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French local government法国地方政府Slimming down瘦身中France tells local governments to cut the fat法国当局下令地方政府“减肥”WHEN Claude Monet lived near the Seine at Argenteuil, he painted white canvas sails and river banks. Today, Argenteuil is part of the suburban sprawl west of Paris, and is more famous for being the most indebted large town in France. A recent report from the Cour des Comptes, the national audit body, told the town hall to take urgent measures to curb the deficit “in line with the gravity of the situation”.克劳德·莫奈在阿让特伊的塞纳河附近时,画过白色帆船和塞纳河畔。如今,阿让特伊只是巴黎西郊无计划扩展地区中的一部分,并且更是因负债累累而臭名远扬。法国审计法院Cour des Comptes已经命令当地市府大厅采取紧急措施,抑制财政赤字,要和“地球引力”方向保持一致。Across the country, town halls are facing a budget squeeze. As part of its effort to control the national deficit, which this year is yet again set to bust the euro zones 3% rule, President Franois Hollandes Socialist government has promised 50 billion of budget savings from 2015 to 2017. Of this, it says 11 billion will come from reduced transfers to local government. But persuading town halls to apply such cuts may prove the most difficult piece of the French deficit puzzle.当前全国上下、各地市府大厅均面临财政紧缩的困境。为了有效控制国家财政赤字局面,实现欧元区规定的不超过3%的赤字目标,法国总统弗朗索瓦·奥朗德所在的社会主义政府已经承诺2015年至2017年削减财政出500亿英镑。而这500亿英镑中,110亿为中央政府对地方政府的拨款项削减额。但是,要说当地政府接受这样的财政紧缩政策恐怕是实施财政紧缩政策项目过程中最棘手的部分吧。Argenteuil is poorer than the average French town, and its unemployment rate is nearly 17%. The share of residents living in subsidised public housing, in the concrete towers that ring the town, is twice the national average. And like many French towns, Argenteuils aspirations to first-class public services exceed its ability to finance them.和法国其它小镇相比,阿让特伊的经济发展较落后,且它的失业率几乎高达17%。住政府补助房和混凝土塔的人数是全国平均值的两倍。和法国很多小镇一样,阿让特伊也想提供一流的社会公共务,但这笔出却不是它现在的财政所能承受的。Overlooking the river, a vast new plate-glass building house the Argenteuil-Bezons Agglomeration, a new layer of local government created several years ago to run joint services with its neighbouring town. In the old town centre, near the freshly scrubbed medieval chapel, six gardeners in fluorescent-yellow jackets are planting out municipal flower beds. Up the road sits a smart glass-fronted cultural centre, complete with 500-seat theatre and two cinema screens. Outside, a line of toddlers, grasping each others hands tight, totters along the pavement. Argenteuil has 20 crèches, catering to babies from the age of ten weeks. Older pre-school children are served a daily three-course lunch, graced by such dishes as poached fish and quinoa followed by a slice of Camembert.俯瞰塞纳河,可以看到一幢雄伟的玻璃建筑—阿让特伊的巴黎式建筑群,该建筑为几年前新建,用于和邻居小镇合作办公。在这座古老的小镇中心,靠近刚翻新的中世纪教堂的地方,只见6名穿荧光黄外套的园丁在忙着整理市镇府花园。沿着这条街道,还可以看见一座精美前面透明的文化中心楼,内设有500张坐席和2副电影屏幕。楼外,只见一列小孩儿,手拉手,正在蹒跚学步呢。阿让特伊设有20家托儿所,专门务于10周岁大的婴儿。大些的学前小孩儿每天可享受一顿三菜的午餐,搭配丰盛有营养,如水煮鱼配藜麦,再加一片乳酪。Locals consider such things to be the basic job of local government. But Argenteuils debt aly amounts to some 300m. Last year alone, the public-sector wage bill jumped by 8.5%, to 79m, according to the Cour des Comptes, and the deficit reached 17m. “It was insane,” declares Georges Mothron, the Gaullist mayor, who defeated his Socialist predecessor in elections in March. In 2013, he says, the town hall hired 377 new staff. This included 40 new workers to staff 150 extra crèche places. The old team disputes the figures, and Philippe Doucet, the previous mayor, describes the spending as “investments in the future”.当地居民都把这样的务视为政府的基本职责。然而,阿让特伊的债务已高达3亿英镑。法国审计法院称,仅去年一年,公共部门的工资开销就上涨至790英镑,涨幅为8.5%,赤字额为1700万英镑。曾于三月大选击败前任社会主义的戴高乐式市长Georges Mothron说,“这简直是疯了。”。2013年,他报道该地新雇佣员工377名,而这370名也包括40名被分配在新添的150处托儿工作的。前任政府人员对这些数字加以反驳,如前市长Philippe Doucet发言说,“这是对未来的投资”。Applying similar logic, many French towns have given themselves a facelift over the past decade. Dijon has built a blackcurrant-coloured tram, which wends its way on tracks laid over fresh grass, as well as a new Olympic swimming pool. In the north, Tourcoing and Roubaix and its neighbouring cities of Tourcoing and Roubaix have constructed a new 50,000-seat stadium, a competition-class velodrome, and the biggest aquatic centre north of Paris, due to open next year. New layers of inter-town local government have proliferated. Between 2000 and 2011, the French town-hall headcount increased by 26%.同样地,法国很多小镇在近10年都给自己做了次“整容手术”。第戎修建了有轨电车,轨道下方有新铺的草坪,还有新建的奥林匹克游泳池。法国北部的里尔和它附近的图尔昆和鲁贝分别建造了设有50000坐席的体育场、竞技类的赛车场和巴黎以北最大的水上运动中心,预计明年开放。同时,地方政府的机构也在不断地快速扩张。2000—2001年,法国各镇的市府大厅职工人数增长达26%。The new budget squeeze, and the fact that most civil-service jobs are protected, will force towns to put such projects on hold. Franois Rebsamen, president of Greater Dijon as well as the French labour minister, has called it the “end of a cycle” for big investment projects in his town. In Argenteuil Mr Mothron says he has cancelled a renovation of the swimming pool. Central-government transfers to Argenteuil will be cut by 3.5m next year and by 8.5m in 2016.由于新出台的预算紧缩政策,加上多数公务员都是受保护的,因此镇政府不得不暂停类似上述提及的工程。第戎市长兼法国劳工部部长的弗朗索瓦?雷布扎门Franois REBSAMEN,把这称之为当地大型投资工程的“循环终止”。在阿让特伊,Georges Mothron称已经取消了游泳池的翻新工程。中央政府给阿让特伊的财政补助明年将减少350万英镑,后年减少850万英镑。Such decisions will not be popular, given Frances stagnant economy and high unemployment. Some town halls may think it would be better to raise local taxes rather than cut popular services. And the party barons who run many towns will seize on the chance to attack the central government. Indeed, this week Martine Aubry, the Socialist mayor of Lille, denounced the economic policies of her fellow Socialist, Mr Hollande. France is relying heavily on the local-government effort to help secure budget savings. But, despite the pressure from central government, town halls may yet refuse to do their bit.鉴于法国停滞的经济状况和居高不下的失业率,此类决定并不怎么受欢迎。一些政府大厅认为,更应该提高征税,而非中止颇受喜爱的公用务。同时,那些管理多地的政党巨头将会趁机攻击中央政府。实际上,本周里尔社会主义市长玛蒂娜·奥布里Martine Aubry就公开谴责了同党伙伴Hollande所采取的经济政策。法国的预算紧缩能否有效开展,最重要的还是得看地方政府的财政举措。尽管中央政府所施压力不小,但很多小镇可能还是会拒绝,不会尽力为之。翻译:徐珍 校对:毛慧 译文属译生译世 /201411/339733听力参考文本(文本与听力不全一致,敬请谅解):The Next IdeaCould the ancient search for the Fountain of Youth lead to Ann Arbor?Thats where a company called Forever Labs is working to solve the universal problem of getting old.Its solution: store your stem cells when youre a young adult so you can use them as you age.Forever Labs CEO Steven Clausnitzer? and president Mark Katakowski? joined us today to talk about their plan, how stem cells work in our bodies, and why Southeast Michigan is fertile ground for companies such as theirs.For a quick stem cells crash course, Katakowski explained that we have stem cells in just about every tissue of our bodies.;They replace and they rejuvenate the tissue,; he said. ;Basically all systems of your body are replenished by stem cells to some degree.;The number of stem cells in our bodies decreases over time, along with their level of activity and ;therapeutic potential,; he said. While that does reduce their immediate usefulness within the body, Katakowski told us this diminishing functionality is actually part of a defense mechanism against cancer.;As cells get older, they get damaged,; he said. ;Its part of this natural process as cells grow older, the stem cells that have all this potential, that they start to decline in number and just kind of turn off over time.;Clausnitzer told us what theyre doing at Forever Labs can be thought of as a kind of ;stem cell time travel.;;What were doing is were storing that ability that you have which is amazing when were younger and diminishes as you get older,; Clausnitzer said. ;We take your bone marrow, and we isolate out your stem cells, and we ... freeze them at a temperature that essentially renders them biologically inert.;Effectively, he told us, your stored stem cells stay the same age, y to be reintroduced into your system when youre older.To hear more about the process and potential health benefits of this ;stem cell time travel,; listen to our full conversation below.201609/465505Italian football意大利足球More than just trophy assets不仅仅是摆设The countrys largest clubs are belatedly becoming more businesslike该国个大俱乐部的效率化进程姗姗来迟FOR all their fans passion, Italian football clubs struggle to make profits. In the 1990s Italys Serie A was the most glamorous and high-profile of Europes five main football leagues; it has since fallen, in revenue terms, from second to fourth place. In this years Football Money League, published on January 22nd by Deloitte, a consulting firm, three of the four Italian clubs in the worldwide top 20 dropped at least one position. However, there are signs of a turnaround in the clubs fortunes.尽管意大利球迷非常狂热,但是它的足球俱乐部依然难以盈利。在上世纪九十年代,意甲是欧洲五大足球联赛当中最富魅力、最高调的联赛;自此以后,它的收益能力就从第二位下滑到了第四位。1月22日,由德勤咨询公司发布的本年度足球财富榜里,在全球前20名之内的四所意大利俱乐部当中,有三所至少下降了一个位次。不过,俱乐部的命运有转机的迹象。Italys league fell behind its peers partly because of the complacency of clubs owners. Tycoons treated them as trophy assetsmore than businesses. The clubs suffered chronic losses and corruption scandals, and their stadiums were left to decay. But Italys sustained economic downturn and the introduction by UEFA, European footballs governing body, of rules to stop clubs habitually spending more than they earn, have been among the main reasons why a number of clubs have changed hands. Foreign investors are trickling in.意大利联赛落于同辈之后的一大原因是俱乐部所有者的骄傲自满。业界大亨们将他们看作是身份的象征而不是一门生意。俱乐部遭受长期亏损以及腐败丑闻的影响,他们的体育场因此杂草蔓生。不过,大批俱乐部被转手的两个主要原因是:1、意大利经济的持续低迷;2、欧洲足球管理机构——欧足联引入了一系列规则来阻止俱乐部习惯性地入不敷出。外国投资者正慢慢涌向这一领域。For those seeking to turn around a clubs finances, one of the most important tasks is to boost match-day takings, which account for 11% of total revenues in Serie A, compared with 23% in both the English Premier League and the German Bundesliga. That means improving the match-day experience. However, few Italian clubs own the stadiums they play in, and unlike in Britain and Germany, where official encouragement and incentives have led to stadiums being upgraded, Italian ones largely remain in a poor state.对于那些寻求扭转俱乐部财务状况的人来说,提高比赛日收入是最重要的任务之一。与英超和德甲的23%相比,比赛日收入占了意甲总收入的11%。这意味着要提高观赛日的体验。但是,少数意大利俱乐部拥有他们自己的场馆,与之不同的是,英国和德国的官方鼓励和激励措施使得足球场地可以得到翻新,而这些意大利的运动场馆大多状态不佳。There is plenty of money coming in from television: the amount that broadcasters pay to show Italian football matches is second only to that in England. However, Italian clubs are missing a few other tricks. For instance, they do not get much from renting out VIP boxes at their grounds on match days: Italian businesspeople tend to take clients to dinner or the opera; and to persuade them to start bringing them to football matches, the facilities at grounds would need to be improved. Also, unlike Englands top clubs, Italian ones have not been good at conning their fans into buying overpriced team strips.有一大笔钱来自电视:电视台转播意大利足球赛的付费金额仅次于英国。不过意大利俱乐部缺少一些其他的技巧。比如说,在比赛日里,他们不能从出租场地中贵宾包厢这一项上得到可观的收益:意大利商人往往邀请客户共进晚餐或者观赏歌剧;想让意大利人带客户来看足球赛的话,场地设施还需要好好改善。不仅如此,不同于英国的俱乐部,意大利俱乐部不擅长组织球迷购买高价的球衣队。But the tide could turn soon. Italys top performer is Juventus, owned by the Agnelli family, whose forebears founded Fiat. The Turin-based club opened a new, 41,000-capacity stadium in 2011; it has since more than trebled its match-day revenues. Two other teams, Sassuolo and Udinese, have since embarked on revamping their stadiums, and AS Roma plans to build itself a new home on the outskirts of the eternal city.但是这股浪潮即将被扭转。阿涅利家族祖先成立了菲亚特公司,而意大利的顶级球队尤文图斯就所属于这个家族。这个位于都灵市的俱乐部在2011年开放了一处可容纳41000人的新场地;这比比赛日收益的三倍还要多出部分。其他两队伍,萨索洛和乌迪内斯队已经着手改造他们的体育馆了,而且罗马队打算在罗马市郊修建一处新的大本营。Efforts are being made to earn more from foreign sources. Over the past five years the Supercoppa, the opening match of the season, has been played three times in China and once in Qatar. AS Roma, bought by a group of American investors in 2011, has since struck a ten-year kit-sponsorship deal with Nike. In 2013 Erick Thohir, an Indonesian businessman, acquired 70% of Inter Milan, bringing in a clutch of foreign executives to boost the brand globally: of Inters 280m fans, 60% live in Asia, including 18m in Indonesia.为了获取外国资源,意大利的俱乐部也是做足了努力。在过去五年中,作为赛季揭幕战的超级杯,已经在中国举办三次、在卡塔尔举办了一次。罗马队自2011年被一群美国投资者收购以后,就与耐克签订了为期十年的球衣赞助协议。在2013年,一位印尼商人雅立多斯获得了国际米兰70%的股份,并且带来了一众外国高管,他们打算将它打造成国际品牌:在国际米兰2.8亿球迷当中,60%居住在亚洲,其中1800万在印尼。Harry Philp of Portland Advisers, a consulting firm which advises on sports infrastructure, predicts that more Italian football teams could soon be welcoming foreign investors. Their expertise in running a profitable business will be as welcome as their money.波特兰顾问是一家专门为体育基础建设提供建议的咨询公司,它的雇员哈利·飞利浦预言,更多的意大利足球队将会欢迎国外的投资者。他们在管理盈利生意上的专业水准将和他们的投资一样大受欢迎。译者:卢意 校对:胡靓 译文属译生译世 /201501/357067

But now he was Chancellor,Hitler also wanted the support of all of those who lived in this land that he considered ;true; Germans.但现作为总理,希特勒希望得到居住本土的真正德国人持。Nazi Stormtroopers were still as y to spill the blood of their enemies as theyd always been.纳粹冲锋队早已准备好让敌人鲜血四溅。So how could Hitler benefit from the brutality of his Stormtroopers and yet not be blamed for it?其残暴行径是如何助希特勒上位却不需背负骂名呢?An early sign of how Hitler would attempt this deception was shown just two months into his Chancellorship.在希特勒任总理两个月后,深藏他内心的计划逐步显现。Hitlers anti-Semitic prejudice knew no bounds.他的反犹太主义行为肆无忌惮。And on 1st April 1933, with Hitlers approval,the Nazis held a boycott of Jewish shops and businesses that lasted one day.1933年4月1日,经他允许,纳粹开始破坏犹太人的商店和公司行动持续一天。I felt like I was falling into a deep hole.我感觉自己掉进了深渊。That was when I intuitively realised for the first time that the existing law did not apply to Jews.那是我第一次本能意识到现行法律不适用犹太人。You could do with Jews whatever you liked.你可对犹太人为所欲为。A Jew was an outlaw.犹太人已失去法律保护。But because Hitler didnt know what the reaction to all this would be,particularly abroad,he didnt want his name associated with it.希特勒不知道人们对此有何反应,尤其海外人士,因此他不想跟这件事又牵连。The document calling for the boycott was signed only Leadership of the National Socialist German Workers Party.号召抵制的文件署名仅为德国工党领导。 译文属 201512/414522

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