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明星资讯腾讯娱乐2018年10月19日 10:11:56
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New Evidence on van Gogh’s Ear Continues Debate on Painter’s Mental State梵高真的割下了自己的整只耳朵吗?AMSTERDAM — Everyone knows that Vincent van Gogh cut off his left ear. But since that fateful event nearly 128 years ago, there has been continuing debate among scholars about the severity of that mutilation, which took place in Arles, France, in December 1888. Did he simply slice off a little chunk of his ear, or did he lop off the entire ear?阿姆斯特丹——大家都知道文森特·梵高(Vincent van Gogh)割掉了自己的左耳。不过,自从近128年前那个重大事件发生后,学者们对于1888年12月发生在法国阿尔勒的那次自残的严重程度一直存在争议。他是只割掉了一小块耳朵还是割掉了整只耳朵?The author and amateur historian Bernadette Murphy, while researching the last period of that Dutch Post Impressionist’s life for a new book, discovered a document in an American archive that may help resolve the issue. A note written by Félix Rey, a doctor who treated van Gogh at the Arles hospital, contains a drawing of the mangled ear showing that the artist indeed cut off the whole thing.作家、史学爱好者贝尔纳黛特·墨菲(Bernadette Murphy)为写新书研究了这位荷兰后印象派画家人生的最后一个时期。她在美国的一个档案馆发现了一份文件,可能有助于解开这个谜团。费利克斯·雷伊(Félix Rey)是在阿尔勒医院为梵高治疗的医生,他在一封短笺中画下了被割掉的耳朵,表明这位艺术家真的割下了整只耳朵。The letter and drawing will be displayed for the first time at the Van Gogh Museum’s exhibition “On the Verge of Insanity,” which opens here on Friday and runs through Sept. 25, along with previously unexhibited documents and artifacts that try to provide more detailed evidence about van Gogh’s mental illness.这封信和这张图首次在梵高物馆(Van Gogh Museum)的展览“濒临疯狂”(On the Verge of Insanity)中展出。该展览周五在阿姆斯特丹开幕,将持续至9月25日。它还包括之前从未展出过的文件和艺术品,努力提供更多关于梵高精神疾病的具体据。The exhibition will also include about 25 paintings and other objects, like a corroded revolver that van Gogh may have used to kill himself, museum officials say. These will try to explore, in particular, the final stretch of his life while his troubles escalated, from the ear-cutting incident to July 29, 1890, when he apparently committed suicide in Auvers-sur-Oise, France.物馆的工作人员说,这场展览还将包括大约25件画作和其他物品,比如梵高可能用来自杀的已经腐蚀的左轮手。这些东西将着重探索他人生的最后一程,也就是从割耳事件到1890年7月29日他在法国瓦兹河畔欧韦自杀,期间他的精神疾病越来越严重。The subject of the artist’s mental state has always fascinated people who admire his art, but until now the Van Gogh Museum, which contains the largest collection of his work in the world, has not directly addressed the subject. Until recently, the museum has focused on van Gogh’s aesthetic and technical progression, but interest in his biography is driving a different approach to exhibitions.这位艺术家的精神状况一直令仰慕他艺术作品的人着迷,不过直到现在,梵高物馆都没有直接探索过这个主题。梵高物馆是世界上收藏梵高作品最多的地方。直到不久前,该物馆依然重点关注梵高的美学和技术成长,不过对他生平的兴趣正开启一种不同的展览方式。“This is really the start of a new series of small, focused exhibitions, which will only take one floor of the building but will enable us to give the visitors more information about van Gogh’s life,” said Nienke Bakker, curator of paintings for the Van Gogh Museum and curator of this exhibition. “This seemed for us to be the perfect subject to start with.”“这真的是一系列新的小型专题展览的开端,它将只占一个楼层,不过将给观众带来更多关于梵高生平的信息,”梵高物馆的绘画策展人宁克·巴克(Nienke Bakker)说。他也是这场展览的策展人。“我们觉得这个主题似乎是个完美的开端。”Ms. Bakker said that most museum visitors wanted to know the details of van Gogh’s life: “The three most frequently asked questions are: What happened with his ear? What kind of illness did he have? and, Why did he commit suicide?”巴克说,大部分物馆观众想知道梵高人生的一些细节:“最常问的三个问题是:他的耳朵到底怎么了?他有什么疾病?他为什么自杀?”The exhibition coincides with the release of the book, “Van Gogh’s Ear: The True Story,” by Ms. Murphy.展览进行之时,正好是墨菲的书《梵高的耳朵:真实的故事》(Van Gogh’s Ear: The True Story)出版之际。Steven Naifeh, an American historian and author of the 2011 “Van Gogh: The Life,” said in an email after looking at the new document, “I was willing to give them the benefit of the doubt, that they had indeed found new information from Rey, but it is not new, and it is not credible.”美国历史学家史蒂文·奈菲(Steven Naifeh)2011年曾出版《梵高传》(Van Gogh: The Life)。他在看完这份新文件后在电子邮件中写道:“我本来真心以为他们从雷伊那里找到了新东西,可惜它不是新信息,也不可靠。”In his biography, Mr. Naifeh argues that witnesses who saw van Gogh after Dr. Rey, including his brother Theo’s wife, Johanna van Gogh-Bonger, the artist Paul Signac and van Gogh’s doctor in Auvers-sur-Oise, Dr. Paul Gachet, said that the entire ear was not missing.奈菲在自己的传记中声称,在雷伊之后见过梵高的人都说割掉的不是整只耳朵,他们包括梵高弟弟西奥(Theo)的妻子约翰娜·梵高-邦格尔(Johanna van Gogh-Bonger)、艺术家保罗·西尼亚克(Paul Signac)以及梵高在瓦兹河畔欧韦的医生保罗·加谢(Paul Gachet)。They all “saw a portion of the mutilated ear remaining — so much, in fact, that, when Vincent was seen from face-on, the damage could go unnoticed,” Mr. Naifeh wrote. “Dr. Gachet, who saw Vincent in Auvers in 1890, made a very detailed etching of the artist’s mutilated ear at that time showing that the entire pinna (outer portion) of the ear was not taken off, but the missing portion was more than just a lobe.”奈菲写道,他们都“看到部分耳朵还留着,实际上留下的部分很大,从正面看,根本注意不到耳朵被割过”,“1890年在欧韦见到文森特的加谢非常细致地画出了这位艺术家当时残缺的耳朵,它表明,整个耳廓没被割掉,不过,割掉的部分比耳垂要大”。Various reasons for van Gogh’s self-harm have been given in the past. In Paul Gauguin’s autobiographical novel,“Avant et Après,” he describes a disagreement between him and van Gogh in Arles after Gauguin decided to leave. Gauguin wrote that van Gogh chased him with a razor until Gauguin stopped him, and then van Gogh went home and wounded himself.过去,对于梵高为何自残,可谓众说纷纭。保罗·高更(Paul Gauguin)在自传体小说《此前此后》(Avant et Après)中描述了在阿尔勒,自己决定离开之后与梵高之间发生的争执。高更写道,梵高拿着剃刀追他,直到高更制止了他,然后梵高回到家做出了自残的举动。In her research, Ms. Murphy, who was born in Ireland and has lived in Provence, just outside Arles, for many years, was also able to identify the woman to whom van Gogh gave his ear. She said her name was Gabrielle, a young maid who worked in a brothel. She suffered for many years, Ms. Murphy said, with being called a prostitute because of the contact with van Gogh. According to a local newspaper report, he told her, “Keep this object carefully,” and she immediately fainted.墨菲出生于爱尔兰,在普罗旺斯住了很多年,就住在阿尔勒郊外。她在研究中还弄清了梵高把自己的耳朵交给了哪个女人。她说,那个女人名叫加布丽埃勒(Gabrielle),是在一家妓院打工的年轻女仆。墨菲说,由于跟梵高的接触,她被称为,这让她痛苦了很多年。当地报纸的一篇报道称,他对她说“好好保管这个东西”,随即她晕了过去。“There’s something semireligious to the way he offers a part of his body to repair a part of her body,” Ms. Murphy said at a preview of the exhibition. “She had a nasty scar on her body, and it’s as if he’s giving her fresh flesh.”“他奉上自己身体的一部分用于修补她身体的一部分,这带有半宗教的意味,”墨菲预展上说,“她身上有一块难看的伤疤,他像是在给予她鲜肉。”Ms. Bakker now says she thinks this was the delirious, unconscious behavior that became characteristic of van Gogh’s series of mental breakdowns. Van Gogh had no recollection of the events surrounding the ear episode, and said his memories of his actions during breakdowns were usually vague. In the hospital after the ear episode, he was ashamed to learn what he had done, and immediately put himself in the care of Dr. Rey.巴克现在说,她认为这种精神错乱、神志不清的行为,是梵高一系列精神崩溃的表现特征。梵高对割耳前后的事情没有任何记忆,他说自己对精神崩溃时各种行为的记忆通常是模糊的。他割耳后在医院里得知自己的行为后感到很羞愧,立即让雷伊医生进行处理。Van Gogh’s fame has always been linked to his complicated biography, and particularly to his madness. “The fact that 5-year-old children know who Vincent van Gogh is is partly because of this mangling of his ear,” Mr. Naifeh said in a phone interview. “If you were going to cite just a few facts about his life, this would be one of them.”梵高的名声总是与他复杂的人生联系在一起,尤其是他的疯狂。“连5岁小孩都知道文森特·梵高是谁,一个原因是他割掉了自己的耳朵,”奈菲在电话采访中说,“如果你只能着重讲他人生的几件事,这一件肯定包括在内。”Many have tried to guess what kind of mental illness van Gogh had. Some suppose he may have had temporal lobe epilepsy, which can lead to seizures, erratic behavior and loss of consciousness, while others believe his symptoms were more similar to bipolar disorder. Ms. Murphy said she thought it might have been a combination of the two. During the exhibition, the museum will host a symposium with doctors weighing in on the matter.很多人试图猜测梵高得的是哪种精神疾病。有些人猜测他可能得的是颞叶癫痫,这可能导致突然发作、各种反常行为和意识丧失,也有人认为他的症状更接近躁郁症。墨菲说,她认为可能是两者兼而有之。趁着这次展览,物馆还将举办一场研讨会,请医生们参与讨论。“We’ve been studying all these diagnoses that have been put forward in the 126 years since his death,” Ms. Bakker said. “Of course, it’s very hard to diagnose a person who is dead and has been dead a long time. We know what the symptoms were, because he was describing them in his own letters. He says he has hallucinations, that he’s speaking incoherently, that he doesn’t know what he’s doing.”“我们研究了他去世后126年里人们给出的所有诊断,”巴克说,“当然,诊断一个已经死去很长时间的人非常困难。我们知道他的症状,因为他在信中有所描述。他说自己产生幻觉,说话语无伦次,不知道自己在干什么。”Exhibited for the first time are a police report on van Gogh’s incident in Arles, and a petition by van Gogh’s neighbors there in 1889, which asked the city’s mayor to institutionalize the artist. Dr. Rey’s letter and drawing of van Gogh’s severed ear will be displayed next to the artist’s portrait of Dr. Rey, painted in January 1889 and given to the doctor as thanks for his care.首次展出的物品包括关于梵高在阿尔勒事故的警方报告,以及1889年梵高邻居们的请愿书——他们要求市长把这位艺术家关进精神病院。雷伊的信以及梵高割下的耳朵的草图,将与这位艺术家给雷伊画的肖像并置展示。那幅肖像是1889年1月梵高为了感谢这位医生而创作并赠送给他的。The goal of the exhibition is not to link the artwork to his mental state but rather to make clear that van Gogh was struggling to work despite a debilitating illness.这场展览的目的不是把他的艺术作品与他的精神状态联系在一起,而是想表明,虽然梵高身患令人衰弱的疾病,但仍在奋力工作。“It’s not the case that he was having these hallucinations and painting them,” Ms. Bakker said. “A lot of people still think that. It’s amazing the amount of art he was able to create, especially considering that there were sometimes quite long periods when he wasn’t able to work.”“他并不是把自己的幻觉画了下来,”巴克说,“很多人依然是这么认为的。令人惊叹的是,他能创作出那么多艺术作品,尤其是考虑到有时他有相当长的时间都无法工作。” /201607/454552As the Chinese Ministry of Finance studies a proposed reform of personal income tax, an online poll has shown that 70 percent of respondents consider the tax burden ;slightly high;.目前财政部正在研究个人所得税改革,而一项网络调查显示,70%的工薪族认为税负偏高。The poll, featuring 1,911 participants and conducted by China Youth Daily last week, also revealed that 44.6 percent are satisfied with the current tax method while 16.9 percent are not.这项《中国青年报》上周对1911人进行的调查还显示,对于现行的个税征收方案,44.6%的受访者表示满意,16.9%的受访者不满意。While 53.2 percent of the surveyed said the existing personal income tax does not take factors such as pricing levels and family needs into account, 43.1 percent cried out for fairness, 38.5 percent said the personal income tax threshold is too low and 16 percent that the taxation mechanism lags behind the actual situation.53.2%的受访者认为现行个税方案没有考虑物价、家庭等因素,43.1%的受访者认为缺乏公平,38.5%的受访者认为个税起征点过低,16.0%的受访者认为征收制度滞后。According to the newspaper, 50.6 percent of respondents are well aware of the details regarding their personal income tax payment, while 17.7 percent knew little. Nearly 80 percent expect tax reform, 68.7 percent that tax collection methods should be adjusted according to social and economic development realities and 57.3 percent a tax cut in order to lower the wage-earning burden.根据该报的报道,50.6%的受访者对自己个人所得税的纳税情况很了解,但是有17.7%的人表示自己不太了解。与此同时,近80%的受访者期待个税改革,68.7%的受访者认为个税方案应随经济社会发展形势而适时调整,57.3%的受访者建议降低税率、调低工薪阶层的税负。Zhang Po, from Wuhan in Hubei Province, said he hopes the reform will take family needs such as costs for taking care of the elderly and kids into consideration in reducing his financial burden.来自湖北武汉的张坡表示,他希望新的个税改革可以把赡养老人和抚养小孩的家庭需求考虑进去,这样有利于减轻家庭的负担。Zheng Yin, an accountant from Xi#39;an in Shanxi province, said it would be more reasonable to levy personal income tax based on the family income rather than individual.在陕西西安从事会计工作的郑茵表示,从家庭的收入角度扣除所得税比从个人角度来扣除会更加合理。Liu Ying, a professor at the School of Finance and Taxation of the Capital University of Economics and Business, said family income-based tax would be difficult at the current stage as it is much more complicated than the existing method and tax authorities lack related information.首都经济贸易大学财政税务学院税务系主任刘颖认为,现阶段以家庭为单位征收还存在很大的难度。这是由于缺少相关信息,所以以家庭为单位征收会有很多复杂的情况。 /201512/417708

BEIJING — The emotional disintegration of a 17-month-old boy named John as he sought and failed to find comfort from caregivers in a British boarding nursery, captured in a 1969 documentary film, deeply distressed the Chinese women at a seminar last week on early childhood separation.北京——一个名叫约翰(John)的17个月大的男孩想从一家英国寄宿托儿所寻求安抚未果,因此情绪崩溃。这个故事被1969年的一部纪录片记录下来。上周,在一个关于幼儿早期分离的研讨会上,这个故事令与会的中国妇女感到非常难过。It showed in hard-to-watch detail the damage that can be inflicted when young children lose their primary caregivers. John’s anguish was extreme. He cried for days, refused food and withdrew.该片以惨不忍睹的细节展现出失去主要照顾者可能对幼儿造成的伤害。约翰非常痛苦。他大哭了好几天,拒绝进食和与人沟通。One woman at the seminar, which was offered at a Beijing university and attended mostly by mothers and professional caregivers, took off her glasses and hid her face in her hands for a long time.研讨会上的一个女人摘下眼镜,用手捂住脸很长时间。这次研讨会在北京的一所大学召开,与会者大多是母亲或职业看护人。Another stared straight ahead, tearing up.另一个人眼睛直直地盯着前方,满含泪水。A third asked, somewhat frantically, whether John had healed later. The answer — that he had not, entirely — from the teacher, Alf Gerlach, a psychoanalyst at the Sigmund Freud Institute in Frankfurt, was met with quiet consternation.还有一位略带急躁地询问约翰后来是否康复。讲师阿尔夫#8226;格拉克(Alf Gerlach)的回答是,他没有完全康复。格拉克是法兰克福弗洛伊德研究所(Sigmund Freud Institute)的精神分析学家。他的回答带来一片愕然。Millions of Chinese who attended boarding nurseries and preschools after the Communist revolution in 1949, when large-scale systems of institutional care were established to free parents to pursue revolution or to labor, experienced John’s plight to some degree.1949年共产主义革命后,中国建立了大规模机构式护理系统,来解放父母,让他们有时间参与革命或劳动。成百上千万中国幼儿被送往寄宿托儿所或幼儿园,他们也都在某种程度上经历了约翰的痛苦。The generation most deeply affected may be those born in the early decades after 1949, as the boarding system sp unquestioned — those in their 50s and 60s who run the country today.受影响最深的应该是在1949年之后的前几十年出生的人——那时寄宿系统在没有受到任何质疑的情况下推广开来——而今他们五六十岁,正掌管着这个国家。But the women at the seminar, who ranged from young adults to middle age, all had stories of losing primary caregivers, or of being forced to separate from their own children because of rules barring parents from staying with their hospitalized children.但是,研讨会上的女性,不管是刚刚成年,还是人到中年,都有失去主要照顾者,或者因为不允许父母与住院的孩子呆在一起的医院规定而被迫同孩子分开的经历。Boarding school is less common now for those under 6 but is still considered a respectable option. Even Chinese millennials may have been sent as toddlers. It is widesp among children 6 and older.六岁以下儿童的寄宿托儿所如今已经不是那么普遍,但仍被视为不错的选择。在中国,就连千禧一代小时候也有可能被送进这种托儿所。这种情况在六岁及以上的儿童中非常普遍。Hoping to understand more about the development of the system in China, I visited the Beijing municipal archives on Archive Road.我希望更多了解这种系统在中国的发展状况,于是拜访了北京市档案馆。There, documents showed that, at top institutions in the city after the revolution, the caregiver-to-child ratios — John’s problem had been a lack of attention — were initially high. Mostly, the children of the elite were sent away. The children of ordinary citizens were cared for at home.这里的档案表明,革命之后,在北京最好的若干托儿所里,照顾者与幼儿的人数比(约翰的问题在于缺乏关照)最初是非常高的。大多数情况下,精英阶层的孩子们会被送进托儿所。普通市民的孩子们则在家里接受照顾。A 1958 State Council document recorded a 1-to-2 ratio in 1956 at a nursery run by the Ministry of Agriculture. But colder times began with the 1958 “double-anti” campaign against “waste and conservatism.”根据一份1958年的国务院档案的记载,1956年,在一个农业部管理的托儿所里,一个看护者只需照顾两个幼儿。但是随着1958年“反浪费反保守”的“双反”运动来临,冷酷的时代开始了。Spending on food and board was cut everywhere, the document showed. The caregiver ratio at the ministry nursery went to 1-to-5.5 that year. The authorities promised to get it to 1-to-5.9, in line with “rectification.”文件表明,在所有地方,用于食物和住宿的经费都被缩减。那一年,在这个农业部的托儿所里,相关比例变成了一个看护者照顾5.5个幼儿。为了“整风”,官方承诺将这个比例变成1:5.9。Conditions in less privileged preschools grew grim as the authorities pushed to institutionalize large numbers of children to free parents to meet higher production as during the Great Leap Forward of 1958 to 1961.在1958年到1961年的“大跃进”期间,官方开始推动将大量儿童送进幼儿园的做法,以便把父母解放出来,完成更高的生产定额,因此,在条件相对没那么好的幼儿园里,形势变得更加严峻。Another document, dated 1960, noted: “The problem now is that the development of boarding nurseries isn’t keeping up with the development of the needs of production.” Facilities were built quickly but were “small and cramped.” 另一份1960年的文件中写着“主要问题是托儿组织的发展还跟不上生产发展的需要”。设施建设很快,但“非常窄小”。Only 26 percent were “good.” In Beijing, 400,000 children needed preschool places immediately, the document said. With the able-bodied working in fields or factories, the caregivers were often old or sick. At one preschool, the document said, six children drowned in one summer and three got food poisoning, with one dying.“良好”率仅为26%。文件说,在北京,有40万儿童迫切需要幼儿园。身强力壮的人都在农田或工厂工作,看护人通常都是老弱者。文件显示,在一个幼儿园里,一个夏天内有六个孩子溺水,三人食物中毒,其中一人死亡。Conditions have improved drastically since then, but loyalty to the system remains. An article published one week before school began on Sept. 1, by Shilehui, a website for preschool educators, addressed the issue.比起那时,幼儿园的条件得到很大改善,但是人们仍然执着于这一体系。在9月1日学校开学一周前,一个名为“师乐汇”的幼儿园教育者网站上发表的一篇文章就此做出解答。Hardly any parent likes to send a young child to be boarded, it said. But in the interests of “objectivity,” it listed three advantages: Boarding helps children become more independent and less finicky and make more friends.文章称,很少有父母愿意送孩子去寄宿。但是出于“客观”考虑,文章列出了寄宿制度的三个优点:能帮助孩子更加独立、不娇气、交到更多朋友。Little John’s experience shows it also can have negative emotional outcomes. And the reactions of the women attending the course suggest that many Chinese parents know it.小约翰的经历表明,这种制度可能在感情方面带来负面后果。而参加这个课程的女性的反应表明,很多中国父母明白这一点。 /201610/469791

At the Lord Mayor’s banquet in London last week, I set out Britain’s global opportunity. 在上周伦敦金融城市长晚宴上,我阐述了英国的全球机遇。I said we can lead the world in understanding the extent to which some people — often those on modest to low incomes living in rich countries like our own — feel left behind by the forces of capitalism, and in embracing a new approach that ensures everyone shares the benefits of economic growth.我说,我们可以引领世界理解一些人(往往是那些生活在我们这种富有国家的中低收入人群)在多大程度上觉得被资本主义的力量甩在后面,并拥抱一种新的战略,确保所有人都能享受到经济增长的好处。In the Autumn Statement this week the chancellor will set out this new direction. 在11月23日的秋季预算报告(Autumn Statement)中,财政大臣将阐明这种新方向。This government will continue the tasks of bringing the deficit down and getting our debt falling so that we live within our means, while doing more to boost Britain’s long-term economic success. 本届政府将继续推进降低赤字和债务的任务,以便我们能量入为出,同时采取更多措施促进英国的长期经济成功。We will set out reforms to tackle low productivity and — crucially — provide targeted help to ordinary working families who are struggling to get by. 我们将制定改革计划,解决生产率低下的问题,并且(至关重要的是)为生活困难的普通工薪家庭提供针对性的帮助。We are a government that is not afraid to act to ensure the benefits of economic growth are shared by all.本届政府不怕采取措施确保所有人共享经济增长的好处。We will show that capitalism and free markets continue to be the best way to create prosperity, sp opportunity and give people the chance of a better life.我们还将展示出,资本主义和自由市场将继续是缔造繁荣、传播机遇和让人们有机会享受更美好生活的最佳方式。But if we believe in capitalism, free markets and free trade, we must be prepared to adapt.然而,如果我们信奉资本主义、自由市场和自由贸易,那么我们就必须准备好做出调整。If we are to maintain confidence in a system that has delivered unprecedented levels of wealth and opportunity, lifted millions out of poverty around the world, brought nations closer together, improved standards of living and consumer choice, 当今的制度带来了空前水平的繁荣和机遇,让世界各地数以百万计的人脱离了贫困,拉近了国与国之间的距离,提升了生活水平和消费者选择,还撑着基于规则的国际体系,该体系这么多年来一直是全球繁荣和安全的关键。and underpinned the rules-based international system that has been key to global prosperity and security for so long, we need to ensure it works for everyone.要保持对这样一种制度的信心,我们就需要确保它造福于所有人。This is not a task for government alone. 这并不只是政府的任务。So today at the CBI’s annual conference, I will ask British business to work with me: helping to shape this new approach, setting the template for others to follow, and calling out what is bad in order to promote what is just and good.因此,在英国工商业联合会(CBI)最近的年会上,我要求英国企业与我合作:帮助构建这个新的战略,确立让其他人仿效的模板,并且为了推动公正和善行而指出什么是不好的。The government will step up with a new industrial strategy that will get the economy firing on all cylinders, back Britain’s strengths in areas such as science and innovation, and tackle longstanding problems like low levels of productivity and the historic imbalance towards London and the south-east.本届政府将作出自己的贡献,出台新的产业战略,让英国经济全速前进,持英国在科学和创新等领域的优势,同时应对一些长期存在的问题,例如生产率水平低下以及偏重伦敦及英格兰东南部的历史性失衡。Britain will be the global go-to place for scientists, innovators and tech investors. 英国将成为科学家、创新者以及科技投资者的全球首选目的地。We will invest an extra £2bn a year in Ramp;D by the end of this parliament; set up an Industrial Strategy Challenge fund to back scientific research and development of technologies such as robotics, artificial intelligence and industrial biotechnology, and review our tax regime to encourage and support innovation.到本届议会任期结束之时,我们将每年作出额外的20亿英镑研发投入;设立一个产业战略挑战基金(Industrial Strategy Challenge fund)以持机器人、人工智能和工业生物技术等技术领域的科研和开发,并且重审我们的税收制度以鼓励和持创新。We will not just back the innovators, but the long-term investors, too. 我们不仅会持创新者,还会持长期投资者。For while the UK ranks third in the OECD for the number of start-ups we create, we are 13th for the number that go on to become scaled-up businesses. 因为,尽管英国在初创企业数量上在经合组织(OECD)中名列第三,但我们在随后发展壮大的初创企业数量上仅名列第13位。The government will act to turn our bright start-ups into successful scale-ups, launching a patient capital review led by the Treasury that will examine how we can break down the obstacles to long-term investment in innovative firms.政府将采取措施,把我国生气勃勃的初创企业培育为具有一定规模的成功企业,发起由财政部领导的耐心资本评估,由其考察我们如何能够克对创新企业进行长期投资所面临的障碍。Just as government must take a new approach, so business needs to change.就像政府必须采取新的战略一样,企业也需要改变。I will always be one of the strongest advocates for the role businesses play in creating jobs, generating wealth and supporting a strong economy and society. 对于企业在创造就业、产生财富以及持强大的经济和社会方面发挥的作用,我永远是最坚定的倡导者之一。Yet we must recognise that when a small minority of businesses and business figures appear to game the system and work to a different set of rules, the social contract between businesses and society fails — and the reputation of business as a whole is undermined.然而,我们必须意识到,如果少数企业和商界人士似乎在钻体制的空子,并根据不同的规则行事,那么企业与社会之间的社会契约就会失灵,整个商界的声誉将遭受损害。 /201611/480023

  

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  Melida was only 9 when guerrilla fighters lured her away with the promise of food as she played on the floor. For the next seven years she was held hostage by the rebels, forced to become a child soldier. 梅里达(Melida)在外面玩耍的时候,被游击队员用吃的诱拐走了。那年她才9岁。接下来的七年里,她被叛军扣押,被迫成了儿童兵。 Her family thought she had died in battle. Then Melida suddenly returned to her village at 16, carrying a pistol and a grenade. Only her grandfather recognized her — from a birthmark on her cheek. 家人觉得她已经在战场上死了。然而16岁的梅里达突然带着手和手榴弹回到了家乡的村庄。只有祖父凭着她脖子上的胎记认出了她。 The very next day, the military surrounded her house, called by an informant seeking the bounty on her head. 第二天,军队就包围了她的房子。她被悬赏捉拿,有人为了赏金,叫来了军队。 “I found out my own father had turned me in,” she recalled. “我发现举报我的就是我的亲生父亲,”她回忆。 Colombia is nearing a peace agreement with the rebels to end a half-century of fighting, one of the longest conflicts in the world. 哥伦比亚的叛军已经同政府战斗了半个世纪,这是世界上持续时间最长的冲突之一。如今,双方正向着一份和平协议靠近。 More than 220,000 people have been killed, leaving a country bitterly divided over what role, if any, former rebels should play in society once they drop their weapons for a new, unarmed life outside the jungle. 战争中有超过22万人遭到杀害,给这个国家带来痛苦的分歧:一旦这些前叛军放下武器,走出丛林,开始新的、非武装的生活,他们能否融入社会?如果能,他们又该扮演怎样的角色? That includes thousands of rebel fighters who were raised since childhood to carry out armed struggle. Many of them know little else but war. 这涉及成千上万的叛军战士,他们从小就被训练拿起武器战斗,大多数人除了战争之外,其他事情所知甚少。 “There are times when I think about returning to the guerrillas because this life is hard here,” said Melida, now 20, who like other former child soldiers, asked that her last name not be used because she fears reprisals over her links to the rebels. “有时候,我想过要回游击队去,因为这里的生活太艰难了,”如今已经20岁的梅里达说。和其他儿童兵一样,因为担心与叛军的关系招来报复,她要求不公开自己的姓氏。 She is now caught between two worlds, she says, belonging to neither. “True, we were children waiting for our deaths. But I’m always thinking about returning.” 她说,如今她被卡在两个世界之间,却不属于其中任何一个世界。“没错,我们在那边是随时等待死亡的孩子,但我现在常想回去。” The rebels, known as the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia, or FARC, say they don’t recruit children. Yet during a recent visit to a FARC camp by The New York Times, a half-dozen soldiers as young as 15 said they had been recruited by the rebels only months earlier. 叛军名为哥伦比亚革命武装力量(Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia),简称FARC,他们说并不招募儿童。然而《纽约时报》最近探访FARC营地时,发现其中有六七个士兵大约在15岁左右,他们说自己是几个月之前才被叛军招募进来的。 In government rehabilitation centers throughout Colombia, minors told similar stories of being spirited away to camps by rebels. Now they face a future for which they are thoroughly unprepared. 在哥伦比亚各地的政府康复中心里,孩子们讲述的经历大同小异,都是被叛军诱拐到军营的。如今他们面临着一个自己全无准备的未来。 Melida said that when her captors came to her house along the river, they drew her attention by saying they had soup in their canoe. 梅里达说,诱拐她的人来到她在河边的家,说他们的独木舟上有汤喝,就这样吸引了她。 The guerrillas brought her up the river until they reached a distant camp. She woke up alongside several other children, each around 10 or 11. Their first lesson was hiding in trenches during bombings by the military. 游击队带着她逆流而上,来到一处偏远的营地。醒来时,她发现身边还有其他几个孩子,大都是10岁到11岁。他们的第一课就是在军方轰炸时躲进壕沟。 Melida’s father, Moises, a traditional healer of the Amazon’s Cubeo group, was away at the time and did not return to their village for another month. He quickly left again to find the girl. 梅里达的父亲莫伊塞斯(Moises)是亚马逊库贝欧(Cubeo)部落的行医者,当时他不在家,接下来的一个月里也没有回村庄。回来后,他很快再次离家去寻找女儿。 Moises went to the guerrilla camp near the village and asked to meet the commander, a tall FARC fighter in fatigues. 莫伊塞斯来到村子附近的游击队营地,要求见指挥官,一个身穿迷的高个子FARC战士。 “I said, ‘I came for my daughter,’ ” Moises recalled. “He said she wasn’t there.” “我说,‘我来找我女儿,’”莫伊塞斯回忆。“他说她不在那里。” In the camp, Melida had been renamed Marisol and began her schooling. A Dutch woman who had joined the fighters and spoke broken Spanish taught lessons on the history of communism, the FARC and Darwin’s theory of evolution, something Melida had never learned in her indigenous village. 在营地里,梅里达被重新起名为玛丽索尔(Marisol),开始了她的学习。一个加入叛军的荷兰女人操着结结巴巴的西班牙语,给他们讲授共产主义与FARC的历史,以及达尔文的进化论,这些都是梅里达从没在家乡的村庄里学过的。 Melida was also learning to make land mines. One “looked like a fish” and was triggered with a tripwire made of string, she said. Another was called the “quiebrapatas,” or the “leg-breaker,” because it maimed rather than killed its victim. 梅里达还学习做地雷。她说,有一种“看上去很像鱼”,由一根线绳做的绊索触发。还有一种地雷名叫“断腿雷”,因为它的目的是导致触雷者肢残,而不是杀死他们。 “I said, ‘I want to go home,’ ” she remembered saying. “But they told me, ‘Once you enter a camp, you cannot leave.’ ” “我说,‘我想回家’,”她回忆。“但是他们告诉我,‘一进营地,你就别想离开。’” Years after she was kidnapped, FARC rebels passed through her village and mentioned Melida to her family. 她被诱拐数年后,FARC叛军经过她的村庄,向她的家人提起她。 “They said she had died in an attack,” her father recalled. “After that, I just forgot about her. I thought it was best to forget.” “他们说她在一场袭击中死了,”她父亲回忆。“后来我就把她忘记了。我觉得最好还是忘记。” In reality, a commander in his 40s had taken an interest in her. At first, he followed her around the camp. Then one day, when she was 15, he asked her to wash his clothes in his tent. 事实上,一个40多岁的指挥官开始对她感兴趣。起先,他在营地里到处跟着她。后来,她15岁的时候,有一天,他让她到他的帐篷里给他洗衣。 “Give me a kiss,” she recalled him saying. “吻我一下,”她记得他这么说。 “I don’t know how,” she said. “我不知道怎么做,”她说。 “Then I’ll teach you,” the commander said. “那我来教你,”指挥官说。 She was later given a birth control implant in her arm and the commander forced her into a relationship, she said. 她说,后来她做了皮下埋植避,指挥官逼她和他发生了关系。 “Imagine waking up next to someone who was that old when you are that young,” she said. “想想看,你还那么年轻,每天早晨却要在那么老的人身边醒来,”她说。 At 16, she asked the commander if she could visit her family. She was surprised when he agreed. Carrying the pistol and the grenade, she made her way back home for what was meant to be a short reunion. 16岁那年,她问指挥官能不能回去看看家人。让她吃惊的是,他竟然同意了。于是她带着手和手榴弹踏上了回家的路,本来只是想短暂地与家人重聚。 The village was unrecognizable. A warship was now stationed near the dock. The home from which she had been abducted was abandoned. 村庄已经变得认不出来。一艘军舰停靠在码头。她当年遭到诱拐时住的那栋房子如今已被废弃。 “I told the first person I saw that I was Mr. Moises’ daughter, and they said I couldn’t be because that daughter was dead,” she said. “我告诉见到的第一个人,我是莫伊塞斯先生的女儿。他们说不可能,因为那个女儿已经死了,”她说。 Melida says she does not know why her father turned her in to the military the next day. 梅里达说,她不知道父亲第二天为何向军方告发了她。 “He wanted me not to go back perhaps,” she said. “He wanted the best for me.” “可能是他希望我不要再回去,”她说。“他觉得这样对我最好。” But Moises, sitting in his daughter’s living room on a recent afternoon, offered another explanation. 但是前不久,坐在女儿的起居室里接受访谈的莫伊塞斯给出了另一个解释。 “I wanted to buy a motorcycle,” he said. After a moment he added, “They never gave me the reward I was promised.” “我想买辆托车,”他说。过了一会儿他又补了一句,“他们根本没把承诺的报酬付给我。” The soldiers interrogated Melida at one base after another, she said. What was her real name, they asked? Who were her commanders? Where were the FARC bases? 梅里达被送到一个又一个基地接受审问,她说。他们问,她的真名是什么,她的指挥官都有谁,FARC的营地都在哪里? After two weeks, Melida was taken to a government rehabilitation center for indigenous youth who had left the FARC. It was on a mountainside in an alien part of the country for Melida, who had never seen the Andes before she was captured. 两个星期后,梅里达被送进政府为离开FARC的土著青年开设的康复中心。它坐落在山坡上,国家的这个部分对于梅里达来说是完全陌生的,她被捕之前从来没有见过安第斯山脉。 The center was home to about 20 other former child soldiers. Daily classes and chores, meant to adjust them to civilian life, were new to her. Other requirements, like another birth control implant, reminded her of the FARC. 中心住着20来个曾经的儿童兵。每天的课程和杂活对她来说是崭新的,这些都是为了让他们适应平民生活。还有些要求让她想起FARC,比如她又做了一次皮下埋植避。 War was constantly on Melida’s mind. “When I would get up, I would reach beside me to take my rifle and realize there wasn’t one there,” she said. 战争在梅里达的心头总是萦绕不去。“起床时,我总是在身边摸索自己的来复,然后才意识到已经没有了,”她说。 Víctor Hugo Ochoa, the center’s director, said Melida arrived angry and often threatened to run away. “It was hard to intervene,” he said. “She formed her own constellation of kids who turned on us.” 中心主管维克多·雨果·奥乔亚(Víctor Hugo Ochoa)说,梅里达刚来时怒气冲冲,经常威胁要逃跑。“要进行干预是很困难的,”他说,“她在孩子们中间建立起一个自己的小团体,和我们对着干。” At night, Melida began sneaking out of the center with a man named Javier, whose mother was a cook there. He was nine years older than Melida, but the two would go out drinking and partying in a nearby town. 到晚上,梅里达开始和一个名叫哈维尔(Javier)的男人溜出去,他的母亲是中心的厨师。他比梅里达大九岁,两人经常溜出去喝酒,到临近镇上参加派对。 Javier had a bad history with the rebels. In 2004, his brother, a soldier, was killed by a FARC sniper. His family never forgave the guerrillas, a tension at the heart of any peace deal. 哈维尔和叛军有一段仇怨。2004年,他的哥哥,一个军人,被FARC的狙击手打死了。他的家人始终不原谅游击队,这种矛盾成为任何和平协议的核心难题。 Despite this, Melida and Javier realized they were falling in love. 尽管如此,梅里达和哈维尔发现他们相爱了。 “Why did it have to be her?” he said. “From the people who killed my brother?” “为什么偏偏是她,”他说。“来自那群杀害了我哥哥的人。” Melida was forming another relationship — with her father, who began visiting to get to know her again. 梅里达还建立起了另一层关系——和她的父亲。他开始经常来探望她,重新了解她。 After turning Melida in, Moises now wanted a role in his daughter’s life. But even communicating was a challenge: Melida had lost some of her fluency in Cubeo, the indigenous language they had spoken when she was a child. 举报了梅里达之后,莫伊塞斯希望能够在女儿的生活中拥有一席之地。但沟通起来非常困难:梅里达已经不能流利地说小时候的当地语言库贝欧语。 “She was just some young lady I didn’t know,” he said. “她就是一个我完全不认识的姑娘,”他说。 The new ties were changing her, Mr. Ochoa said. She was getting to know her two cousins, María and Leila, themselves former FARC members who had left the center. Javier’s mother, Dora, was teaching Melida to cook and clean, taking on a mother’s role. 新的关系慢慢改变着她,奥乔亚说。她认识了自己两个表姊,玛丽亚(María)和蕾拉(Leila),她们都是已经离开中心的前FARC成员。哈维尔的妈妈朵拉(Dora)承担起母亲的角色,教梅里达烹饪和清洁。 Dora took Melida’s FARC history in stride. “My daughter is married to a policeman; another is with a soldier,” she said. “Javier is with a ex-guerrilla. The only thing we’re missing in this family is a paramilitary.” 朵拉对梅里达在FARC的那段历史泰然处之。“我女儿嫁给一个警察;另外一个女儿和一个士兵在一起,”她说。“哈维尔和一个前游击队员在一起。现在我们家就缺一个准军事部队成员了。” One day Melida’s birth control implant failed and she became pregnant. 一天,梅里达的避植体失效了。她怀了。 Dora pulled Melida aside. “I told her, ‘Now you have something to fight for that’s not the revolution.’ ” 朵拉把梅里达拉到一边。“我告诉她,‘现在你有了可以为之奋斗的东西,不过不是革命。’” Her daughter, Celeste, was born last year. 她的女儿塞莱斯特(Celeste)去年降生。 The daily tasks of motherhood consumed Melida for weeks. But the anger remained. 几个星期以来,身为人母的每日劳作让梅里达精疲力尽。但她仍旧愤怒。 “She told me she was raised for war, not to care, not to be a lover,” Javier said. “She would tell me, ‘I love you, but understand my life hasn’t been easy.’ ” “她告诉我,她从小学的是怎么打仗,不是怎么照顾人,也不是怎么做一个爱人,”哈维尔说。“她总说,‘我爱你,但是你要理解我的生活并不容易。’” Melida’s relationship with her father remains strained. They rarely talk about her life in rebel hands. 梅里达和父亲的关系也一直紧张。他们很少谈起她在叛军手中的生活。 On a recent day, Melida was recovering from a blow to her face. “She started to argue with me and I hit her,” said Moises, looking at the ground. 前不久,梅里达脸上受了伤。“她和我吵,我就打了她,”莫伊塞斯两眼盯着地板说。 Recently, Melida’s cousin Leila, the former FARC member, committed suicide. Melida sometimes travels to visit the unmarked grave. 前段时间,梅里达的表,前FARC成员蕾拉自杀身亡。梅里达有时会去探望那座没有墓碑的坟茔。 Dora says Melida is too strong to take her own life. But she worries Melida might return to the guerrillas. 朵拉说,梅里达很坚强,不至于寻短见。但是她担心梅里达会回到游击队去。 “She is a good mother and puts her daughter first,” Dora said. “But she also tells me she is bored and doesn’t like this life. And I tell her: ‘If you want to leave, then leave. But think of the girl. Leave Celeste with me.’ ” “她是个好母亲,总会把女儿放在第一位,”朵拉说。“但她也告诉我,她觉得无聊,不喜欢这种生活。我告诉她:‘如果你想走那就走吧。但是为你女儿想想。把塞莱斯特留给我。’” /201605/440520

  The China Railway Corporation (CRC) announced last Monday that its ;China Standard; bullet trains, also known as electric multiple units (EMUs), have started operation in Liaoning.中国铁路总公司上周一宣布,中国标准动车组已开始在辽宁运行,动车组又称多编组电力列车。The China Railway Corporation announced that Train No G8041 departed from Dalian for Shenyang, capital of northeast China#39;s Liaoning.中国铁路总公司宣布G8041班列车从大连开往中国东北部辽宁省的省会沈阳市。It is the first passenger service using China Standard EMU trains, said Zhou Li, head of technological management at the CRC.中国铁总科技管理部主任周黎表示,这是中国标准动车组列车首次进行客运务。;China independently owns the design of the EMU, and it will be a leading model for China to export to the world,; Zhou said.周黎主任说道:“该动车组由中国自主设计,将成为中国向世界出口的先进车型。”China has developed its high-speed technology in recent years modelled on Japan and Germany bullet train technologies and rapidly expanded their network to improve connectivity.最近几年,中国通过效仿日德子弹头列车技术开发了自己的高速技术,并大力扩展高铁网络以提高各地区的联系。The China Standard EMU uses the latest exterior design, reduces energy consumption, and adopts a standard parts design. It has reinforced safety features compared with old models.中国标准动车组采用最新外观设计,降低能耗,并采用统一零部件设计,与旧型相比安全功能有所加强。The trains can touch a speed of 350 kilometers per hour, state-run Xinhua news agency reported. Currently, China#39;s high-speed trains clocks around 280 kmph.据新华社报道,这种列车时速可达350公里。目前中国高铁时速在280公里左右。 /201608/462563

  

  

  

  Groundbreaking new traffic lights fitted with artificial intelligence could create safer roads and bring an end to rush hour gridlock.开创性的人工智能交通灯将为行人创造更为安全的道路环境,使路况高峰期的交通拥堵不再发生。#39;Smart#39; traffic lights will monitor speed and congestion, prioritise cyclists, buses and ambulances with green lights and use heatmaps to analyse how pedestrians and motorists are using the roads.智能交通灯可以检测车流速度及道路堵塞状况,为骑行者、公交车和救护车“开放绿灯”,并通过热图分析行人与汽车驾驶员的道路使用情况。Milton Keynes is set to be the first city to trial the £3 million project from September, with 2,500 sensors monitoring all major junction points and car parking spaces.从九月份起,米尔顿凯恩斯将成为首个试行这项投资300万英镑项目的城市。全市最主要的十字路口及停车区域总计安装了2500个感应监测器。The monitors recognise different vehicles and individual road users and will be able to regulate traffic in real-time.监测仪可以识别不同的车型和行人,从而实时调节交通。At present, traffic lights are sequenced but not reactive to the vehicles around them and traffic monitoring is still done manually.目前,交通灯都是编码排序,但无法对附近车辆做出反应。交通监测依然由人工完成。Cameras will also allow traffic lights to prioritise cyclists, buses or ambulances with green lights.智能交通系统中的摄像头可以使交通灯优先放行骑行者、公交车或者救护车。Vehicle dashboards that communicate with traffic lights could also flag the presence of cyclists to lorry drivers.能接收交通灯信号的汽车仪表盘可以提醒货车司机有行人经过。The technology could also enable traffic lights to communicate with driverless cars around the corner and inform them if pedestrians are crossing the road.该技术也可以让红绿灯向正在转弯的无人驾驶车发送信号,告诉它们是否有行人正在过马路。Vivacity Labs, which created the technology, has now secured a £1.7m project grant to roll out a city-wide sensor network.这项技术由“生机实验室”研发。该实验室目前已获得170万英镑的资金持,正在准备架设覆盖全市的感应网络。Yang Lu, Chief Technology Officer at Vivacity Labs said: #39;There is very limited intelligence to the current management of urban roads.“生机实验室”首席技术官杨路(音译)说:“在目前的城市道路管理系统中,智能技术的运用非常有限。”#39;By introducing AI into the camera itself, Vivacity Labs has created a system that accurately identifies and reports road usage, removing the need for cumbersome manual interpretation and significantly reducing the potential for human error.“‘生机实验室’将人工智能技术运用到摄像头中,创造出一个可以准确识别和上报道路使用情况的系统,取代了先前繁琐的人工监测流程,大大地降低了人为错误出现的可能。”This lays the groundwork for the smart city of the future, using data flows to guide driverless vehicles to their destination with minimal congestion.这项技术为未来的智能城市奠定了坚实的基础。通过数据流的指引,无人驾驶汽车将畅通无阻地直达目的地。#39;It also improves traffic today as it can be linked with existing management systems to keep vulnerable road users, such as cyclists, safe by giving priority at lights, or alter signs to direct traffic away from congestion.#39;“该技术也可以改善当今的交通状况。它可以和现存的管理系统联系起来,通过优先放行保一些较易受伤的道路使用者的安全,如骑行者。它也可以通过改变标识信号的方式疏通堵塞的交通。” /201705/511834

  

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