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来源:赶集分享    发布时间:2019年05月20日 00:32:14    编辑:admin         

You may have heard of supertasters.你可能也听过有这样一个群体—品尝师。These are people who, it was discovered, are carrying around extra taste buds on theirtongues, making the world of eating much more intense.他们是被挖掘出的特殊人群,他们的舌周围广泛分布着味蕾,让吃东西变得异常有感觉。Its not at all an unusual thing: the latest data suggest that oneout of every four people is a supertaster.这并不稀奇:最新数据显示每四个人中就有一个人是品尝师。For them, eating is amuch richer, more flavorful experience than for the rest of us.相比于我们这些普通人,他们吃东西时会有更丰富、更美味的体验。Still, before you get too jealous if youre not a supertaster, it turns out there are drawbacks tohaving a technicolor tongue.然而,你也不用因为自己无法成为超级品尝师而对他们羡慕不已。A study that looks specifically at supertasters over the age of sixty-five found that they have more colon polyps than folks who arent so taste bud gifted.事实明,拥有那样华丽的舌头也会带来某些不好的影响。专门对65岁以上的品尝师展开的一项调查研究发现,他们比那些未被赋予超常味蕾的人们患结肠息肉的概率更高。Colon polyps are the things you want to have removed before they become cancerous, which iswhy all folks fifty and older should get a yearly colon exam.结肠息肉容易发生癌变,因而它是人人得而诛之,这也是为什么人们上了50岁每年都得进行一次肠息肉检查。Why do supertasters have more colon polyps?为什么品尝师们容易患上结肠息肉?It isnt known.具体原因还待考。But supertasters also weigh more onaverage than non-supertasters, and weight increases cancer risk.但有一点,品尝师们的体重一般都比普通人重,而体重会增加患癌症的风险。The reason for this may be assimple as it sounds: eating is more fun when you taste in 3-D.而他们体重偏重的原因就跟大家听起来一样:多方位的品尝食品时,饮食让人倍感无穷乐趣。Some researchers think, however, that the problem may not just be an increase in pleasure.然而,很多研究人员又认为原因很可能不仅仅是在饮食当中增加了乐趣。Those extra taste buds may also drive people away from food thats good for them, such as vegetables,because the taste of, say, a brussels sprout is just too intense.这些多出来的味蕾会让品尝师们对一些有益身体健康的食物敬而远之。这是因为这些食物的滋味,比如说抱子甘蓝,就太重了。 201405/297923。

Business商业报道Can Lady Gaga help Exxon Mobil crack social media?能否帮助Lady gaga 埃克森美孚打开社交媒介的大门LADY GAS business manager, Troy Carter, will judge an eight-hour hackathon at the SXSW festival in Austin, Texas, on March 11th.在三月11号奥斯汀南西南音乐节上Lady gaga 的经纪人Troy Carter参加一个长达八小时的黑客松活动。Geeks will vie to create new ideas to do with digital music distribution.此次活动中,极客们将要发挥创意来想出一些帮助数码音乐传播的点子。The event will be hosted by Backplane, a tech start-up co-founded by Mr Carter,此次活动将有backplane 举办,由卡特先生合作的技术创业公司。which has just launched its first product, a web community for Lady Gaga called LittleMonsters.com.与为lady gaga 设计的网络社区LittleMonsters.com是该公司的首件作品。The goal is to create a one-stop shop for everything Gaga.该社交网络的目的是想为gaga开设一家一站式的商店。Fans will be able to download her music,buy tickets for her shows and chat with each other.粉丝们可以在社区里下载lady的歌曲,白演唱会门票,跟同社区的人聊天。It will feature “social ticketing”, which will make it easy for fans to find concert seats near their friends and even start conversations beforehand with strangers they will be sitting with.其最大的特点是”社区购票”,为粉丝们在演唱会的坐席上找到自己的同伴提供了方便,而且可以跟即将坐在一起的陌生人提前交流。Translation software will allow fans without a language in common to chat about changing the world one sequin at a time.在翻译软件的帮助下,说着不同语言的人也可以在一起聊Lady的歌,像如one sequin at a time。For now, LittleMonsters is by invitation only but it is expected soon to open to all.从现在开始,小怪兽网站还只是通过邀请加入但是不久之后就会对全部粉丝开放。Mr Carter says the data generated by the site will be valuable.卡特先生说,该网站的产生的数据将会起起很大作用。He will be able to identify mouthy fans to whom others listen—“key influencers”, in the jargon—and court them for their insights.他将能够确定哪些粉丝比较爱说话,而且大家喜欢听—用专业术语来说就是关键影响因素,并且为他们的洞察力给予鼓励。Facebook will remain the biggest social network for a while.暂时Facebook依旧是最大的社交网络。Backplane is a bet that parallel communities will emerge, connecting people who share a particular passion.但Backplane这种平行社区会兴起也是必然的,它们把有着共同爱好的人联系了起来。The plan is to apply lessons learned from Lady Gagas fans to a wide range of interests, from music to sports to who knows what.这个计划将要把lady gaga粉丝的成功先例运用到更广泛的利益上去,从音乐到运动,到大家想不到的地方。Backplane has just closed a fundraising round in which several Silicon Valley venture capitalists took part.Backplane结束了很多硅谷风险投资者所热衷于的投资圈。The idea is hot, but Backplane is competing in what is fast becoming a crowded field.这个想法很新潮,但是backplane正在一个很快变得拥挤的领域竞争。Backplane is exploring the possibilities for mainstream brands, from Nike to ExxonMobil, to create virtual communities that foster deeper relationships with customers.Backplane 正在探索像耐克,埃克森美孚等主流公司,通过构建虚拟网络加深与客户关系的可能性。The trick is to find those key influencers and amplify their voices.这个技巧是要找到最关键的影响因素并且扩大它们的影响力。Mr Carter says that experience with Lady Gaga has taught him that what a super fan says can sometimes have a bigger impact on fellow fans than a word from the Lady herself。卡特先生说Lady gaga让他懂得一个超级粉丝所说的活有时候会比Lady自己说话的影响力更大。 /201306/242531。

The end of the Soviet Union前苏联的末途Walking dead行尸走肉The cruelty of the last years of the Soviet Union前苏联—充满折磨的晚年The Last Man in Russia: The Struggle to Save a Dying Nation.By Oliver Bullough.《俄罗斯最后一人:拯救行将灭亡之国》STNATION, writes Oliver Bullough in his haunting account of the late Soviet Union, is not sexy. Biographies of Stalin and Mikhail Gorbachev abound, but nobody has written seriously about Leonid Brezhnev, on whose watch the Soviet Union sank into drunken decay. The author of a definitive book about the tortured history of the north Caucasus, Mr Bullough has a good sense of how the traumas of Russias past affect its present. His new book is a mixture of travelogue and biography, as he traces the life of Father Dmitry Dudko, an Orthodox priest who exemplified both resistance to Soviet rule and defeat at its hands.奥利弗布洛写过一本描述前苏联晚年的著作,阅读之后令人过目难忘,不过其中“停滞部分”却让人不愿直视。关于斯大林和戈尔巴乔夫的传记汗牛充栋,勃列日涅夫却鲜有人问津,即便他眼睁睁地看着前苏联陷入混沌恍惚的泥潭。关于叙述北高加索伤痕累累历史的著作,布洛的《让我们名声大噪》无疑是最好的一本,也就是说,对于俄罗斯过去的创伤如何影响当今时代—布洛的嗅觉像一样灵敏。布洛的这本新书集游记和传记于一体,主线以东正教传教士德米特里杜德科神父的一生为轴。德米特里杜德科神父代表了一类人,首先反对苏联制度,之后却臣于它。The Orthodox hierarchy in the post-war Soviet Union was tainted by collaboration with the KGB. For those repelled by the sterility and corruption of the official ideology, religion was part of the axis of resistance. So the authorities kept the lid on, and religious practice beyond the liturgy was risky.由于同克格勃合作,二战后的前苏联东正教教义算是蒙上了一层不堪的色。所有厌恶政府思想体系下不作为和腐败的角色中,宗教处在抗争的洪流中心。所以,政府当局一直在雪藏宗教,而宗教习俗也不再局限于礼拜仪式,开始走向危险的边缘。Father Dmitry, whose post-war theological studies had been interrupted by eight years in the gulag, was a striking exception. He preached passionately and lucidly. He fostered discussion and roused his flock against the degradation, despair, abortions, alcoholism and promiscuity of Soviet life. He resolutely opposed anti-Semitism. Jews were “sacred friends”, he said. In the early 1970s his sermons became a sensation, published in the West and in samizdat in the Soviet Union. The Communist authorities objected. He defied them. They exiled him to a distant village. His flock followed him there. The authorities moved him again. And on it went.德米特里杜德科神父战后研究宗教学,期间由于羁押在古拉格而中断八年。他可以说是人尽皆知的异数。德米特里杜德科神父传教富有、条理清晰,并且鼓励集思广益,号召教徒反对国家的倒退,抗击前苏联令人绝望生活中的病症,比如堕胎、酗酒和滥交。毋庸置疑,他是坚决反对反犹太主义的。用他的话说,犹太人是“神圣的朋友”。上世纪70年代,他所著的长篇训诫引起不小的轰动,西方国家和前苏联地下都有出版,当然共产党当局是明令禁止的。德米特里杜德科神父同他们抗争,政府将他流放到了边远农村。教徒们继而一路追随。政府又转移他的流放地,教徒继续跟随。最后就是“政府藏,教徒追”。He began to see the Soviet system as the source of his countrys ills. In 1977 he told the New York Times of the “diabolic storm” that had broken on his country. “Our nation has become corrupted, the family has fallen apart, the nation has got drunk, traitors have betrayed each other.” That was true. But by the late 1970s detente was ending. Fame in the West was no protection. Even a lone independent-minded priest was an existential—and intolerable—threat for the brittle Soviet leadership. The fledgling dissident movement was systematically crushed—by imprisonment, exile, coercive psychiatry or ferocious pressure on family members.德米特里杜德科神父开始认识到前苏联大的系统正是国家症结所在。1977年,他向“纽约时报”讲道,说“罪恶的风暴”搅得这个国家天翻地覆。“我们的国家腐败透顶,家庭离破碎,我们的国家此时就像一个醉汉,卖国贼之间互相叛变。”他没说错。不过,70年代后期国际紧张关系不再处在缓和状态,西方国家不再顾及名声。在脆弱不堪的前苏联领导层面看来,甚至一个单独具有独立思想的神父也成了实实在在并且不能再坐视不管的威胁。异见运动还没孵化就遭到有计划的打击——监禁、流放、强加精神病罪名亦或异见者家人承受着不堪重负的压力。In January 1980 Father Dmitry was arrested. His friends prayed; the West protested. But he emerged six months later, a changed man: a zealous, repentant patriot who, in a sensational television broadcast, admitted to working with foreign powers against the Soviet state. Worse, he denounced his friends and helpers.1980年1月,德米特里杜德科神父遭逮捕。他的朋友开始祈祷,西方国家表示抗议。不过在六个月之后,德米特里杜德科神父不再是之前德米特里杜德科神父:“洗心革面”之后的他成了一位热忱的爱国志士。他在电视广播中的表态令人震惊:承认与外国势力里勾外连,以反对前苏联政府。更不堪的是,他还揭发了自己的朋友和战友。It was a huge propaganda coup for the regime. He showed no signs of torture, drugs or exhaustion. One of his followers wrote an open letter accusing the KGB of the “murder of my spiritual father”.对于政权而言,大篇幅的宣传获得了意想不到的成功。在他身上,人们看不出一丝拷打或者下了迷魂药的迹象,而他也不显一丝疲态。德米特里杜德科神父的一位追随者发表了一封公开信,谴责克格勃“谋杀了自己的灵魂长者”。Mr Bullough explains the mystifying conversion. The KGB played on his fears of renewed imprisonment and separation from his family. A skilful interrogator, Vladimir Sorokin found and enlarged the “chink” in his victims soul: patriotism. Surely no true, law-abiding Russian could side with the enemies of his country?布洛在书中解释了这一令人匪夷所思的转变。克格勃利用了德米特里杜德科神父恐惧二进宫的心理以及害怕同家人再度分开的心情。弗拉基米尔索罗金深谙审讯之道,他在手中这位受害者的灵魂之中察觉到了一个致命的软肋,并且将其放大:爱国主义。但是,真就没有一个真正并且守法的俄国人会站在国家敌人这一边了吗?Later Father Dmitry was filled with remorse. But it was too late. Dogged by loneliness and guilt, and unable to resurrect his crusade for trust, hope and faith, he descended into the fetid swamps of Russian nationalism, wallowing in the paranoid anti-Semitism he had once eschewed. The brave, happy and confident man of the 1960s and 1970s became a miserable racist, a campaigner for hatred and nihilism.之后,虽然德米特里杜德科神父心理满是悔恨,但是为时已晚。孤独和罪恶感陪着他走完余生,其间他一直苦于不能重塑自己当年“为信任、希望和信念而战斗的形象”。他深陷散发着“俄罗斯式爱国主义”恶臭的泥潭之中,沉浸在多疑好猜忌的反犹太主义之中,即使这是他曾经一度反对的。60年代勇敢、自信、快乐的德米特里杜德科神父死了,70年代的德米特里杜德科神父变成一个卑鄙无耻的种族主义分子,一个满脑子仇恨、虚无缥缈的沿街叫骂的人。Mr Bullough largely succeeds in using this sad tale as a metaphor for the fate of the Soviet Union. He weaves the woes of past decades into his journeys to wretched villages, along with the lies and greed in the metropolis. Father Dmitry may be all but forgotten in modern Russia, but his old self would have plenty to say about it.布洛以这则悲情故事来充当前苏联命运的影子,新书也因此获得了巨大的成功。在过去的几十年里,他游历了一些贫穷困苦村庄,他把其中所体验的悲伤编入书中,当然还有大都市的谎言和欲望。德米特里杜德科神父或许已经消逝在现代俄罗斯人民的生活里,但是60年代的神父依然对现代俄罗斯影响深刻。 /201404/291900。

When you burst out crying, you expect the bleary red eyes and the rivers of tears that stream down your cheeks. But on top of all that, your nose starts to run like a faucet. Why does this happen? What’s the connection between crying and a runny nose?当你放声大哭时,朦胧的红眼睛以及泉涌般的泪水沿着面颊滑落是预料之中的事。除此之外,你会开始流鼻涕。为什么会出现这种情况?哭和流鼻涕之间又有什么联系呢?Where Do Tears Come From?眼泪从何而来?Tears come from tear glands located just over the eye, behind the bone. As tears rinse down over your eye, they collect at the rims of your lower eyelids, where some may overflow and stream down your cheeks.眼泪是由位于眼骨后的泪腺分泌的。当泪水被分泌出,他们便贮藏在下眼睑边缘,一部分眼泪溢出眼睛沿脸颊流下。But that’s not the only escape route for overflowing tears. If you look very closely at the inside of your eyelid, right near your nose, you’ll see a tiny little hole. You might need to gently pull your eyelid down to see it, because it’s on the inner edge of the eyelid, resting against the eye.但那并不是眼泪流出来的唯一路径。如果你仔细观察眼睑内侧靠近鼻子的地方,你会看到一个极其微小的洞。你可能需要轻拉眼睑才能看到这个小洞,因为它位于靠近眼睛的眼睑内侧。River Tears泪流成河These little holes, on the upper and lower eyelids of both eyes, serve as drains and lead into canals that run through grooves in the bones of the face and eventually empty into the nose. Even when you’re not crying, some of the normal, everyday tears that moisten and clean your eyes drain out through this secret passageway into the nose, but it’s such a small amount that you don’t notice it.这些小洞位于双眼的上下眼睑,它们发挥着排水管的作用,引导泪水沿着脸骨的凹槽流下并最终流入鼻子。即使你不哭的时候,每天也会有一些正常产生的、用以湿润和清洁眼睛的眼泪通过这个秘密通道流到鼻子里,只不过它们数量太少你察觉不到而已。When the tears really start to gush, however, this unnoticeable trickle turns into a river. As the tears make their way down through the nose, they moisten and loosen other secretions on the way. And that’s when you reach for a tissue!当眼泪喷涌而出的时候,这些平时察觉不到的小泪滴便汇流成河。在泪水流入鼻子的同时,它们在沿途还起到湿润和疏松其它分泌物的作用,这时候,你就需要纸巾擦拭了。 /201305/237603。

Stressed parents压力下的父母Cancel that violin class取消小提琴补习班Helicopter moms and dads will not harm their kids if they relax a bit揠苗助长的父母们,放松点,对孩子没坏处。WELL-TO-DO parents fear two things: that their children will die in a freak accident, and that they will not get into Harvard. The first fear is wildly exaggerated. The second is not, but staying awake all night worrying about it will not help—and it will make you miserable.富裕家庭的父母害怕两件事情:一件是他们的孩子死于意外事故,另一件是,孩子进不了哈佛读书。第一件可能过分的夸张,第二件则绝对真实。但是担心得夜不能寐起不到任何帮助作用,只会让你觉得痛苦。Modern parents see risks that their own parents never considered. They put gates at the top of stairs, affix cushions to table corners and jam plastic guards into sockets to stop small fingers from getting electrocuted. Those guards are “potential choking hazards”, jests Lenore Skenazy, the author of “Free-Range Kids”. Ms Skenazy let her nine-year-old son ride the New York subway on his own. He was thrilled; but when she spoke about it on TV, a mob of worrywarts called her “Americas worst mom”.现在的父母看到了他们上一辈从未注意到过的危险。他们把大门安在楼梯顶上,给桌子安上桌角防撞贴,给插座插上保护盖以防止孩子的小手指触电。 《自由放养孩子》一书作者Lenore Skenazy开玩笑的说,这些防护装置有潜在的窒息危险。Skenazy让她九岁的孩子自己乘坐纽约的地铁。孩子因此非常激动,但当Skenazy在电视上讲到此事,一群杞人忧天人士则说她是“美国最糟糕的母亲”。Yet in fact American children are staggeringly safe. A kid under five in the 1950s was five times as likely to die than the same kid today. The chance of a child being kidnapped and murdered by a stranger is a minuscule one in 1.5m.然而,事实上美国的孩子们异常安全。在二十世纪五十年代,5岁以下孩子死亡率是现在的5倍。孩子被陌生人绑架、谋杀的可能性只有微不足道的150万分之一。What about academic success? Surely the possibility of getting into Harvard justifies any amount of driving junior from violin lesson to calculus tutor?那学术上取得成功又是怎么样的呢?进入哈佛的可能性当真明了有从小提琴到微积分都很厉害的孩子?Bryan Caplan, an economist at George Mason University, says it does not. In “Selfish Reasons To Have More Kids”, he points to evidence that genes matter far more than parenting. A Minnesota study found that identical twins grow up to be similarly clever regardless of whether they are raised in the same household or in separate ones. Studies in Texas and Colorado found that children adopted by high-IQ families were no smarter than those adopted by average families. A Dutch study found that if you are smarter than 80% of the population, you should expect your identical twin raised in another home to be smarter than 76% but your adopted sibling to be average. Other twin and adopted studies find that genes have a huge influence on academic and financial success, while parenting has only a modest effect.乔治梅森大学的经济学家Bryan Caplan说,事实并非如此。在《多要孩子的自私原因》一书中,他拿出据指出,基因的影响力远大于教养的影响力。明尼苏达州的一项研究表明,同卵双胞胎不论是否在同一家庭环境中成长,他们长大后的聪慧程度是相似的。德克萨斯州和科罗拉多州的研究发现,被高智商家庭收养的孩子并没有比普通家庭收养的孩子聪明。荷兰一项研究发现,如果你比80%的人聪明,那么你生的、在别的人家抚养起来的同卵双胞胎,将会比76%的人聪明,而你自己领养的孩子则是平均水平。其他关于双胞胎和领养的研究显示,基因对学术和经济上的成功有着巨大的影响,而教养只有轻微的作用。The crucial caveat is that adoptive parents have to pass stringent tests. So adoption studies typically compare nice middle-class homes with other nice middle-class homes; they tell you little about the effect of growing up in a poor or dysfunctional household.关键的警告是,养父母必须经过严格的测试。因此,领养研究通常在不错的中产家庭之间比较,并没有说明在贫穷或非正常家庭中成长会有什么影响。The moral, for Mr Caplan, is that middle-class parents should relax a bit, cancel a violin class or two and let their kids play outside. “If your parenting style passes the laugh test, your kids will be fine,” he writes. He adds that if parents fretted less about each child, they might find it less daunting to have three instead of two. And that might make them happier in the long run. No 60-year-old ever wished for fewer grandchildren.对Caplan来说,其意义就是中产家庭父母应当放松点,取消一两个小提琴班,让孩子在外面玩玩。他在书中写到:“如果你的养育形式通过了欢乐测试,你的孩子就会很棒。”他补充说,如果父母少焦躁的对待孩子,父母可能会发现三个孩子比两个孩子更好。这会使他们在长期内更加快了。60岁的人(代指老年人)都希望有更多的孙辈。Does over-parenting hurt children? Probably not; but it exhausts parents. Hence the cascade of books with titles like “All Joy And No Fun” and “Go The F**k To Sleep”. Kids notice when their parents are overdoing it. Ellen Galinsky, a researcher, asked 1,000 kids what they would most like to change about their parentsschedules. Few wanted more face time; the top wish was for mom and dad to be less tired and stressed.过度的教养伤害到孩子了吗?可能并没有。但是它让父母筋疲力尽。所以有一连串像《所有的快乐与不快乐》和《去他妈的睡觉》这样的书名。孩子会注意到父母们什么时候过头了。一名为Ellen Galinsky的研究员询问了1000名孩子,问他们最想改变其父母时间表上的哪些东西。很少有孩子想要跟父母见面的时间。最大的心愿是,让爸爸妈妈不再那么紧张劳累。 /201407/316287。

Books and Arts; Book Review;Politics in India; Iron lady;文艺;书评;印度政治;铁娘子;Sonia Gandhi: An Extraordinary Life. By Rani Singh.索尼娅·甘地:非同寻常的一生;拉尼·辛格著。LAST year a supporter of Sonia Gandhi threatened legal action and succeeded in preventing the publication in English of “The Red Sari”, a fictionalised life which had aly had a successful run in Spanish and Italian. Although a couple of biographies have been published in India, Rani Singh’s “Sonia Gandhi: An Extraordinary Life, An Indian Destiny” is the first for an international market.《红色纱丽》一书歪曲地描述了索尼娅#8226;甘地的生活,此书的西班牙语和意大利语版本都广受欢迎。而英文版《红色纱丽》一书的出版却受到了索尼娅#8226;甘地的一名持者的阻挠,他扬言要采取法律手段,最终他成功了,英文版并没有出版。在印度国内,尽管有一些关于索尼娅#8226;甘地的传记已经出版,但拉丽辛格的《索尼娅#8226;甘地:卓越的一生,一个印度人的宿命》却是第一本面向全球读者的传记。When Sonia married Rajiv, son of the prime minister, Indira Gandhi, in Delhi in 1968, nobody predicted great things for her. She was pretty, personable and very shy. Like her husband, she had few academic qualifications. Her father was a builder from a town on the outskirts of Turin. Although the Nehru-Gandhi family was not, as Ms Singh states several times, aristocratic, they and their circle could certainly be snooty. It was not unusual in the 1990s to hear Sonia Gandhi referred to in Delhi social circles as “the Italian au pair”.1968年,索尼娅#8226;甘地在新德里和当时的印度总理英迪拉#8226;甘地(甘地夫人)的儿子拉杰夫#8226;甘地结婚。人们对她并无多大的期待。索尼娅#8226;甘地面容姣好,姿态优雅,害羞内敛。同她丈夫一样,她在学术上建树甚少。她的父亲是一个建筑工人,来自都灵市郊一个小镇。辛格不止一次将尼赫鲁-甘地家族描述为是有着贵族习气,尽管事实情况并非完全如此,但他们的小圈子的确是高傲势利。(尼赫鲁-甘地家族本可以待人傲慢,但事实上,他们这个小圈子并不像辛格在书中不止一次的描写的那样喜欢摆贵族的架子)在20世纪90年代,新德里的社交圈将索尼娅#8226;甘地称为“意大利帮工”的情况已经很少再出现了。Today Mrs Gandhi is the most powerful politician in India. Earlier this year when she went for treatment at Memorial Sloan–Kettering Cancer Centre in New York, the government was left rudderless. Characteristically, no announcement was made as to where she had gone, or whether her illness was serious. Cabinet ministers were reduced to asking each other, and even in some cases the media, for information about her condition.如今,索尼娅#8226;甘地已是印度最有权力的政治家。今年的早些时候,她前往纽约的梅莫瑞尔#8226;斯欧恩-凯特林 癌症中心接受治疗,政府群龙无首。有一个典型的例子:政府就她的去向,健康状况没有做任何的声明。内阁部长们不得不相互询问,有些时候甚至向媒体打听索尼娅#8226;甘地的情况。When she returned to India in September and resumed her duties as president of the ruling Congress Party, the immediate crisis appeared to stabilise. Mrs Gandhi’s position—which might best be described as a dynastic moral authority—now stems less from the fact that she is Rajiv’s widow than from her intuitive strategic sense and her discreet, often silent, ability to assert political control.当索尼娅#8226;甘地九月份回到印度,再次开始她国会党主席的工作时,原本混乱的状况一似乎下子秩序井然。人们关于她的地位最恰当的描述是“王朝的精神领袖”,原本是因为她是拉吉夫的遗孀,而现在则更多的是因为她在政治上直觉敏锐,思想具有战略性,寡言慎行,对政治工作有绝对的掌控能力。It is hard to determine just how she does this, since her senior colleagues know they would soon fall from favour if they broke the omerta that surrounds her. Sonia Gandhi almost never gives interviews, although the few she has done on Indian television have been surprisingly open and direct, recounting the tragedy of her husband’s assassination in 1991 and her own inclusive social ideals.人们不知道索尼娅#8226;甘地是如何做到这些的。但她身边和她共事多年的同事们知道,要是他们胆敢损害索尼娅#8226;甘地的美好形象(风言风言),他们也将地位不保。索尼娅#8226;甘地极少接受采访,在她为数不多的几次电视访问里,她一反常态地非常公开和直接地讲述着1991年他的丈夫遇刺的悲剧经历,分享着她自己的社会理想。Ms Singh says she follows “her own brand of socialism”, which is an exaggeration. Rather than socialism, it is an emphasis on protecting the disadvantaged even while proceeding with India’s at times rapacious version of capitalism. Since she does not hold a ministerial post, Sonia Gandhi can appear detached from government policy, and row back from difficult decisions when they prove unpopular. A symbolic performance is combined with studious political negotiation.辛格说索尼娅#8226;甘地在践行她独有的社会主义,这实在有些夸大其词。与其是说走社会主义之路,索尼娅只是在印度大肆发展资本主义的同时更强调保护弱势群体的利益。由于她并没有内阁的席位,索尼娅可以表现得和政府的政策相背而行,当政府的决定不受欢迎时再提出自己的见解。这种象征性的表演常常体现在和与政府频繁进行的政治性协商中。There are several difficulties with this biography. Ms Singh, a London-based journalist and broadcaster, appears to think that her duty as a biographer is to write a hagiographical defence of her subject. The enthusiastic tone extends to most members of the Gandhi family. When Indira Gandhi made a controversial snap decision to nationalise India’s big banks, the er is told simply that crowds danced in the streets in jubilation: “Indira had an instinctive feeling for what would please people and would move heaven and earth to deliver.”辛格是一名驻扎在伦敦的记者和播音员。在写这本书的时候有很多困难。她认为自己作为传记的撰写者,其职责就是要为她书中主角树立正面形象,因此她对甘地家族成员的评价都甚高,当记叙到甘地夫人当机立断,推行了一项颇有争议的国有化印度大型的政策时,辛格仅仅描述了人们在街上欢乐地跳舞庆贺。她还写到“甘地夫人天生知道如何迎合别人,她也竭尽全力地利用这一点。”There is no indication that Ms Singh has had access, during her research, to either Sonia Gandhi herself, or to any of the people who are close to her. The book shows scant political understanding. Sikh militancy, Kashmir, the Sri Lanka conflict and the Bangladesh war are recounted in school textbook prose, accompanied by some baffling non sequiturs.没有任何的迹象表明辛格在撰写这本书做研究期间,有机会接近索尼娅#8226;甘地或是她身边的人。此书政治见解略显浅薄。书中关于锡克教的斗争,克什米尔,斯里兰卡冲突,孟加拉的战争的记叙走只停留在教科书的水平,同时还记叙了一些不相关的战争。(还下了一些不想干的令人困惑的结论)When the narrative becomes more personal, the er is offered anecdotes such as this: “Presented with a tray of freshly made juices, Sonia studied the options carefully: papaya, lime, orange, fresh mango, and coconut water, before choosing the last one.” Would history have turned out differently if she had chosen the lime?当作者叙述平日的琐碎生活之时,读者会读到这样的句子“索尼娅面前放着众多的鲜榨的果汁,有番木瓜汁,酸橙汁,橘汁,新鲜芒果汁和椰子汁,她细细地选择着,最后选择了椰子汁。如果她最后选了酸橙汁,这对历史有什么影响呢? /201305/242165。