie Sable士,谢谢你的介绍。谢谢。And remember to join us on wednesday afternoon at 5:30 and Tuesday morning at 9:30 for the latest developments in Science and Technology and Sci-Tech today.欢迎每周三下午5:30或周二早上9:30收看Sci-tech的最新科技动态。注:本篇文章英文来自普特论坛,译文属原创,,。201205/182162

Mud from the ancient riverbanks is good for building nests.古老河岸边的泥浆有利于筑巢。lt also holds more evidence that will help us to reconstruct the ice age past.很多据表明,这将帮助我们重现过去的冰河世纪。Every now and then,new clues surface, hinting at what else might lie beneath.新的线索表面有时暗示着其他可能深藏的东西。ln this dried-up pond in South Dakota, known as Hot Springs, scientists unearthed great piles of bones.在被称为温泉的南达科达州干涸的池塘边,科学家发掘了成堆的骨头。What kind of creature died here? The bones reveal it stood four metres tall and weighed more than 10 tonnes.什么生物死在这里?骨头揭示了它有四米高,重达10吨。Theres nothing fitting that description living here today.今天没有这样大小的生物存在。Heres the give-away, a pair of tusks two metres long, the trademark of a Columbian mammoth, the biggest animal to roam the ice age plains.这是赠品,一对两米长的象牙,一个哥伦比亚猛犸象的商标,冰河时代的平原上最大的动物。By comparing it to elephants in Africa today, can we shed light on how those ice age elephants lived and what they lived on?和今天的非洲象相比,我们能够解释冰河时期的大象生活和它们如何生活的吗?These are mammoth teeth, huge molars the size of bricks.这些是猛犸象的牙齿,巨大的臼齿和砖块差不多大。They have deep ridges very similar to those of modern elephants, suggesting mammoths, too, survived by grinding vast amounts of grass.它们有深深的脊,和现代大象十分相似,表明猛犸象也靠磨大量的草为生。Plant fragments trapped between the ridges can still be identified today.今天还能看见在脊骨中间的残留的植物碎片。Thousands of years after this mammoth died, we know exactly what it ate for its last meal.在猛犸象死了,几千年之后,我们很明确地知道它的最后一餐吃的是什么。Grass is a tough, abrasive food. Even with protective enamel ridges, these teeth would gradually have worn down.草是强硬和需要研磨的食物。即使是有保护釉质的脊,这些牙齿也会逐渐被磨损。But just like modern elephants, the mammoths had evolved a way to deal with this.但是如同现代象一样,猛犸象进化到可以处理这一切。As one set of teeth was eroded, another grew up to take its place.一套牙齿被侵蚀了,新的一套又出现了。The evidence suggests they had six sets in all, to last a lifetime, up to 60 years.据表明在它们60多年的人生中,有六套牙齿。The South Dakota mammoth didnt make it to old age and it was not alone.南达科他州的猛犸象没能活到晚年,它并不孤独。The site turned out to be a mammoth graveyard, hiding more than 50 skeletons, all from animals in their prime.这片遗址变成了猛犸象的墓地,有超过50具骨骼在此,都是处于它们的鼎盛时期。Theres no sign they were killed by hunters, so how did so many healthy mammoths die?没有迹象表明它们被猎人杀害,这么多健康的猛犸象是怎么死的呢?201303/232538

Cleaning Up The Ozone Layer清理臭氧层The scientists are devoting all their time to this problem(solving ozone layer depletion) are going to be thrilled.一些科学家花毕生的精力来解决臭氧层损耗的问题,他们将会感到很兴奋。The problem with the ozone layer is that when certain chemicals, like chlorofluorocarbons, reach the stratosphere, they break down into chlorine and bromine,which react with the ozone and destroy it.科学家们认为人类造成臭氧层破坏的主要原因是一些化学物质,像氯氟碳,当它们到达平流层后会分解成氯和溴,然后和臭氧发生化学反应从而破坏臭氧层。The plan is to somehow clean the stratosphere and get rid of these chemicals. For example, some scientists have suggested using giant lasers on top of mountains to basically break apart harmful chemicals before they reach the stratosphere.他们计划将这些化学物质从平流层中清除。例如,有的科学家就建议在有害化学物质到达平流层之前,使用山顶上的巨型激光束从根本上将它们分离。However, research proves that this would be incredibly expensive, not to mention that the side effects aren’t clear. Scrubbing out the chemicals this way might end up causing serious environmental problems.可是,调查研究研究表明这种方法的成本很高,更何况产生的副作用还不清楚。用这种方法清除化学物质可能会导致严重的环境问题。It would be much easier to stop releasing harmful chemicals into the atmosphere in the first place. One chlorinemolecule can break apart more than one hundred thousand ozonemolecules. Why not keep it from getting there at all? If we stopped releasing harmful chemicals today, the ozone layer would probably be back at full strength by 2050.首先,停止向大气中排放有害化学物质是比较简单易行的办法。一个氯分子可以分解十万多个臭氧分子。为什么不阻止氯到达臭氧层呢?如果我们现在停止排放有害化学物质,也许到了2050年,臭氧层空洞就会消失了。 /201301/218265

Many of the early Samba songs were meant to size malandros, sharply-dressed hustlers of the black communities, and the authorities outlawed musicians and their Samba parties. 早期许多桑巴歌曲是为马兰多斯量身定做, 黑人社区衣着光鲜的骗子,当局取缔的音乐家们及只有桑巴团体才能享受这种舞曲。But all that would suddenly change. 但一切突然改变。Samba was to be appropriated, transformed and used by the government. 桑巴被政府挪用,转换并善加利用。From now on, music will play a new role in Brazilian life.从现在开始,音乐将在巴西人的生活中扮演一个新角色。注:听力文本来源于普特201212/217945

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