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湖州曙光整形医院祛除腋臭多少钱湖州曙光整形美容医院招风耳整形手术怎么样WASHINGTON The Korean automakers Hyundai Motor and Kia Motors will pay the federal government a combined 0 million in penalties as part of a settlement for overstating vehicle fuel-economy standards on 1.2 million vehicles, the Justice Department and the Environmental Protection Agency announced on Monday.华盛顿——美国司法部(Justice Department)和国家环境保护局(Environmental Protection Agency,简称EPA)周一宣布,韩国汽车制造商现代汽车(Hyundai Motor)和起亚汽Kia Motors)将向联邦政府付总计3亿美元(约合18亿元人民币)罚款。这是就两家制造商夸大120万辆车的节油标准所达成和解的部分内容。The penalty is the largest ever for a violation of the Clean Air Act, government officials said.政府官员称,这是有史以来因违反《清洁空气法Clean Air Act)而开出的最高罚单。Under the agreement, the automakers will pay 0 million in fines and forfeit an estimated 0 million in greenhouse gas emissions credits, which auto companies earn by building vehicles with lower emissions than are required by law.相关协议规定,两家汽车制造商将亿美元罚款,并且估计会失去价亿美元的温室气体排放许可。汽车公司通过生产低于法定排放标准的车辆,才能获得温室气体排放许可。“This type of conduct quite simply will not be tolerated,Attorney General Eric H. Holder Jr., said at a joint news conference at the Justice Department with Gina McCarthy, the E.P.A. administrator. The Justice Department, he added, “will never rest or waver in our determination to take action against any company that engages in such activities.;“决不能姑息这种行为,”司法部长小埃里克·H·霍尔Eric H. Holder Jr.)在司法部与EPA局长吉娜·麦卡锡(Gina McCarthy)举行联合新闻发布会时说。他接着说,司法部“誓要打击从事这类活动的公司,我们的决心绝不会松懈或动摇”。Ms. McCarthy said that the action reinforced her agency’s determination to uphold the Clean Air Act. “Businesses that play by the rules shouldn’t have to compete with those breaking the law,she said.麦卡锡表示,这件事坚定了她领导的EPA捍卫《清洁空气法》的决心。“不应该让那些违法乱纪的企业,和遵纪守法的企业竞争,”她说。In 2012, Hyundai and Kia, which are both owned by the Hyundai Motor Group, admitted that they had overstated the fuel economy of vehicles sold in the ed States over the previous two years. The admission came after an E.P.A. investigation into consumer complaints that their cars were underperforming the official mileage estimates on the window stickers of new cars. Although few drivers achieve the mileage claimed on the stickers, the government requires automakers to conduct standardized tests to calculate the figures so that buyers can more easily compare the fuel efficiency of different models.2012年,同属现代汽车集团(Hyundai Motor Group)的现代汽车和起亚汽车,承认夸大了之前两年在美销售的车辆的节油能力。此前EPA接到消费者投诉,称自己所购车辆的节油性能,低于新车车窗标签上给出的官方节油估值,EPA随即展开调查。尽管几乎没有驾驶员能达到标签上宣称的里程数,政府还是要求汽车制造商进行标准化测试,以计算出相关数据,这样消费者就能更容易地比较不同车型的燃油效率。At the time, both Hyundai and Kia apologized for what they called “procedural errorsin testing that resulted in incorrect mileage stickers on some of their most popular models, including the Hyundai Elantra and Kia Rio. The companies continue to say that the misstatement of fuel mileage was inadvertent and that they did not intentionally mislead customers.当时,现代和起亚均表示道歉,称测试过程中的“程序上的差错”,导致现代伊兰Elantra)和起亚锐Rio)等部分最受欢迎的车型上出现了不正确的里程标签。这两家公司接着表示,错误的燃油里程信息是无意之举,公司并非故意误导消费者。In an emailed statement on Monday, Chris Hosford, a spokesman for Hyundai, wrote: “To be clear, Hyundai’s view is that this was an honest mistake and there was a lack of clarity/broad latitude in E.P.A. rules and guidance that resulted in the issues outlined by the government.”周一,现代汽车发言人克里斯·霍斯福德(Chris Hosford)在一份邮件声明中写道,“必须说明,现代汽车认为这是无心之过,EPA的规定和指导并不明确,缺少足够的回旋余地,导致了政府提出的那些问题。”The settlement comes as the Obama administration has used the Clean Air Act to create and enforce new regulations aimed at reining in planet-warming pollution. In , the E.P.A. released new fuel economy standards requiring automakers to aggressively increase average fuel mileage of passenger vehicles in order to cut carbon emissions from tailpipes.达成和解时,奥巴马政府已经利用《清洁空气法》制定并实施了一些新的监管措施,旨在控制导致全球变暖的污染009年,EPA公布了新的节油标准,要求汽车制造商大幅提高客运车辆的平均燃油里程,以减少碳排放量。On Monday environmentalists praised the penalties on the two automakers.周一,环保人士对处罚两家汽车制造商一事表示赞扬。“For many years, E.P.A. has enforced the Clean Air Act to make sure cars are as clean as they are advertised,said Frank O’Donnell, president of the Group Clean Air Watch. “It is very encouraging to see that E.P.A. plans to make sure that climate-related emissions must also be as advertised.”“多年来,EPA实施了《清洁空气法》,确保车辆像广告说的一样清洁,”洁净空气观察组织(Group Clean Air Watch)主席弗兰克·奥多尼Frank O’Donnell)说。“EPA计划确保与气候有关的排放行为也必须达到广告水平,这让人倍受鼓舞。”E.P.A. officials said they discovered the problems with the Hyundai and Kia vehicles in the course of auditing fuel-economy manufacturing programs. They concluded that the Korean automakerstesting of fuel economy technologies included procedures that led to inaccurately high fuel-economy ratings for vehicles including Hyundai’s Accent, Elantra, Veloster and Santa Fe vehicles and Kia’s Rio and Soul vehicles.EPA官员表示,他们在审计节油型汽车生产项目的过程中发现了现代及起亚汽车的问题。他们断定,韩国汽车制造商节油技术测试中的一些程序导致汽车的节油性能评级偏高,出现不准确的数据,比如现代的雅绅特(Accent)、伊兰特、飞Veloster)和圣达菲(Santa Fe),以及起亚的锐欧和秀Soul)车型。That testing was done entirely in laboratories in Korea, government officials said. They said that as part of the settlement, the companies would pay to build a separate, American-based center for testing vehicle fuel economy.政府官员称,这些测试全部在韩国的实验室完成。他们表示,作为和解的一部分,两家公司将出资在美国建立测试中心,检测汽车的节油性能。来 /201411/340796湖州中心医院激光祛太田痣多少钱 SYDNEY, Australia Australia is close to signing an agreement to ship live cattle to China, opening up a significant market for producers, who said exports could grow to 1 million animals a year, driven by demand there for fresh beef.澳大利亚悉尼——澳大利亚即将与中国签订活牛出口协议,为供应商打开一个重要市场。供应商们称,由于受到中国对新鲜牛肉的需求的推动,每年的活牛出口量可能会增长00万头。The agreement could eventually result in a doubling of Australias export volumes for live cattle. It is likely to increase competition for beef and help lift prices, both in the domestic market and among other buyers of the countrys live cattle, including Indonesia and Vietnam, producers said.该协议可能最终会使澳大利亚的活牛出口量增加一倍。供应商称,这可能会在澳大利亚国内,以及包括印度尼西亚、越南在内的其他活牛进口国,加剧牛肉市场的竞争,进而推高价格。“We are on the cusp of a new major announcement for the Australian beef industry,Agriculture Minister Barnaby Joyce told reporters Friday in Tamworth, an agricultural center north of Sydney.澳大利亚农业部长巴纳比·乔伊斯(Barnaby Joyce)周五在塔姆沃思对记者表示,“我们即将宣布一项对澳大利亚牛肉产业相当重要的消息。”塔姆沃思位于悉尼以北,是一个农业中心。He said that quarantine officials in Australia and China had worked for about 10 years on the export agreement and that the deal was separate from a trade agreement that is in the final round of negotiations between the two countries.他表示,澳中两国的检疫人员为这项出口协议已经努力了大0年,而且这份出口协议并不属于澳中两国之间,谈判已经进入最后一轮的一项贸易协定。Alison Penfold, chief executive of the Australian Livestock Exporters Council, said industry and government officials had worked intensively on the agreement during the past 12 months. Completion of the deal rests with the Chinese General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine. The final hurdles involve Australias meeting health protocols commonly applied to live exports, including disease-free cattle, testing, quarantine periods and treatment for parasites like ticks, Penfold said.澳大利亚牲畜出口商委员会(Australian Livestock ExportersCouncil)首席执行官艾利森·彭福尔德(Alison Penfold)表示,业内官员及政府官员在过2月里,就这项协议密集地开展工作。协议的达成取决于中国国家质量监督检验检疫总局。彭福尔德表示,最后的障碍是,澳方要满足通常适用于活体动物出口的卫生要求,其中涉及确保活牛无病、检测、检疫期,以及壁虱等寄生虫的处理。“This is obviously a big market signal,Joyce said. He added: “Youre about to be paying more for cattle, and this is good,referring to producers hopes that the price of beef would rise from around 2 Australian dollars a kilogram a bit less than 阅读提示:中文在上,对照英文在下。几年前,我听一位欧洲政客在饭后发表了一次演讲,他不仅在本国的政治生活中发挥着领导作用,还在欧EU)的委员会中担任要职。当晚,这位政客对欧洲的价值观(文化、团结)及其制度的质量大加赞赏,得到了听众的普遍认同。他接着强调了欧盟更广泛推广这些价值观以及制度的必要性。A few years ago, I heard an after-dinner speech from a European statesman, a person who has played a leading role not only in the political life of his own country but in the councils of the EU. The speaker that evening lauded, to general agreement, Europe’s values its culture, its solidarity and the quality of its institutions. He went on to stress the need for the union to propagate these values and institutions more widely.一些与我坐在同桌的人和我一样尴尬不已。让我难受的是,类似的话我也可以塞到世界历史上一些最不受欢迎的人物嘴里。这位政客描述的欧盟是一个帝国主义计划。炫耀大英帝国的人们曾经唱道:“你的疆土会越来越广,让你变得强大的上帝会让你变得更强大。”英国人或许还会唱“希望与荣耀之国Land of Hope and Glory),但他们对于歌词已不再当真。然而,欧盟扩张的远景也是如此。The discomfiture I felt was shared by some of those sitting with me at the table. My problem was that I could have put similar words into the mouths of some of the most unpleasant figures in world history. The EU that the speaker described was an imperialist project. Those who proclaimed the British empire used to sing: “Wider still, and wider, may thy bounds be set. God who made thee mighty, make thee mightier yet.Britons may still sing “Land of Hope and Glorybut they no longer take the words seriously. Yet the expansion of the EU embraced a similar vision.对于现代欧洲的缔造者来说,更广泛的同盟与更紧密的同盟同样重要。欧盟在希腊结束军事统治后仓促接受其加入欧盟,希望该国维持其脆弱的民主制度;西班牙和葡萄牙也很快被准许加入。所有后共产主义国家,只要有诚实程度说得过去的民主制度(有的连这个也没有),都获得了入盟许可。创建法国和德国货币联盟的雄心勃勃的计划扩大了范围,降低了加入标准,把大多数欧盟成员国包括在内。加入欧盟的主要条件变成了愿意。For the builders of modern Europe, wider union has been as important as closer union. Greece was hastily admitted in the hope of sustaining its fragile democracy after the end of military rule; Spain and Portugal followed soon after. Every post-communist state with passably honest and democratic institutions, and some without, has secured admission. The ambitious project of creating monetary union between France and Germany was extended, by lowering admission standards, to include most EU members. The principal qualification for membership of a European club has been the desire to join.当然1世纪的欧洲与19世纪0世纪的帝国有着巨大差异:特别是,传统的帝国主义者不寻求被殖民者的同意,同时它们压制多数民主表达形式。然而,如今希腊可能不会认为两者之间的差异特别大。Of course, there are big differences between the Europe of the 21st century and the empires of the 19th and 20th: notably, traditional imperialists did not seek the consent of those they colonised and they suppressed most forms of democratic expression. Yet Greeks today might not perceive these differences as being particularly large.因此,问题是,与历史上很多帝国主义计划一样,欧洲一体化的地域界限是否超越了它能够合理维持的限度。欧盟如今面临的两个关系存亡的问题突显出这点:与俄罗斯的地缘政治冲突,以及经济体与欧元区之间的紧张关系。So the question is whether, like so many imperialist projects throughout history, the European project has stretched its territorial boundaries beyond the limits it can plausibly sustain. That question is highlighted by the two existential problems the EU faces today: the geopolitical confrontation with Russia, and the troubled relationship between peripheral economies and the eurozone.除了1941-42年纳粹占领欧洲大部分领土的时候(人们最好忘记这个先例),西欧边界向东推进已达到历史最远。乌克兰危机考验的是,如此大规模的政治、经济和最终的军事持的隐含承诺,在被要求兑现时能在多大程度上得到保持。波罗的海国家有合理理由对新盟友承诺的可靠性感到担忧。The boundaries of western Europe have been pushed as far east as at any time in history, save for the best forgotten precedent of the Nazi occupation of most of the continent in 1941-42. The Ukraine crisis tests how far implied promises of political, economic and ultimately military support in that extension will be maintained when called on. The Baltic states have reasonable cause to feel nervous about the solidity of the commitment of their new allies.现在几乎无人可以质疑这点:一开始让希腊加入欧元区是一个错误。这不仅仅是一个经济问题:捏造数据、挥霍过度以及无法偿还债务。希腊的核心问题是该国的政治制度不够成熟,无法实施有力的国家治理或经济管理,也无法以负责任的方式与西欧机构合作。希腊并非欧盟唯一一个可以适用这种批评的成员国。Few people can now doubt that it was a mistake to let Greece join the euro in the first place. And this is not just a matter of economics the fudged data, profligate spending and unpayable debts. The central Greek problem is that the country’s political institutions are not sufficiently mature to effect competent administration or economic management, or to engage in a responsible manner with the institutions of western Europe. And Greece is not the only member state of the EU to which that critique could be applied.历史上的帝国通常都是因为过度扩张而灭亡,过度扩张会导致国家人口难以驾驭,接着导致扩张计划的合理性在本国内遭到质疑。如今,欧洲也可见这些征兆。欧盟一直以来取得成功的途径是,总比欧盟机构能够游刃有余地持、或人民准备好接受的水平更多一点和更快一点地推动一体化。或许这项雄心勃勃的战略现在已经走得太远了。The empires of history have generally collapsed from overstretch, which led to restive populations on the peripheries, and then to doubts about the wisdom of the project in the home country itself. These symptoms are recognisable in Europe today. The EU has achieved its successes by always pushing integration a little further and faster than its institutions would easily support or its populations ily accept. Perhaps that ambitious strategy has now been taken a step too far. /201507/386349.80 a pound to above 3 Australian dollars, as demand for exports squeezes prices higher in domestic and existing offshore markets.乔伊斯说,“这明显是一个重要的市场信号。”他还表示,“牛的价格会上涨,这是好事。”他指的是,随着出口需求推高国内市场及现有海外市场上牛肉的价格,供应商们希望价格能从每公斤两澳元(约合10.6元人民币)提高到三澳元以上。Australia exports about 1.13 million cattle a year, worth about 0 million, to Indonesia, Vietnam and Israel, and an agreement was recently reached with Cambodia. Warriner cautioned that the exports to China would build slowly and take some time to reach 1 million.澳大利亚每年向印度尼西亚、越南、以色列出口大约113万头牛,价.6亿美元,而且澳大利亚最近也与柬埔寨达成了协议。北领地养牛业协Northern Territory Cattlemen’s Association)会长戴维·沃里David Warriner)警告称,对中国的出口将会慢慢增加,需要一段时间才能达00万头。Exporters were more upbeat.出口商则比较乐观。“Our biggest market is Indonesia,said Mauro Balzarini, owner of Australias largest privately owned cattle exporting company, Wellard, which buys and ships about 400,000 head of cattle mostly to Indonesia and Vietnam each year. “We hope once the market in China opens up, we wont just export live cattle, but we will have joint ventures as well for processing, in places like Beijing.”“我们最大的市场是印度尼西亚,”澳大利亚最大的私人牲畜出口公司Wellard的老板莫罗·巴尔扎里Mauro Balzarini)说。“我们希望等中国市场打开了,就不只出口活牛,也会在北京等地方建立加工肉类的合资企业。”该公司每年收购并出口大0万头牛,主要销往印度尼西亚和越南。来 /201411/341773Just as the top EU official for migration was urging the White House to be “more generousin accepting Syrian refugees, Paris was struck by a series of attacks that immediately boosted political opposition to his pitch.就在欧盟负责移民事务的最高官员敦促美国政府“更大方地”接收叙利亚难民之际,他的这一论调因巴黎遭受的一系列恐怖袭击而在顷刻之间面临更强烈的政治反对。As in some other countries, the massacres have been co-opted by critics of refugee policy. The US in September agreed to accept 10,000 Syrian refugees over the next year, up from 1,500, under pressure from Europe.像其他一些国家一样,这场大屠杀在美国也成为难民政策批评者炒作的题材月份,在欧洲的施压下,美国答应在接下来的一年里接收1万名叙利亚难民(原先500名)。The fear that terrorists could enter the US masked as refugees was exacerbated after a Syrian passport was found near the body of one of the attackers. Many of the Republican presidential contenders and other party members now want the White House to scrap or defer the Syrian refugee programme.在巴黎警方发现一名袭击者的尸体旁有一本叙利亚护照后,人们更加担心恐怖分子可能佯装成难民进入美国。目前,很多共和党总统参选人和其他党员都希望白宫取消或推迟收容叙利亚难民的计划。Frank Luntz, a pollster, said the refugee issue and its impact on the immigration debate in the 2016 campaign would be significant, particularly for the Republicans. But he said both parties were “stoking it for their own political purposes民意调查专家弗兰克伦Frank Luntz)称,016年选战中,难民议题及其对移民辩论的影响将是重头戏,特别是对共和党而言。但他表示,两党都会“出于自身的政治目的而煽动这件事”。Robert Bentley, the Republican governor of Alabama, on Sunday said he would oppose any efforts to place refugees in the southern state.美国南部阿拉巴马州的州长、共和党人罗伯特本特Robert Bentley)上周日称,他将反对一切在该州安置难民的努力。“After full consideration of this weekend’s attacks of terror on innocent citizens in Paris, I will oppose any attempt to relocate Syrian refugees to Alabama,said Mr Bentley. “I will not stand complicit to a policy that places the citizens of Alabama in harm’s way.”“在全面考虑了上周末针对巴黎无辜平民的恐怖袭击后,我将反对一切在阿拉巴马州安置叙利亚难民的企图。”本特利称,“我不会成为将阿拉巴马州公民置于险境的政策的合谋者。”Ben Carson, the retired brain surgeon leading the Republican field with Donald Trump, said allowing refugees from the Middle East into the US was a “huge mistake与唐纳德礠朗Donald Trump)一起在共和党总统候选人阵营中领跑的退休脑外科医生本愠Ben Carson)称,允许中东难民进入美国是一个“巨大的错误”。“Why wouldn’t [terror groups] infiltrate them with people who are ideologically opposed to us?he said. “To bring them here under these circumstances is a suspension of intellect.”“(恐怖组织)为什么不把在意识形态上反对我们的人混入难民之中?”他说,“在这种情况下让他们来这里是大脑短路的行为。”Mr Trump said it was “insanethat Mr Obama wanted to accept 250,000 refugees, exaggerating the number. After previously saying the US should accept more refugees because of the “unbelievable humanitarian problem he has since said he would deport all Syrians if he became president.特朗普表示,奥巴马欲接收25万难民(数字被夸大了)简直是“疯了”。特朗普此前表示,美国应该接收更多难民,因为这是一个“非同寻常的人道主义问题”。但他后来已改口称,如果他当选总统,将驱逐所有叙利亚人。While some Republicans are playing the xenophobia card to rally the base, all the party’s contenders worry about the US’s ability to screen refugees.虽然打仇外牌来积攒人气的是部分共和党人,但该党所有的总统候选人都担心美国是否有能力筛查难民。“We won’t be able to take more refugees. It’s not that we don’t want to, it’s that we can’t,said Marco Rubio, the Cuban-American senator. “There’s no way to background check someone that’s coming from Syria. Who do you call and do a background check on them?”“我们没能力接收更多难民,不是我们不想接收,而是我们没能力,”古巴裔参议员马尔科脠比Marco Rubio)称,“我们没有办法对正从叙利亚来的某个人进行背景调查。你给谁打电话来对他们做背景调查?”Ben Rhodes, deputy national security adviser, rejected those claims, saying authorities had “very extensive screening procedures But some officials in charge of vetting applicants have conceded that there is a risk of infiltration.美国副国家安全顾问本圠祿(Ben Rhodes)不认可这些说法,称当局有“非常广泛的筛查程序”。但一些负责审查申请者的官员承认,的确存在渗透的风险。James Comey, FBI director, recently told Congress that while there were challenges screening Iraqi refugees, the process was tougher for Syria. “The only thing we can query is information that we have. So, if we have no information on someone, they’ve never crossed our radar screen . . . it will be challenging,he said.美国联邦调查局(FBI)局长詹姆斯科米(James Comey)最近告诉国会,虽然说筛查伊拉克难民存在一些挑战,但筛查叙利亚难民的难度更大。“我们唯一能够提出问题的东西就是我们已经拥有的信息。因此,如果我们不掌握某个人的信息,他们从未出现在我们的雷达屏幕上……这就难办了,”他表示。Protests have flared around the US over the issue. Some counties in South Carolina have passed resolutions against the so-called “Refugee Resettlement Project While some concerns have been sparked by the rise of Isis and images of Syrians fleeing into Europe, there have been cases, including one in Kentucky, where refugees in the US were convicted of providing support for terrorists.美国各地围绕这个问题已经爆发了抗议。南卡罗来纳州的一些县已通过决议,反对所谓的“难民安置计划”。一些忧虑是由ISIS的崛起以及逃入欧洲的叙利亚人的形象引发的,还有一些是因为一些进入美国的难民被判定向恐怖分子提供持,包括肯塔基州的一个案子。In the wake of the Paris attacks, the White House is caught between European allies who want the US to bear a bigger burden and Republicans who say the administration must prioritise citizenssafety.巴黎遇袭后,白宫被夹在了一个左右为难的境地中——一边是希望美国承担更大责任的欧洲盟友,另一边是申明美国政府必须以公民安全为先的共和党人。It has also forced a wedge between Democrats and Republicans. During the Democratic presidential debate on Saturday, Hillary Clinton, former secretary of state, and Martin O’Malley, former Maryland governor, both said the US should accept 65,000 Syrian refugees as long as they were properly vetted. Mr O’Malley said that was “akin to making room for 6.5 more people in a baseball stadium with 32,000此事还在民主党和共和党之间打下了一个楔子。在上周六的民主党总统候选人辩论中,前国务卿希拉里克林顿(Hillary Clinton)和马里兰州前州长马丁攠汙Martin O’Malley)都表示,美国应接.5万名叙利亚难民,只要他们经过了适当的审查。奥马利表示,这“类似于在一个能容纳3.2万人的棒球场里再.5个人腾出一些位置”。Larry Sabato, a University of Virginia politics expert, said the attacks would make Republicans “even more anti-immigrationand force more moderate candidates, such as Mr Rubio and Jeb Bush, to take a tougher stance, which could hurt the party’s standing with non-white voters in the general election. But he said the Democrats also faced a conundrum since it was “hard to see how they can continue to support absorbing 10,000 Syrians into the US弗尼吉亚大学(University of Virginia)政治专家拉里萨巴Larry Sabato)表示,此次袭击会使共和党人“更加反移民”,并迫使鲁比奥和杰布布什(Jeb Bush)等较温和的总统候选人采取更强硬的立场,这可能会在大选中伤及共和党在非白人选民心中的声望。但他表示,民主党人也面临一个难题,因为“很难看出他们如何能够继续持美国接万名叙利亚难民”。来 /201511/410737德清县瑞兰美白针多少钱

安吉县妇幼保健院整形中心WASHINGTON In a series of sweeping campaigns to revive the American economy, the Federal Reserve has spent much of the last six years purchasing trillions of dollars of bonds. Now it is done.华盛顿——在一系列推动美国经济复苏的大手笔动作中,美联Federal Reserve)过去六年中的大量时间,都用在了购买价值数万亿美元的债券上。如今,它要收手了。The Fed said on Wednesday that the economy no longer needed quite so much help. It is the third time since 2008 the Fed has announced such a move, but this time officials and analysts say the decision is more likely to stick, marking an important milestone in the nations painfully slow recovery from the Great Recession.美联储在周三表示,美国经济不再需要这么多帮助了。这是美联储008年以来第三次做出类似表态,但这一次,官员和分析人士称,这一决策更有可能实施下去。在美国从大衰退(Great Recession)中缓慢复苏的痛苦过程中,这将是一座重要的里程碑。The central bank still plans to keep short-term interest rates near zero for a ;considerable time,; it said in a statement after a two-day meeting of its policy-making committee. And it said it would replace maturing bonds to keep its holdings at about .5 trillion.作为美国的中央,美联储在一份声明中表示,仍计划在“相当一段时间里”,将短期利率维持在接近零的水平。在发布该声明前,美联储负责决策的委员会举行了一次为期两天的会议。美联储还表示将置换即将到期的债券,从而将债券持有量保持在大约4.5万亿美元(约7.5万亿元人民币)的水平。The bond-buying campaign has helped to fuel one of the longest bull markets in American history. The Standard amp; Poors 500-stock index has increased by 131 percent since the Fed started its first round of purchases in November 2008. The campaign has also helped to suppress borrowing costs. The yield on the benchmark 10-year Treasury has declined from 2.96 percent to 2.32 percent over the same period, even as economic conditions have improved.采购债券的行动帮助刺激了美国历史上持续时间最长的牛市之一。自美联0081月开始第一轮购买行动以来,标准普尔500股票指数(Standard amp; Poors 500)上涨31%。购买行动也帮助抑制了借贷成本。在同一时期,十年期基准国债的收益率从2.96%降至2.32%,尽管经济状况已有所改善。The impact on the rest of the economy is much harder to assess. The Fed, and its supporters, say the purchases have held down the cost of mortgage loans and corporate debt, contributing to faster job growth. Other economists dismiss the purchases as inconsequential. And some say the Fed has exacerbated economic inequalities by helping to boost financial markets while the rest of the economy languishes.评估这些操作对整体经济的影响,则要难得多。美联储及其持者称,债券购买压低了抵押贷款的成本和企业债务,也推动就业实现了更快的增长。但其他一些经济学家则认为,债券购买的作用无关紧要。此外,还有一些人表示,美联储在其他经济领域低迷之际,帮助刺激金融市场的作法,加剧了经济不平等。The dire predictions of the Feds critics, however, have clearly failed to materialize. Some Fed officials and economists warned that the bond purchases, often referred to by experts as quantitative easing, or QE, would devalue the dollar and drive up inflation. So far the opposite has happened.但显然,指责美联储的人士做出的可怕预测并未成为现实。一些美联储官员和经济学家曾警告,通常被专家称作“量化宽松”(quantitative easing,简称QE)的债券购买行动,会导致美元贬值,抬高通货膨胀水平。但迄今为止,事实却正相反。The American economy has outperformed other developed parts of the world, helping to strengthen the dollar, while inflation has remained so sluggish that the greater worry is now whether prices are rising too slowly.美国经济的表现超越了世界其他发达国家,帮助美元走强,而通胀水平依然很低,以至于现在更令人担忧的问题是,物价的上涨是否太慢了。Kim Schoenholtz, a professor of economics at New York University, said the Feds bond purchases were particularly effective and important in stabilizing the financial system and stimulating the broader economy in the immediate aftermath of the financial crisis. But he said the impact of the purchases had diminished as conditions improved, and that it now made sense to end the program.纽约大学(New York University)经济学教授基姆·舍恩霍尔茨(Kim Schoenholtz)表示,在金融危机刚结束后,美联储购买债券的行动,对于稳定金融体系和刺激整体经济特别有效。但他表示随着情况的好转,债券购买的效果减弱了,并称现在结束该计划是合理的;I applaud the Feds willingness to be aggressive especially early on in the crisis and it has made sense for the Fed to run a very accommodative policy,; Mr. Schoenholtz said. ;But we should not be surprised that monetary policy has diminishing returns.;“我要称赞美联储,它愿意大胆行动,特别是在危机早期,而且美联储实行非常宽松的政策是合理的,”舍恩霍尔茨说。“但货币政策产生的回报正在减少,这一点我们不应该感到惊讶。”Mr. Schoenholtz added that the Feds quick and strong response helped to explain why the Fed was nearer to achieving its economic objectives than the European Central Bank or the Bank of Japan, both of which are now battling to avoid deflation. On Monday, the E.C.B. disclosed the first purchases in a planned campaign to buy private-sector assets, a kind of entry-level quantitative easing. But the amount the central bank bought, just 1.7 billion euros worth, was considered a drop in the bucket by analysts, and fueled speculation the E.C.B. will soon be forced to take larger steps.舍恩霍尔茨接着表示,迅速而有力的应对,有助于解释为何与欧洲中央银European Central Bank)和日本银Bank of Japan)相比,美联储距离实现经济目标更为接近。周一,欧洲央行公布了首批购买私营部门资产的计划,相当于初级的量化宽松。但欧洲央行购买的资产仅价7亿欧元(约合130亿元人民币),分析人士认为只是沧海一粟,此举也加剧了外界的猜测,认为欧洲央行很快就会被迫采取更大规模的举措。House Republicans regard the bond purchases as a form of reckless meddling, and they have passed legislation to constrain the Feds flexibility during future downturns. ;Im afraid the long-term legacy of the policy will reflect the harm it has done to our nations seniors, savers, and all Americans faced with greater uncertainty and the possibility of a QE-induced bubble,; Representative Randy Neugebauer, a Texas Republican, said Wednesday.共和党众议员认为美联储的购债行动是一种草率的干预,他们已经通过了法案,限制美联储在未来经济下行时采取行动的灵活性。德克萨斯州共和党众议员兰迪·诺伊格鲍Randy Neugebauer)周三说,“我担心,该政策的长期影响在于,它对老年人、储蓄者和所有面临较大不确定性的美国人所造成的伤害,以及可能由量化宽松引发的泡沫。”Others, meanwhile, say the economy remains weak, the purchases remain an effective medicine, and the Fed is retreating prematurely. Narayana Kocherlakota, president of the Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis, cast the sole dissenting vote Wednesday, arguing inflation was rising too slowly to stop buying bonds.但与此同时,另外一些人却表示,目前的经济仍然乏力,债券购买仍然是一剂良药,美联储的撤出为时过早。明尼阿波利斯联邦储备银Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis)行长纳拉亚纳·柯薛拉柯Narayana Kocherlakota)周三投了唯一的反对票。他主张,通胀水平仍然过低,因此不应该停止购买债券。The Fed started buying bonds for the first time in modern times because it had run out of other options. Under Ben S. Bernanke, then the Feds chairman, the central bank cut its benchmark short-term interest rate to zero in December 2008, maxing out its primary means of influencing economic conditions. Mr. Bernanke had argued years earlier that central banks could further reduce borrowing costs by purchasing long-term bonds. The idea was that reducing the supply would force investors to accept lower interest rates from borrowers.美联储在现代历史上首次开始债券购买,是因为它当时已经别无选择0082月,在时任美联储主席本·S·伯南Ben S. Bernanke)的领导下,这家央行将短期基准利率降到了零,把它所拥有的影响经济环境的最主要手段用到了极限。几年前,伯南克曾表示,央行应该通过购买长期债券,进一步降低借贷成本。这背后的想法是,通过减少供应,使投资者不得不接受让借款者付较低的利率。Under Mr. Bernanke and then under his successor, Janet L. Yellen, the Fed proceeded to expand its holdings of Treasury and mortgage-backed securities to .5 trillion from less than trillion.在伯南克及其继任者珍妮特·L·耶伦(Janet L. Yellen)的领导下,美联储不断增持国债和抵押贷款担保券,从不到1万亿美元,增加到.5万亿美元。Looking back on the results earlier this year, Mr. Bernanke, now a fellow at the Brookings Institution, quipped, ;Well, the problem with Q.E. is it works in practice, but it doesnt work in theory.;回顾今年早些时候的经济数据,目前在布鲁金斯学会(Brookings Institution)担任研究员的伯南克不无讽刺地说,“嗯,量化宽松的问题在于,它在实际应用中行得通,在理论上却行不通。”The tapering of bond purchases has not shaken the conviction of investors that the Fed is unlikely to raise interest rates before the middle of next year.逐渐减少购债规模并没有动摇投资者的一个想法,即美联储不太可能在明年中期之前提高利率。Barbara J. Cummings, director of fixed income at Boston Private Wealth Management, said the low rates highlighted the relative impotence of Fed policy. ;I really believe that rates will continue to stay low because I think that there are other factors that are larger than what the Fed was doing,; she said, citing concerns about Europe that are driving flows of money into Treasuries.波士顿私人财富管理公Boston Private Wealth Management)固定收益总监芭芭拉·J·康明Barbara J. Cummings)说,低利率显示出,美联储政策效果较为有限。她说,“我相信利率将继续保持在低位,因为我认为还有其他比美联储的政策更重要的因素。”她提到,在对欧洲经济的担忧之下,投资者将资金用于购买美国国债。The Fed has not ruled a resumption of bond purchases. But the progress of the economic recovery makes that seem increasingly unlikely. Through September, employers this year have added an average of 227,000 jobs a month, and the unemployment rate has fallen faster than expected, to 5.9 percent. The Fed upgraded its appraisal of labor market conditions in its statement Wednesday, saying that ;underutilization of labor market resources is gradually diminishing.; The Fed also sought to downplay the concerns about the slow pace of inflation, saying that the likelihood of persistently low inflation has actually diminished since earlier this year.美联储并没有排除在未来恢复债券购买,不过经济复苏的进展让出现这种情况的可能性越来越小。今年截月,平均每月新增22.7万个就业岗位,失业率的下降速度超出预期,已降至5.9%。在周三的声明中,美联储对劳动力市场状况给出了更高的评价,称“劳动力市场资源未充分利用的状况正逐步缓解”。美联储还寻求弱化人们对通胀水平过低的担忧,称从今年早些时候开始,通胀长期处在低位的可能性已经降低。When the Fed first hinted that this day was coming in the summer of 2013, investors panicked and markets convulsed. But the Fed avoided a repeat by loudly announcing a schedule for the retreat and then adhering to it with absolute fidelity. Carl R. Tannenbaum, chief economist at Northern Trust, said that he hoped the Fed would emulate the clarity of its retreat from bond-buying as it moved toward raising interest rates. ;I do think this has been a success story,; he said. ;Im hoping that when the time comes to raise interest rates that theyll do an equally clear job of foreshadowing that.;2013年夏天,美联储首次暗示将减少购债时,投资者陷入恐慌,市场出现震荡。但美联储公开宣布了退出的时间表,并且严格恪守该计划,从而避免了市场波动的重演。北方信Northern Trust)首席经济师卡尔·R·坦嫩鲍姆(Carl R. Tannenbaum)说,他希望美联储在采取行动提高利率之时,可以像退出债券购买计划那样步骤清晰。“我认为这是一个成功的例子,”他说。“我希望他们在提高利率时,也同样能给出清晰的计划。”But a voice from the past, former Fed chairman Alan Greenspan, warned Wednesday in New York that the next phase of the Feds retreat would not unfold so smoothly. Asked whether the Fed could avoid turmoil, Mr. Greenspan responded, ;I dont think its possible.;但一个来自过去的声音——前美联储主席艾伦·格林斯Alan Greenspan)——周三在纽约警告说,美联储退出计划的下一阶段,不会进行得那么顺利。在被问到美联储能否避免市场动荡时,格林斯潘回答说,“我认为那不可能。”来 /201410/339400湖州脸上痘印如何祛除 湖州三院玻尿酸多少钱

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