湖州祛额头纹美丽新闻
时间:2018年12月12日 15:38:05

Bigger isn’t always better. 体积大未必就是好的。People who are skeptical about this argument just need look at smartphones and personal computers, which have served as the technological driving force of the past century. 智能手机和电脑代表了20世纪科技发展的驱动力,任何人只要看到它们,就会打消对上述这句话的疑虑。It is the continual shrinkage of components that have unleashed the explosion of computing power and enabled these gadgets to be accessible to people across the world.正是由于零部件的不断缩小,这些科技设备的运算效率才得以释放,让它火遍全球。Inspired by this, researchers and scientists have been working on areas where making things small may mean big results. 受此启发,研究者和科学家们都致力于研发体积小却意义重大的科技成果。And this year, the Nobel Prize has defied the convention of celebrating big by presenting the biggest prizes to discoveries on the smallest scales.而今年的诺贝尔奖,更是一反过往青睐大型科技成果的传统,将大奖颁给了体积最小的科学新发现。The Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine was awarded to a cellular-level experiment. 今年的诺贝尔生理学或医学奖花落一项细胞层面的实验成果。The committee *bestowed the award upon Yoshinori Ohsumi of the Tokyo Institute of Technology, for his research on *autophagy, which is a self-eating process seen in cells.评委会将奖项授予了来自东京工业大学的大隅良典,以表彰他在细胞自噬作用研究上所做的贡献。What’s more, in recognition of their working on the bizarre properties of matter in extreme states and taking their research all the way down to an atomic scale, the Nobel Prize for physics was awarded to three British-born scientists who currently work in the US.而诺贝尔物理学奖则颁给了三位生于英国、目前正在美国工作的科学家,肯定了他们对极端状态下物质的特异属性所做的原子级研究。Another exceptional new field is that of nanotechnology. 另一个出人意料的新领域是纳米技术。The Nobel Prize in chemistry was awarded to a scientist who managed to build the world’s tiniest machines out of molecules. 诺贝尔化学奖颁给了一位尝试制作世界上最小的分子机器的科学家。These contraptions, including a nano-sized car, are so small that they’re invisible to the human eye.这些包括纳米汽车在内的轻巧设计小得甚至连肉眼都不可见。Microscopic as the subjects are, the benefits of the scientists’ research are set to be huge. 尽管这些物质都十分微小,但相关科研成果的意义却是巨大的。More importantly, their inventions may even eventually be turned into products that benefit mankind.更重要的是,这些发明在将来或许还能投入生产,造福人类。Ohsumi’s research on autophagy shines a light on ubiquitous diseases such as Parkinson’s and diabetes.大隅在自噬作用上的研究成果,为帕金森病、糖尿病等常见疾病的治疗带来了一线希望。As for the molecular motors, they’re geared up to bring huge potential to the fields of medicine and energy. 而分子马达将会为医药和能源领域带来巨大的潜力。The ground-breaking discoveries in physics, have ignited a firestorm of research, and it’s only a matter of time before their research leads to advances as unimaginable to us now as lasers and computer chips were a hundred years ago, Laura H. Greene, president-elect of the American Physical Society told The New York Times.物理学界这一开拓性的发现已经点燃科学研究的星星之火,而他们的这项研究发展为前沿科技,也不过是时间早晚的事罢了,就像100年前我们无法想象今天的激光和电脑芯片那样,美国物理学会候选会长劳拉#8226;H#8226;格林在接受《纽约时报》采访时表示。 /201610/472224

Iraq’s prime minister, Haider al-Abadi, says the operation to retake Mosul from Islamic State is going much faster than expected.伊拉克总理阿巴迪表示,从伊斯兰国手中收复苏尔的行动进展比预期要快得多。He spoke in Paris where foreign ministers from Western and Middle Eastern nations have been meeting to discuss how to restore peace and stability once the Islamic State group is ousted from Mosul.阿巴迪是在巴黎与西方和中东国家外长会晤时说的这番话,这次会议讨论了把伊斯兰国极端组织从苏尔赶走后应该如何恢复和平与稳定。The Pentagon announced that a U.S. service member was killed in a blast northern Iraq but it was unclear if the incident was linked to the Mosul operation.美国国防部宣布,一名美国军人在伊拉克北部的一次炸弹爆炸中丧生, 但目前还不清楚这次爆炸是否与苏尔行动有关。On Wednesday, the U.S. general running the coalition ground campaign in Iraq urged Iraqi forces fighting for Mosul not to ;go so fast that they start to give opportunity to the enemy.;星期三,负责联军伊拉克地面作战的美国将领呼吁进攻苏尔的伊拉克军队不要 “急于求成,给敌人可乘之机”。 /201610/473559

How far would you go to show your religious faith? Some families in rural India — both Hindus and Muslims — are willing to let their babies be tossed off the roof of a shrine, to be caught in a stretched bedsheet about 30 feet below.为了展现对宗教信仰的虔诚,你会走多远?印度乡间的一些家庭——不论是印度教徒还是穆斯林——都乐于让他们的婴儿被人从一座神庙的屋顶抛下,再用一张摊开的床单在下方约30英尺(约合9.1米)处接住。The ritual, long popular in Maharashtra and Karnataka States, dates back almost 700 years, to a time when infant mortality was high, medical knowledge was scant and families had few places to turn for help.这种仪式在马哈拉施特拉邦和卡纳塔克邦流行已久,可以追溯到大约700年前。那时,婴儿的死亡率很高,医疗知识匮乏,人们求助无门。Legend has it that a saint advised people whose babies were dying to build a shrine and drop the ailing infants from the roof to show their trust in the almighty. When they did so, the story goes, the babies were miraculously cradled to safety in a hammock-like sheet that appeared in midair.相传有一位圣人建议家有濒死婴儿的人建一座神庙,再把病婴从屋顶抛下,用以展示他们对万能之神的信仰。据说当他们这样做的时候,半空中出现了一张吊床状的床单,奇迹般地把婴儿安全接住。From then on, prayers for the birth of a healthy baby in the region have included a promise to toss the baby as an offering to the god who granted the prayers. Villagers believe that the ritual brings the child long life and good luck, and maintain that it does no harm.从那时起,当地祈求生下健康宝宝的人便发愿,如果他们梦想成真,就把宝宝从屋顶抛下,作为对神的供奉。村民们认为这种仪式会给孩子带来长寿和好运,并且坚信它没有任何危害。The practice came under fire in 2009, when a widely circulated recorded at the Baba Umer Dargah, a shrine in Solapur, Maharashtra, prompted the National Commission for Protection of Child Rights to intervene. The commission investigated and ordered that the baby-tossing be stopped.这种做法在2009年遭到了抨击。当时,在马哈拉施特拉邦肖拉普尔一座名为巴巴乌默尔达加(Baba Umer Dargah)的神庙录制的一段视频广为流传,招致印度国家儿童权益保护委员会(National Commission for Protection of Child Rights)的介入。该委员会展开了调查,并勒令不得再举办抛婴仪式。“We do not support this superstitious practice,” said G. Mohanty, a media adviser at the commission. “It is against the interest of the children. They may be really scared, and nobody knows how it affects their psyche.”“我们不持这种迷信的做法,”该委员会媒体发言人G#8226;莫汉蒂(G. Mohanty)说。“它危害了相关儿童的利益。他们可能非常害怕,而且没人知道他们的心理会受到怎样的影响。”Officials say the practice is illegal under India’s children’s rights law, and the local police authorities in Solapur say they have not received any reports of baby-tossing since 2010. Even so, witnesses say it continues on a small scale in some villages, including in Mangasuli, where the Lord Khandoba, an avatar of Shiva, is worshiped by Hindus as the deity of the family.官员们说,根据印度的儿童权益法,这种做法是非法的;肖拉普尔当地警方表示,自从2010年起,他们就没再接到过关于抛婴的警情。尽管如此,仍有目击者称,一些村落里依然少量存在这种现象,其中包括曼阿苏里村,在那里,印度教徒把湿婆(Shiva)的化身勘都巴神(Lord Khandoba)当成家庭守护神来供奉。“The practice continues throughout the year, and babies are tossed within two months of being born, come rain or shine — it’s tradition,” said Javed Fardin Akhtar, a resident of the nearby city of Sangli who said he witnessed the ritual in Mangasuli in April.“这种仪式一年到头都在举行,婴儿出生不超过两个月便会被抛下屋顶,风雨无阻——这是一种传统,”曼阿苏里村附近城市桑格利的居民贾韦德#8226;法尔汉#8226;阿赫塔尔(Javed Fardin Akhtar)说。今年4月,他在曼阿苏里村亲眼目睹了抛婴仪式。Mr. Akhtar said that the actual tossing was done not by the parents, but by experienced devotees of the shrine. After one bounce on the bedsheet, the babies are swiftly returned to the arms of parents waiting anxiously in the cheering crowd below.阿赫塔尔说,把婴儿抛下屋顶的实际上并不是婴儿的双亲,而是神庙里经验丰富的虔诚信徒。落在床单上的婴儿被弹起来以后,会在人们的欢呼声中被迅速送回焦急等待的父母的怀抱。 /201608/457883

India’s revered independence leader Mahatma Gandhi was of the view that “authentic” India lived in her villages while its cities were bastions of corruption and foreign influence. This bias has strongly influenced decades of Indian policy, which mainly focused on improving rural conditions while largely ignoring growing cities.印度备受尊崇的独立运动领袖圣雄甘地(Mahatma Gandhi)认为,“真正的”印度存在于乡村中,城市则是腐朽堕落、外国势力汇聚的堡垒。这一偏见深刻影响了数十年来印度的政策——这一政策主要注重于改善农村地区条件,而基本忽略了不断发展的城市地区。India is urbanising rapidly as young people from the countryside flock to cities in search of jobs and economic opportunities. Some estimates suggest that 30 Indians move from a rural to an urban area every minute.印度正在迅速走向城市化,来自乡村的年轻人大量涌入城市,寻找工作以及赚钱机会。一些估算显示,平均每分钟就有30名印度人从农村迁往城市地区。Yet, after decades of neglect, Indian cities are struggling to cope. They are plagued with problems including choking air pollution, snarling traffic, and shortages of everything from water and affordable homes to schools, public transport and open spaces.但在被政府忽视了数十年之后,印度城市眼下难以招架这样的人口涌入。困扰印度城市的问题包括呛人的空气污染、喧嚣嘈杂的交通以及各种资源的短缺(从自来水、价格合理的住房到学校、公共交通以及公共空间)。Indian cities fare poorly on liveability indices. Experts on urbanisation warn that conditions are likely to deteriorate without dramatic action that changes how Indian cities are governed, including new finance arrangements for urban infrastructure.印度城市在宜居指数排行榜上名次不佳。城市化领域的专家警告称,如果不采取重大举措改变目前印度城市的管理方式——包括针对城市基础设施建设的新融资安排——城市地区的状况很可能进一步恶化。“India has been a very reluctant urbaniser,” says Amitabh Kant, head of the government’s National Institution for Transforming India. “In today’s world, it is not nations that are competing with each other. It is cities. Mumbai, Chennai, Delhi — they should have been world-class cities.” Instead, he says, they do not figure in the world’s top 100.印度政府下属的“改造印度国家研究院”(National Institution for Transforming India)负责人阿米塔布#8226;康德(Amitabh Kant)表示:“印度对待城市化一直是不情不愿的。当今世界,互相竞争的已不是国家,而是城市。孟买(Mumbai)、金奈(Chennai)、德里(Delhi)——它们本应发展成为世界级大都市。”相反,他指出,这些城市没能跻身全球前100大城市。But India’s prime minister Narendra Modi, elected two years ago, differs from many of his predecessors in his view of cities, which he touts as hubs of entrepreneurial energy that can drive economic growth and potentially offer ways to lift people out of poverty.但两年前当选的印度现任总理纳伦德拉#8226;莫迪(Narendra Modi)对城市的看法不同于以往的许多任印度总理,他将城市宣扬为汇聚创业活力的中心,能够推动经济增长,同时还可能提供帮助民众摆脱贫困的方式。During his 2014 election campaign, Mr Modi spoke often of the need to create “smart cities”.在他2014年的竞选活动中,莫迪常常谈到打造“智慧城市”的必要性。Now in power, he is putting the management of India’s urbanisation process higher than it has ever been on the country’s policy agenda and he has started two programmes aimed at improving urban infrastructure and planning.作为现任总理,莫迪把对印度城市化进程的管理提到了该国政策议程表上前所未有的靠前位置,此外他还启动了两个旨在改善城市基础设施和城市规划的项目。“In this country, it is very hard to be overtly pro-urban,” says Barjor E Mehta, an urban specialist at the World Bank. “But right from the beginning, this prime minister used the word urbanisation as an opportunity, not with a negative connotation.”世界(World Bank)城市化专家巴哲#8226;E#8226;梅赫塔(Barjor E Mehta)表示:“在印度国内,公开持城市化是一件很不容易的事。但现任总理从一开始就把城市化这个词当做机遇来说,不带任何负面含义。”The first programme, known as Amrut, plans to give about .5bn to 500 Indian cities over five years for investments in basic amenities such as clean drinking water, sewerage, public transport and public spaces.莫迪启动的第一个城市化项目名为Amrut,该项目计划在五年的时间里向500个印度城市提供约75亿美元资金,用于投资清洁饮用水、下水道系统、公共交通以及公共空间等基本的基础设施。Mr Modi’s government has also launched its so-called Smart Cities Mission, in which cities compete for funds to redevelop different zones and improve public services.莫迪政府还启动了所谓的“智慧城市计划”(Smart Cities Mission),在该项目中,城市之间将竞争资助资金,以用于重新开发不同的区域及改进公共务。Public participation was crucial for putting together the proposals — cities that could not show citizen engagement were eliminated from the contest. So far 20 have been selected for funding.公众参与度对于哪些城市能够获得资助提名至关重要——未能展现出公众积极参与的城市将在竞争中遭到淘汰。到目前为止,已有20个城市被选为了资助对象。“It’s an innovation programme where new things can be done and, if the arrangements work, we will try to mainstream them,” says Mr Mehta. “You’ve also made cities compete for the first time, and generated a lot of interest.”梅赫塔表示:“这是一个能办成新事情的创新型项目,如果相关安排行之有效,我们将尝试将其大面积推广。该项目还首次激发了城市之间的相互比拼,引发了广泛关注。 ”“This is the first government in India that is talking about smart urbanisation,” says Mr Kant.康德称:“这是印度首届公开讨论智慧城市化的政府。”Even with such initiatives, however, India still faces an uphill battle to improve its cities and the quality of life of their residents.但即便有了此类积极举措,印度要想改善城市条件以及城市居民的生活质量仍然面临艰巨挑战。According to Shirish Sankhe, a director at consultants McKinsey, India has been spending just per city resident per year on infrastructure and services while the actual need is about 0.咨询公司麦肯锡(McKinsey)董事希里什#8226;桑科(Shirish Sankhe)指出,印度每年在每个城市居民身上投入的基础设施和公共务出仅为17美元,而实际所需的出约为130美元。Although Mr Modi’s schemes will raise urban expenditure slightly, they still fall far short of the nearly 0bn that a high-level panel estimated that India needs to spend on urban infrastructure over 20 years to meet the needs of its cities.据一个高规格的专家小组估算,未来二十年印度需在城市基础设施建设领域出近9500亿美元,方能满足各个城市的需求。虽然莫迪的计划将略微提高政府在城市地区的投入,但仍远远不够。Solving such problems is not just a question of funding. India also requires new political arrangements to help administer its growing cities, which are now managed by short-term municipal commissioners who usually serve just two years before moving on.解决城市面临的种种问题不仅要解决建设资金来源。印度还需要新的政治制度设计,为管理日渐扩张的城市提供助力。目前印度城市由任期较短的市政官管理,他们通常任满两年即会调任。“Indian cities are not well governed,” says Mr Sankhe. “The political empowerment of cities is poor, and you can’t really hold anybody fully accountable.”桑科称:“印度城市的管理水平不高。城市被赋予的政治权利很小,而且你无法真的让任何人负起总责。”Even the matter of how many Indians currently live in urban areas is a subject of significant debate. According to India’s 2011 census, just over 31 per cent of the country’s 1.2bn people live in areas that are recognisably urban, up from 27.8 per cent of its population a decade earlier.就连目前有多少印度人生活在城市地区,也是一个颇有争议的问题。根据印度2011年的人口调查,在印度的12亿人口中,仅有略高于31%的人生活在公认的城市地区,十年前的比重为27.8%。Yet many of these urbanised areas are not even officially recognised as cities or governed as such. India now has more than 3,900 of what it calls “census towns”, which are urbanised areas that are still classified as rural and governed with traditional rural arrangements, such as village councils.但很多此类城市化地区甚至未被官方认可为城市,或是被当做城市进行管理。印度目前有超过3900个所谓的“人口普查镇”,这些地区已经实现了城市化,但仍然被划为农村,并按传统农村的模式管理,例如有村庄委员会。Many places prefer to remain designated as “rural” as they gain access to more government-funded programmes — including social welfare schemes, such as the rural employment guarantee scheme — that are not available in urban locations. Yet these increasingly non-rural areas are then excluded from appropriate urban services and expand in a haphazard manner.很多地区更愿意被继续划为“农村”,因为这样便能参与更多的政府资助项目——包括农村就业保障等社会福利计划——而这些项目是城市地区无法享受的。但这样的话,这些愈发去农村化的地区便无法获得应有的城市务,并以一种随意的方式扩张。India’s biggest problem is that most of the strong revenues generated by its cities — through such means as property taxes — are not spent to improve the cities themselves but are instead used to support rural areas. Answers to these problems will becoming increasingly important as up to 590m Indians, are expected to be living in cities by 2030, up from 340m in 2008.印度最大的问题是,由城市地区创造的丰厚税收收入——例如来自物业税的收入——大多没有被用于改善城市自身条件,而被用于持农村地区。找到化解这些问题的对策将变得愈加重要,因为预计到2030年将有多达5.9亿印度人生活在城市地区, 而2008年还只有3.4亿人。 /201608/461518


文章编辑: 爱问中文
>>图片新闻