赣州重睑术价格最新共享

来源:搜狐娱乐
原标题: 赣州重睑术价格
Children love to play with new toys but hate disruption to their routines. These traits persist in adult life: innovation is ily adopted when it is incorporated in new gadgets but innovation that involves doing things differently is resisted.儿童喜欢玩新玩具,但讨厌习惯被打断。这些特性在成年后会一直保持下去:如果把创新融入新玩意中,人们很乐意接受,但涉及改变做事方式的创新,人们就会抵触。Look around a university. At a super#173;ficial level, modern information technology has changed everything. Most activities — communication, scheduling and presentations — are conducted electronically. At a deeper level, nothing at all has changed. The course structures, materials and the methods of pedagogy remain essentially the same.到一所大学四处转转。从表面看,现代信息技术已改变了一切。大多数活动——沟通、排课表和做报告——都是以电子方式完成的。但在更深层次上,一切都没有改变。课程结构、教材和教学法本质上还是老样子。As Richard Nelson, the economist of innovation, has pointed out while American children are much healthier than they once were they are not much better at learning to . Innovation that comes in a pill or injection is easily adopted: innovation that manages a process better is not.正如创新经济学家理查德#8226;纳尔逊(Richard Nelson)所指出的那样,当今的美国儿童比过去的儿童健康得多,但他们学习阅读的能力并不比过去强太多。以药丸或注射形式出现的创新很容易被接受,优化流程的创新则不然。It has always been so. Anaesthetics were developed in the mid-19th century and soon all surgeons were using them. However, when a Viennese physician discovered that the most important thing surgeons could do to keep their patients alive, especially those who were newborn infants, was to wash their hands, the profession resisted the innovation for half a century.情况一直是如此。麻醉剂是19世纪中期开发出来的,不久之后所有外科医生都开始使用麻醉剂。然而,当一位维也纳内科医生发现,要保住病人、尤其是新生儿的性命,外科医生所能做的最重要的事是洗手时,医疗界抵制这项创新的时间长达半个世纪。While doctors would ily experiment with new chemicals, they fought any acknowledgment that their procedures were defective.尽管医生们愿意试验新的化学制剂,但他们竭力拒绝承认自己的治疗程序存在瑕疵。Authors and editors use computers and software to write and compile, and eers are everywhere. Yet any suggestion that these developments imply a different and diminished role for publishers and booksellers is fiercely resisted, both by these businesses and by authors and ers.如今,写手和编辑使用电脑和软件进行写作和编辑,电子阅览器已无处不在。不过,任何人只要提及这些进展意味着出版商和书商的角色被改变和削弱,都会受到这两者以及作者和读者的强烈抵制。Airlines place orders for the latest models but established carriers find it hard to adapt to the market challenges set by low-cost carriers. Their response has been to set up distinct subsidiaries to implement[APE?] the new business model. Yet Delta’s Song was sung only briefly and British Airways’ Go went.航空公司会订购最新型的飞机,但老牌航空公司发现很难针对低价航空公司引发的市场竞争做出调整。它们的对策是设立完全不同的子公司,来执行新的业务模式。不过,达美航空(Delta)的Song只维持了很短时间,而英国航空(British Airways)的Go也已成过去式。Since even babies are more suspicious of new ways of doing things than of new toys, we might seek evolutionary explanations. But why would our ancestors have been more y to hunt new prey, or adopt new tools, than to adapt routines? Perhaps innovations incorporated in physical items are more plainly beneficial than process innovations. It is hard to argue that a smartphone is not an improvement on an instrument with a large rotary dial tethered to a desk.[DO WE FULLY ANSWER THIS QUESTION?]既然就连婴儿对新的做事方式也比对新玩具更怀疑,我们或许可以去寻找进化上的解释。但是,为何相对于调整习惯,我们的祖先更乐于捕捉新猎物或使用新工具呢?或许是,相对于流程创新,融入实物中的创新带来的好处更加一目了然。我们很难主张,相对于被电线固定在桌上、带着很大拨号盘的旧式电话,智能手机不是一种改进。Some gadgets that look like improvements are not: three-dimensional cameras meet a need we do not seem to have, and airships and supersonic passenger jets turned out to be a bust. These blind alleys in product innovation are sufficiently rare that they stand out in business and technological history.有些玩意儿看上去有改进,实际上并无改进:3D立体相机满足的是一项我们似乎并不存在的需求,飞艇和超音速客机后来被明是个失败。这些走进死胡同的产品创新罕见到了能在商业与科技史上占据突出地位。A low-cost airline, however, is not superior to a full-service one but rather the provider of a product better adapted to the needs of modern passengers. Establishing a new routine requires time and practice, and many new routines do not represent improvements; witness the fate of the majority of business re-engineering exercises. While transformational chief executives and management consultants chafe at the resistance they encounter, the problem is not just the lethargy of subordinates and the scale of their personal investment in established processes. It is often well-founded doubt as to whether the “change agents” actually know what they are doing. Political leaders, who seek office by claiming that everything their predecessors are doing is wrong, are even more frequently the advocates of useless process reorganisation.然而,不是说低价航空公司优于全业务航空公司,而是说它们提供了一种更符合现代乘客需求的产品。形成新习惯需要时间和实践,而许多新习惯不代表改进;看一看大多数业务流程改造的命运吧。尽管心向革新的首席执行官和管理顾问对遭遇的抵制感到恼火,但问题不仅仅在于下属们的慵懒懈怠以及他们对既定流程已投入个人努力的大小。人们常常有充分理由怀疑“改革推动者”是否真了解自己在做什么。有些政治领导人宣称前任所做一切都是错的,希望借此上台,他们倡导的流程改革甚至更可能是毫无用处的。So we are right to view such novelties with suspicion. And the behaviour of our children suggests this well-founded scepticism towards those who would re-engineer our routines has become hard wired in human responses.所以,我们以怀疑眼光看待此类奇思异想是正确的。我们的孩子的行为表明,对于那些想要改造我们习惯的人报以正当的怀疑,已经深深地植入了人类的反应心理中了。 /201503/365375

Four years after being labelled a security threat by the US Congress, Chinese telecom equipment maker ZTE has quietly grown into the third-largest seller of Android smartphones in the country.四年前,中国电信设备制造商中兴(ZTE)被美国国会贴上了“安全威胁”的标签,如今这家公司已悄然成长为美国安卓(Android)智能手机的第三大销售商。The success of the Shenzhen-based company shows that while high technology remains one of the most politicised economic aspects in US-China trade relations as each country cracks down on the others’ imports, some companies are finding ways to thrive.这家深圳公司的成功表明,尽管高科技仍是美中贸易关系中最具政治色的经济领域之一——两国互相限制对方产品的进口——但有些公司还是想方设法获得了茁壮成长。“It’s kind of a myth that Chinese companies can’t crack the US market,” said Bryan Ma of IDC, the technology consultancy. “ZTE is exhibit A.”科技咨询机构IDC的马伯远(Bryan Ma)说:“说中国企业无法打入美国市场是无稽之谈。中兴就是头号据。”While rivals including Huawei and Xiaomi have been expanding into cheaper phone markets such as India and Brazil, ZTE has embarked on a full-blown public relations push into premium market in the US. From no presence in 2010, it had 7.5 per cent of the US smartphone market in the third quarter of last year, according to IDC, up from 6.8 per cent in the same period the year before — beating all but Samsung, LG, and Apple.当华为(Huawei)、小米(Xiaomi)等竞争对手致力于开拓印度、巴西等较低端的手机市场时,中兴已经开始在美国的高端市场展开全方位的公关活动。2010年中兴手机在美国还没有立足点,而据IDC的数据,2015年第三季度其在美国智能手机市场占有率达到了7.5%(2014年同期为6.8%),紧随三星(Samsung)、LG和苹果(Apple)之后。ZTE’s PR push has ranged from a new, friendlier font for its logo to sponsoring five US National Basketball Association teams including the Houston Rockets, the Golden State warriors, and the Chicago Bulls.中兴的公关活动包括推出字体更讨喜的新商标,赞助美国职业篮球联赛(NBA)的五球队,其中包括休斯顿火箭(Houston Rockets)、金州勇士队(Golden State warriors)和芝加哥公牛队(Chicago Bulls)。The company has found its niche as the cheap option for phones offered by carriers in the US, where they cost as little as .中兴在美国找到了自己的市场定位:运营商发售的手机中的低价之选。其手机在美国的售价低至30美元。“Customers are getting savvier about smartphones,” ZTE said, arguing that high-end components make its phones competitive with much more expensive alternatives.中兴表示:“消费者对智能手机越来越了解。”该公司表示高端元件让其手机能与贵得多的产品相竞争。It also said that as US carrier operators move away from a two-year contract subsidy model to one involving no subsidies, “consumers are becoming clearer on the cost of devices since they are now paying for them” and this is driving demand for low-cost high-spec phones such as theirs.中兴还表示,随着美国移动运营商减少使用两年期合约补贴模式,转向没有任何补贴的模式,“消费者对设备成本越来越清楚,因为现在他们要在硬件上花钱”,这推动了对中兴这种高配置低成本手机的需求。Wang Yanhui, head of the Beijing-based China Smartphone alliance, an industry advocacy group, said that the cheaper end of the US smartphones market “is practically up for grabs. Anyone who wants to devote resources to this market will get it.位于北京的行业协会“手机中国联盟”(Mobile Phone China Alliance)秘书长王艳辉表示,美国较低端智能手机市场“实际上是容易进入的,只要愿意向该市场投入资源就能进入。”“Nobody really has any security concerns over phones that are practically free,” he said.王艳辉表示:“如果手机便宜到跟不要钱一样,没人会在意什么安全问题。”ZTE is placing its hopes on the ZTE Axon, an Android device with a 5.5in screen and dual-lens camera using mainly US parts such as Gorilla Glass from Corning and a Qualcomm Snapdragon processor.中兴目前将希望寄予旗下的Axon天机,这款安卓手机配置了5.5英寸屏幕,两个摄像头,部件主要为美国品牌,比如康宁(Corning)的大猩猩玻璃(Gorilla Glass),高通(Qualcomm)的骁龙(Snapdragon)处理器。Though better-known for making large scale telecoms equipment, ZTE has been blocked from selling these products in the US since 2012, when the House Intelligence Committee accused both ZTE and Huawei of spying on behalf of Chinese authorities. “The risks of Huawei’s and ZTE’s provision of equipment to US critical infrastructure could undermine core US national security interests” and both companies “cannot be trusted to be free of foreign and state influence,” the committee’s report .中兴虽然以制造大型电信设备著称,但从2012年起被禁止在美国销售此类产品,因为当时美国众议院情报委员会(House Intelligence Committee)指控中兴和华为充当中国政府的间谍。该委员会在报告中写道:“由华为和中兴为美国关键基础设施提供设备,可能会损害美国的核心国家安全利益,而且无法相信这两家公司不受外交和国家影响。”The investigation meant both companies were informally barred from investing in or acquiring firms in the US, or from doing any major technology deals with the government. However, smartphones were left alone, and ZTE moved quickly to take advantage.那次调查使得中兴和华为受到了非正式限制,不能投资或收购美国公司,或与美国政府进行任何重大技术交易。但唯独智能手机除外,而中兴迅速采取行动利用了这一点。Huawei, meanwhile, has since shifted its focus to Europe and emerging markets.华为则将重点转移到欧洲和新兴市场。ZTE credits its success in the US smartphone market to high-quality, low-cost phones, as well as an “open dialogue” with Washington, which its chief executive visits frequently, usually twice a year.中兴将自己在美国智能手机市场的成功归因于高品质低价手机,以及与华盛顿方面的“公开对话”,其首席执行官频繁前往华盛顿,通常是一年两次。Both companies have long rejected the spying accusations. According to a person familiar with the company, ZTE has dismissed its inclusion in the 2012 probe as “collateral damage” for being associated with Shenzhen-based rival Huawei, which ZTE says was the real target.两家公司长期以来一直否认间谍指控。一位了解中兴的人士透露,中兴认为自己卷入2012年的调查是受到“附带损害”,华为才是真正的目标,自己被与华为联系在了一起。Huawei has recently been taking steps to get into the US smartphone market as well, last year partnering with Google to produce the Nexus 6P.华为最近也采取行动以进入美国智能手机市场,去年华为与谷歌(Google)合作开发了Nexus 6P。 /201602/425887Uber is set to launch operations in another seven Indian cities.Uber将在印度另外7个城市开展业务。The move marks the biggest simultaneous expansion outside the US in the ride-sharing group’s history and underlining its attempts to keep pace with cut-price local rival Ola.此举标志着这家出行分享公司自成立以来在美国以外规模最大的同步扩张,也突显出Uber试图跟上印度本地低价打车应用Ola的步伐。The new push comes amid a period of rapid investment for the San Francisco based company, and confirms India as its largest market by number of cities served outside the US — bringing the total to 18.这家总部位于旧金山的公司正处于一个快速投资期,这一新举措印了一点:根据开通务的城市的数量计算,印度是Uber在美国以外的最大市场。Uber在印度开通务的城市将达到18个。Uber is midway through a .5bn equity funding round at a valuation of about bn, which it plans to use to pour resources into India and China.Uber正展开一轮15亿美元的股权融资,使其估值达到500亿美元左右,该公司计划利用这笔融资向印度和中国投入巨额资金。The Indian expansion follows an email to investors from Uber chief executive Travis Kalanick last month, which showed that it planned to spend bn to set up operations in dozens of locations in China this year.在Uber在印度扩张业务之前,该公司首席执行官特拉维斯#8226;兰格尼(Travis Kalanick)上月曾致信投资者,表示Uber计划今年拿出10亿美元在中国多个城市开展业务。Uber’s push in India marks the start of a similar growth spurt, as it moves beyond larger urban centres and begins to tap more so-called tier-two cities during the second half of this year.Uber在印度的举措标志着类似的井喷式发展的开始,该公司计划在今年下半年将目光转向规模较大的城市以外,开始拓展更多所谓的二线城市。 /201507/383880

In 1950, at a time when there were fewer than 10 digital computers worldwide, Bill Pfann, a 33-year-old scientist at Bell Laboratories in New Jersey, discovered a method that could be used to purify elements, such as germanium and silicon. He could not possibly have imagined then that this discovery would enable the silicon micro-chip and the rise of the computer industry, the Internet, and the emergence of the information age. Today, there are about 10 billion Internet-connected devices in the world, such as laptops and mobile phones, and at the heart of each of these devices, there is at least one such micro-chip that acts as its “engine”.1950年时,全球只有不到10台数字计算机。时年33岁的新泽西贝尔实验室科学家比尔o芬尼在这一年发现了一种提纯锗、硅等元素的方法。他当时可能想不到,这一发现促成了硅制微芯片的诞生,推动了计算机和互联网的发展,导致了信息时代的出现。如今,全球已有超过100亿台联网设备。而所有这些设备中,都至少有一块这样的微芯片充当“引擎”作用。The reason behind this relentless progress is neatly contained in a prophetic law that was announced 50 years ago this Sunday, called Moore’s Law. The micro-chip is built with tiny electrical switches made of purified silicon called transistors and the law stated that the number of transistors on a chip would double every year. In 1975, Gordon Moore revised his forecast to state that the count would double every two years. The law has held true since.50年前,一个预言式的定律巧妙地揭示了科技不断进步背后的原因,它就是尔定律。微芯片上有许多由纯净硅制成的微型电子开关,它们被称作晶体管。而尔定律认为芯片上的晶体管数量每年都会翻倍。1975年,戈登o尔修正了他的预测,认为晶体管数量会每两年翻一倍。从此以后,这一定律从未失准。Why is Moore’s Law relevant? Because this doubling of the number of transistors led to computer chips that could be packed with increasingly sophisticated circuitry that was both energy efficient and cheap. This led to the widesp adoption of computers, mobile phones, and the information technology revolution.为何尔定律经年不衰?因为晶体管数量的倍增让计算机芯片能够搭载越来越复杂的电路系统,它们不仅节能,还十分便宜。这导致了计算机、手机的普及,推动了信息技术的革命。The price of computation is about 10 million times cheaper than it was 40 years ago, and the computing power held in a smart phone outstrips the workstations that computer scientists used in their offices in the 1990s. That we have been able to so far hold true to Moore’s Law is the reason that the electronic circulation of information has been commoditized, changing the way many of us learn, bank, travel, communicate and socialize.计算机的价格比起40年前,已然便宜了一千万倍,而一部智能手机拥有的计算能力,已经超过了20世纪90年代计算机科学家使用的工作站。至今为止,尔定律依然适用,也因为如此,信息的电子流通变得商品化,改变了我们当中许多人学习、储蓄、旅行、沟通和社交的方式。Take the example of social networking using a mobile phone. It works because the cost of a transistor has dropped a million fold and computing is about 10,000 times more energy efficient since 1980, when this writer first went to engineering school. Consequently, a 0 smart phone powered by a biscuit-sized battery contains a micro-chip with a few billion transistors in it and enough computing power to digitally process an image, and then upload and share it wirelessly using powerful mathematics to encode the data. This is a consequence of Moore’s Law in action.以使用手机进行社交为例。之所以能实现这一点,是因为从1980年(当时笔者才刚进入工程学院)至今,晶体管的价格降低了几百万倍,计算的能效提高了几万倍。因此,售价200美元、由一块饼干大小的电池作为能源的智能手机中,拥有一块包含几十亿晶体管的微芯片,其计算能力足以对图片进行数字化加工,运用强大的数学运算能力编码其数据,再通过无线网络上传和分享它。这就是尔定律作用下的成果。Yet, on its 50th anniversary, there are tell-tale signs that Moore’s Law is slowing, and we are almost certain that the law will cease to hold within a decade. With further miniaturization silicon transistors will attain dimensions of the order of only a handful of atoms and the laws of physics dictate that the transistors and electronic circuits will cease to work efficiently at that point. As Moore’s Law’s slows down, innovations in other areas, such as developments in software, will pick up the slack in the short-term.然而,在它诞生50周年之际,已有迹象表明尔定律下的增长开始放缓,我们也几乎可以确定,在接下来的十年内,它恐怕将不复成立。硅晶体管继续微型化下去,将达到仅含有少量原子排列的维度,根据物理定律,这种情况下晶体管和电子电路将无法有效工作。随着尔定律下的增长放缓,其他领域的创新,如软件方面的发展,将在短期内补上这一缺口。But in the longer-term, there will be fundamental changes in the essential design of the classical computer that, remarkably, has remained unchanged since the 1950s. Designed for precise calculations, today’s computing machines do not make inferences, and qualitative decisions, or recognize patterns from large amounts of data efficiently. The next substantive leap forward will be in computers with human-like cognitive capabilities that are also energy efficient. IBM’s Watson, the computing system that won the television game show Jeopardy! in 2011, consumed about 4000 times more energy than its human competitors. This experience reinforced the need for new energy efficient computing machines that are designed differently from the sequential, calculative methodology of classical computers and are inspired, perhaps, by the way biological brains work.但从长期来看,从20世纪50年代至今未曾改变的传统计算机的基本设计,将会出现根本性的变革。如今的计算机可用来进行精确计算,但它们无法高效地从大量数据中得出推断,做出定性决策或识别模式。下一个实质性的飞越将会出现在那些拥有类人认知能力且高能效的计算机上。IBM的计算机系统沃森在2011年的智力挑战节目“Jeopardy!”上取得胜利,但它消耗的能量是与它同台对垒的人类选手的4000倍。这一经历凸显了对新型高能效计算机的需求。它们要与使用顺序计算方法的经典计算机有所区别,设计者也许将从生物大脑的运转方式中汲取灵感。A journalist recently asked me whether the continuation of Moore’s Law was indispensable. It is the beauty of the collective enterprise of human innovation that which ensures that nothing is indispensable indefinitely for technology to progress. Decades later one might look at the era of Moore’s Law as a golden period where computers came of age through a masterful display of an industry’s ability to miniaturize and create billions of flawless and identical copies of tiny circuits at factories throughout the world. But, much as a pack of migratory birds flying in V-formation rotate in at the lead position, there will, at that future time, be many other technologies that will have carried us forward in the information age.一位记者最近问我,尔定律的持续是不是不可或缺的。人类创新这项集体活动之美,就在于保了没有什么对于技术进步而言是不可或缺的。几十年后,人们或许会将尔定律的年代看作黄金时代,这个年代的计算机起初是一个行业实力的体现,后来计算机逐渐小型化,全球的工厂制造了数以亿计一模一样的完美微型电路。但就像候鸟群会以V字队列盘旋在领头者旁边一样,未来会有许多其他技术引领着我们在信息时代继续前进。 /201504/371646

Dozens of scientists, entrepreneurs and investors involved in the field of artificial intelligence, including Stephen Hawking and Elon Musk, have signed an open letter warning that greater focus is needed on its safety and social benefits.数十位科学家、企业家及与人工智能领域有关的投资者联名发出了一封公开信,警告人们必须更多地注意人工智能(AI)的安全性及其社会效益。参加联署的人中包括了科学家史蒂芬#8226;霍金(Stephen Hawking)及企业家埃伦#8226;马斯克(Elon Musk)。The letter and an accompanying paper from the Future of Life Institute, which suggests research priorities for “robust and beneficial” artificial intelligence, come amid growing nervousness about the impact on jobs or even humanity’s long-term survival from machines whose intelligence and capabilities could exceed those of the people who created them.这封发自生命未来研究所(Future of Life Institute,简称FLI)的公开信还附带了一篇论文,其中建议应优先研究“强大而有益”的人工智能。目前,人们日益担心机器的智力和能力可能会超过创造它们的人类,从而影响到人类的就业,甚至影响到人类的长期生存。“Because of the great potential of AI, it is important to research how to reap its benefits while avoiding potential pitfalls,” the FLI’s letter says. “Our AI systems must do what we want them to do.”这封FLI的公开信表示:“由于人工智能的巨大潜力,开展如何在规避其潜在陷阱的同时获取其好处的研究十分重要。我们的人工智能系统,必须按照我们的意愿工作。”The FLI was founded last year by volunteers including Jaan Tallinn, a co-founder of Skype, to stimulate research into “optimistic visions of the future” and to “mitigate existential risks facing humanity”, with a focus on those arising from the development of human-level artificial intelligence.FLI去年由包括Skype联合创始人让#8226;塔林(Jaan Tallinn)在内的志愿者创立。成立该研究所的目的一方面是为了促进对“未来乐观图景”的研究,一方面则是为了“降低人类面临的现存风险”。这其中,在开发与人类相当的人工智能技术过程中出现的那些风险,将是该所关注的重点。Mr Musk, the co-founder of SpaceX and Tesla, who sits on the FLI’s scientific advisory board alongside actor Morgan Freeman and cosmologist Stephen Hawking, has said that he believes uncontrolled artificial intelligence is “potentially more dangerous than nukes”.SpaceX和特斯拉(Tesla)的共同创始人马斯克、著名演员根#8226;弗里曼(Morgan Freeman)以及宇宙学家史蒂芬#8226;霍金都是FLI科学顾问委员会的委员。马斯克表示,他相信不受控制的人工智能“可能比核武器更危险”。Other signatories to the FLI’s letter include Luke Muehlhauser, executive director of Machine Intelligence Research Institute, Frank Wilczek, professor of physics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and a Nobel laureate, and the entrepreneurs behind artificial intelligence companies DeepMind and Vicarious, as well as several employees at Google, IBM and Microsoft.这封FLI公开信上的其他联署人还包括机器智能研究所(Machine Intelligence Research Institute)的执行主任吕克#8226;米尔豪泽(Luke Muehlhauser),麻省理工学院(MIT)物理学教授、诺贝尔奖得主弗兰克#8226;维尔切克(Frank Wilczek),人工智能企业DeepMind和Vicarious的幕后主管,以及几名谷歌(Google)、IBM和微软(Microsoft)的员工。Rather than fear-mongering, the letter is careful to highlight both the positive and negative effects of artificial intelligence.这封信并不以一封兜售恐惧心理为目的。与此相反,它十分谨慎地同时强调了人工智能的积极面和消极面。“There is now a broad consensus that AI research is progressing steadily, and that its impact on society is likely to increase,” the letter s. “The potential benefits are huge, since everything that civilisation has to offer is a product of human intelligence; we cannot predict what we might achieve when this intelligence is magnified by the tools AI may provide, but the eradication of disease and poverty are not unfathomable.”信中写道:“如今存在的一个广泛共识是,人工智能研究正在稳步进展之中,它对社会的影响也很可能会逐渐增大。人类文明所能提供的一切都是人类智慧的结晶。这种智慧被人工智能可能提供的工具放大后,我们能做到什么是我们无法想象的,不过那样的话根除疾病和贫困将不再是遥不可及的。从这个意义上说,人工智能有巨大的潜在好处。”Benefits from artificial intelligence research that are aly coming into use include speech and image recognition, and self-driving vehicles. Some in Silicon Valley have estimated that more than 150 start-ups are working on artificial intelligence today.目前,人工智能研究的部分好处已经成为现实,其中包括语音识别和图像识别,以及自动驾驶的汽车。在硅谷,部分人估计如今从事人工智能业务的初创企业超过了150家。As the field draws in more investment and entrepreneurs and companies such as Google eye huge rewards from creating computers that can think for themselves, the FLI warns that greater focus on the social ramifications would be “timely”, drawing not only on computer science but economics, law and IT security.人工智能正吸引越来越多的投资,许多创业家和谷歌等企业都在盼望着能通过建立会自主思考的电脑,获得巨额回报。对于这种局面,FLI警告说,人们或许应“及时”将更多注意力集中在人工智能的社会后果上,不仅要从计算机科学的角度开展研究,还要从经济、法律及信息安全的角度开展研究。 /201501/353879Igor Feitoza, a Brazilian-born entrepreneur, left an angry message on his bank’s Facebook page this week.不久前的某日,巴西出生的企业家伊戈尔费托萨(Igor Feitoza)在其的Facebook页面上留下一条愤愤不平的留言。“I want to see if you guys will pay my overdue bills and my employees as I can’t access my money which last Friday to pay them,” he wrote following a “ridiculous” three hours spent at the bank.他写道:“我上周五刚存的钱,准备付账单和员工的工资,结果现在却没法取钱。我倒要看看,你们会不会付我的过期账单和员工工资。”在此之前,他在这家耗费了“荒唐的”三个小时。Mr Feitoza is not one of the many frustrated Royal Bank of Scotland customers hit by the latest technology failure this week. He is a client of Commonwealth Bank of Australia, the country’s biggest bank by market capitalisation, which had its reputation as one of the most digitally advanced lenders tarnished by an outage in its payment and online systems late last week.费托萨并不是那周受到苏格兰皇家(RBS)技术故障打击的众多不满客户之一,而是澳大利亚市值最大的——澳大利亚联邦(Commonwealth Bank of Australia,简称CBA)的客户。该行号称数字化程度最高的之一,但那周发生的付和在线系统故障给这一名声蒙上阴影。As well as provoking outbursts on social media, the technology glitches at RBS, which caused some 600,000 payments and direct debits to go missing, and CBA underline how the world’s biggest banks are often failing to get to grips with the growing demands being placed on their IT platforms.RBS和CBA发生的技术故障除了在社交媒体上引发大量吐槽以外,还凸显出这样一个现实:全球最大经常搞不定其IT平台承受的越来越高的要求。RBS的技术故障竟然导致大约60万笔付和直接扣账交易不知去向。Banks spent about 8bn on IT last year and that figure is expected to grow at close to 5 per cent a year, taking it above 0bn by next year, according to Celent, the research company.研究公司Celent的数据显示,各去年的信息技术出大约为1880亿美元,预计这一数字会以每年近5%的速度递增,明年将达到2000亿美元以上。Many banks, such as RBS, are plagued by computer systems that have been built up over several decades through acquisitions and new product launches to form a costly and complex patchwork of systems.像RBS这样的许多,受到几十年期间逐渐积累的电脑系统的困扰,这些系统可能来自并购,也可能来自新产品推出,它们构成了一个成本高昂的复杂的系统大杂烩。“A lot of these programmes get three-quarters done,” says a senior technology executive at one of the largest US banks. “It’s one of these technical debt problems that builds up over the course of time. If you have one thing happen it might cause the whole thing to fall down.”美国最大之一的一名技术高管表示:“此类程序有许多只能执行四分之三的功能。这就是那种技术‘债务’,它们随着时间的推移而不断积累。一旦出点什么问题,会导致整个系统崩溃。”The cost of maintaining these often ageing and unwieldy systems eats up three-quarters of banks’ IT spending, according to Celent. That leaves only a quarter to spend on innovations to keep up with the rapidly emerging threat from the many technology groups and start-ups trying to steal market share in areas such as payments.据Celent介绍,这些往往老化而不听话的系统的维护成本消耗了IT出的四分之三。也就是说,只有四分之一的出被投入创新技术,以应对正在迅速出现的来自众多高科技集团和初创企业的威胁,后者试图在付等领域窃取的市场份额。“For a sector that spends significantly more on technology than most other sectors in the world, it is the least innovative, so there is a paradox here,” says Bill Michaels, head of financial services in Europe at KPMG.毕马威(KPMG)欧洲金融务部门主管比尔迈克尔(Bill Michael)表示:“对于一个技术设备上投入显著超过世界上其他多数产业的行业,这是最缺乏创新精神的做法。所以说这里存在一个矛盾。”As many banks struggle in the post-financial crisis environment to generate returns above their cost of capital, these spiralling costs and inefficiencies are becoming increasingly unacceptable to both managers and shareholders.由于很多在金融危机后的环境中难以获得高于资金成本的回报,不论对管理人员还是股东来说,这些扶摇直上的成本和低效率正变得越来越不可接受。RBS, which last year paid a record fine to regulators for a bigger systems outage in 2012, hoped to solve its problems by replacing its core processing engine at a cost of 750m. But in a recent interview, chief executive Ross McEwanconceded there was still a big job to reduce the number of systems and applications at RBS from more than 3,000.去年,RBS曾因2012年一次更大规模的系统瘫痪,向监管机构付了创纪录的罚金。该行曾希望投入7.5亿英镑更换其核心处理引擎,以便彻底解决问题。然而,在最近一次访谈中,该行首席执行官罗斯麦克尤恩(Ross McEwan)承认,要把RBS系统和应用软件的数量从3000余个降下来,还需要做很多工作。Asian banks spend more than Europeans or US rivals on IT; their spending is growing faster; and more of their IT money is going on new projects than on maintenance. However, they are hardly glitch-free.亚洲的投入信息技术的资源高于欧美竞争对手。它们的出增长更快,而且它们的信息技术出有更大一部分投向新项目,而不是用于维护旧系统。然而,它们也很难做到零故障运营。In January, a problem in the system linking accounts at Industrial and Commercial Bank of China, the country’s largest lender, with securities brokerages, disrupted Rmb4.9bn in fund transfers, affecting nearly 55,000 customers at 90 brokerages.今年1月,链接中国工商(IC)账户与券商账户的一个系统发生故障,导致49亿元人民币的资金转移中断,影响90家券商的近5.5万用户。工行是中国最大的。As regulators make ever growing demands on banks to provide them with vast amounts of data covering areas from stress tests to anti-money laundering checks, banks are racing to keep their systems up to speed.随着监管机构对提出越来越高的要求,让提交海量数据(涵盖从压力测试到反洗钱检查的方方面面),各正竞相确保各自的系统跟得上。Deutsche Bank insiders blamed its failure in this year’s US stress test on years of under-investment in IT that made it unable to meet US regulators’ demands.德意志(Deutsche Bank)的内部人士将该行今年在美国压力测试中“不及格”归咎于多年来对信息技术投资不足,导致该行达不到美国监管机构的要求。Concern is growing about cyber security after high-profile hacking attacks, such as last year’s theft of data on 76m customers from computer systems at JPMorgan Chase.在出现多起备受关注的黑客攻击事件之后,人们对网络安全的关注日益提高。去年,曾有7600万客户的资料从根大通(JPMorgan Chase)的电脑系统中失窃,这是黑客攻击的一个事例。Executives say this focus on cyber security is a catalyst for change, pushing banks to simplify and upgrade their IT systems. “Making something secure requires it to be consistent and clean and up to date and well managed,” says the US tech executive.高管们表示,对网络安全的这种关注是推动变革的催化剂,它迫使简化和升级其IT系统。上述美国技术高管表示:“要确保安全,就需要做到一致、干净、及时更新至最新状态,并得到优良的管理。”James O’Neill, senior analyst at Celent, predicts that within a decade most big banks will have switched from using costly mainframe computers for overnight processing of customer data to using much more flexible cloud-based services.Celent资深分析师詹姆斯攠尼尔(James O#39;Neill)预计,十年内,多数大将从使用成本高昂的大型计算机对客户数据进行隔夜处理,转向使用灵活得多的云端务。If nothing else, the shortage of developers trained in the Cobol programming language that drives most bank mainframes will force them to make the switch. Australia’s CBA has moved to a cloud-based system, while Deutsche recently outsourced many of its applications to a cloud provider.即使没有其他推动力,受过COBOL语言训练的开发人员的短缺也将迫使完成这一转型。COBOL语言目前驱动着多数大型计算机。澳大利亚的CBA已转向一种基于云技术的系统,而德意志最近也将许多应用程序外包给一家云计算务提供商。“The story about legacy systems impeding innovation is a bit oversold,” says Mr O’Neill. “I’m not saying they will go on for ever, but they have done a pretty decent job of supplying new products and services.”奥尼尔表示:“遗留系统阻碍创新的报道有点言过其实。我并没有说它们会永远运行下去,而是说它们在提供新产品和务方面做得还不错。”Like many sectors, however, banks are realising the need to harness the power of “big data” to offer better digital services to their customers.不过,和许多行业一样,正在认识到需要利用“大数据”的威力,为客户提供更好的数字化务。Mr Michael at KPMG says his banking clients know the stakes are high. “They have seen what technology has done to music and home shopping and so far they have been relatively slow to adapt — but the longer they wait the harder it will get.”毕马威的迈克尔表示,他的客户知道这方面的工作事关重大。“他们看到了技术在音乐和家庭购物领域的威力。迄今他们的适应相对缓慢,但他们等待的时间越长,就越难完成这一调整。” /201508/395598

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