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2018年12月19日 03:56:19 | 作者:豆瓣新闻 | 来源:新华社

The first regiment of the Japanese troops stationed in Fengtai started military drills day and night from late June 1937. On July 6, lined-up Japanese forces in Fengtai tried to force their way to the Lugouqiao (Marco Polo Bridge), but were rejected by the Chinese troops garrisoned at the bridge. The Japanese forces retreated after gun-holding confrontation of 10 hours. On the evening of July 7, 1937, Japanese troops launched a "practice with live ammunition" several hundred meters away from the sentry of Chinese forces at the Lugouqiao. At about 11 PM, gunshots were suddenly heard from eastern Wanping County. Later, several Japanese troops were seen outside the county, claiming that one of their soldiers was missing and requesting to enter the county to look for him. With the unreasonable request rejected, Renya Mutaguchi, commanding officer of the Japanese regiment, ordered to "fight back." At 5 AM on July 8, reinforced Japanese troops assaulted the Wanping County, and the Chinese 219th Regiment of the 37th Division of the 29th Army launched tenacious resistance. The Lugouqiao Incident was the prelude of the struggle of all the Chinese people against the Japanese aggression /200907/76858

A spike in air pollution in Beijing and other Chinese cities has brought concern over auto fumes to the fore in the world#39;s largest car market, but analysts say trucks and older cars─rather than new passenger vehicles -- lie at the heart of China#39;s current pollution woes.在中国这个世界最大的汽车市场,北京和其他中国城市的空气污染突然加剧,令人们对汽车尾气排放的担忧变得突出,但分析师说,中国当前污染祸患的重点是卡车和较为老旧的汽车,而不是新的乘用车。China overtook the U.S. as the biggest auto market by number of new vehicles sold in 2009. Last year, Chinese customers bought 19.3 million vehicles, a figure the semiofficial China Association of Auto Manufacturers forecasts will grow a further 7% this year.2009年,以新车销量计算,中国取代美国成为世界最大的汽车市场。去年中国消费者总共购买了1,930万辆车,根据半官方的中国汽车工业协会的预测,这个数字今年还将增长7%。A fourth day of severe pollution across large parts of China has put scrutiny on industries that contribute to China#39;s pollution problems, including auto makers, power companies, steel makers and other firms.中国大片地区的重度污染情况进入第四天,造成中国污染问题的一些行业因此受到人们审视,其中包括汽车制造商、电力公司、钢厂和其他一些公司。China has fewer cars on the road than the U.S. -- 92.7 million compared with about 245 million. But according to China#39;s Ministry of Environmental Protection, only 5.7% of China#39;s vehicles meet the country#39;s highest national Grade IV standards that limit toxic emissions from vehicles including greenhouse gas and tiny particulate matter known as PM2.5.中国上路行驶的车辆共有9,270万辆,低于美国约2.45亿辆的规模。但据中国环境保护部的数据,中国仅有5.7%的车辆符合最严格的国家第四阶段机动车污染物排放标准(国IV标准),该标准对包括温室气体和微小颗粒物PM2.5在内的废气排放做出了限制。The majority meet relatively low emission standards. The 10% of vehicles that don#39;t meet the minimal Grade I emission standard account for 40% of the total emissions of major pollutants, the ministry said.中国大多数机车都只符合相对较低的排放标准。环保部说,有10%的车辆不符合最低的国I排放标准,其排放的污染物占主要污染物总排放量的40%。#39;Mitigation of the problem lies much more in getting rid of old vehicles and improving traffic flow,#39; said Janet Lewis, an analyst at Macquarie Securities.麦格理券(Macquarie Securities)分析师刘易斯(Janet Lewis)说,缓和污染问题更多地在于取缔老旧车辆并改善交通拥堵状况。Public outcry about the recent spike in pollution could also motivate the government to re-examine its once-ambitious plans for electric vehicles, implementation of which have recently stalled.公众对最近污染加剧的强烈抗议可能还会促使政府重新审视其曾经雄心勃勃的电动汽车发展计划,该计划的实施近来陷入停顿。Long term, the current pollution crisis could prompt a rethink of Beijing#39;s policy on electric-vehicle technology, said Bill Russo, founder and president of auto consulting firm Synergistics Ltd. and a former Chrysler executive. #39;If pollution is becoming a very visible problem, then it could change attitudes about alternatives#39; such as clean diesel and conventional hybrid engines, he said.汽车行业咨询公司Synergistics Ltd.创始人兼总裁、曾任克莱斯勒(Chrysler)高管的拉索(Bill Russo)说,从长远看,当前的污染危机可能促使人们反思中国政府针对电动汽车技术的政策。他说,如果污染成为非常明显的问题,那它可能改变人们对替代技术的态度,比如清洁柴油和传统的混合动力发动机。Last year, the State Council, China#39;s cabinet, said it hopes output of pure electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles reaches 500,000 by 2015 and 5 million by 2020.中国国务院去年说,希望纯电动汽车和插电式混合动力汽车的产量2015年达到50万辆,2020年达到500万辆。However, progress has been slow on more immediate steps. For example, China has twice delayed the nationwide rollout of tighter vehicle-emissions standards amid opposition from the refining industry. Tighter emission standards have also met with resistance from truck-engine manufacturers as well as buyers of trucks. A.T. Kearney consultant Stephen Dyer estimates the additional cost for engine makers to comply with stricter rules at around 10,000 yuan (about ,600) per engine. #39;While this may only represent 5% of the total cost, engine makers say it#39;s enough to significantly impact sales,#39; he said.然而更为直接的措施进展一直很缓慢。举例来说,由于遭到炼油行业的反对,中国已经两次推迟在全国范围内推出更严格的汽车排放标准。卡车发动机制造商和卡车买家也抵制更严格的排放标准。咨询公司科尔尼(A.T. Kearney)的咨询师戴加辉(Stephen Dyer)估计,发动机制造商如果要遵循更严格的标准,每台发动机的成本将增加大约人民币1万元。他说,虽然这可能只占总成本的5%,但发动机制造商认为,这足以对销售造成重大影响。The Environment Ministry said in January 2012 that the National IV standards would be applied to diesel-engine vehicles from July 2013.2012年1月环护部说,从2013年7月起柴油车将实行国IV排放标准。China has other options, such as promoting the scrapping of old vehicles.中国还有其他选择,比如推进旧车报废。Last year, the city of Beijing offered financial incentives to car owners to get rid of older cars. But the amounts involved were modest -- up to around 16,000 yuan for larger cars.去年,北京市提供资金持以鼓励车主报废旧车。但鼓励额度并不高,报废大中型车最多能享受大约人民币1.6万元的补贴。Lin Huaibin, manager for China vehicle-sales forecasts at research firm IHS considers such incentives #39;a start#39; toward increasing the scrappage ratio in China, which currently stands at around 3% of total registered vehicles, considerably less than the U.S. rate of around 8%. Mr. Lin said it#39;s #39;pretty likely#39; that other Chinese cities will follow in the steps of Beijing.研究机构IHS中国汽车销售预测部门负责人林怀滨认为,上述刺激措施朝提高中国车辆报废率迈出了第一步。中国目前报废车辆占登记车辆总数的比例约为3%,远低于美国约8%的报废率。林怀滨说,中国其他城市很有可能会效仿北京的做法。The latest pollution episode also could see more Chinese cities introduce restrictions on auto purchases.最近这起污染事件可能会令中国内地更多城市引入车辆限购措施。Last year, the southern city of Guangzhou and the southwestern city of Guiyang joined Beijing and Shanghai by putting car-ownership restrictions in place that seek to relieve traffic conditions and limit air pollution.去年,南方城市广州和西南部城市贵阳也加入北京上海的行列,这两个城市将落实车辆限购措施,以缓解交通拥堵的现状,防止空气污染进一步恶化。It is unclear whether such moves could specifically result in a fall in auto sales. Macquarie#39;s Ms. Lewis said she didn#39;t expect any further restrictions on the purchase of new vehicles as a consequence of the recent pollution problems.目前还不清楚此举是否会导致汽车销量下降。麦格理券的刘易斯说,她预计最近一系列污染问题不会导致政府进一步出台新车限购措施。Beijing had about five million vehicles on the road at the end of 2011 or 260 vehicles per 1,000 people. As of the end of 2011, Guangzhou had 2.33 million vehicles on the road, meaning 180 vehicles per 1,000 people, according to a government-affiliated transportation think tank in the southern Chinese city.2011年底,北京约有500万辆汽车在路上行驶,平均每千人拥有260辆车。广州一家政府下属的交通运输方面的智库说,截至2011年底,广州有233万辆汽车在路上行驶,这意味着每千人拥有180辆车。There are more than 800 licensed vehicles for every kilometer of road in Beijing, data from the Beijing government show, compared with 306 vehicles in Hong Kong and 520 vehicles in Shanghai.北京市政府数据显示,在北京每公里道路上拥有牌照的车辆超过800辆,香港为306辆,上海为520辆。Globally, about one third of polluting emissions can be attributed to transportation-related sources, said Mr. Dyer of A.T. Kearney. Of this, about one-third is linked to passenger cars, one-third to commercial vehicles and the rest to other forms of transportation including airplanes and ships.科尔尼的戴加辉说,在全球范围内,大约三分之一的污染排放可以归因为与交通相关的污染源。其中大约有三分之一是乘用车造成的,三分之一是商业车辆,剩下三分之一是包括飞机和轮船在内的其它交通工具。However, in the case of Beijing about 50% of harmful emissions are caused by transportation sources, he said.但戴加辉说,就北京的情况而言,约50%的有害气体排放是交通污染源造成的。 /201301/220752

THIS summer 20m or so Americans have hit the road in motor homes or towable caravans. El Monte RV, a national recreational-vehicle rental chain, observes that rentals are up about 40% year on year so far for 2012, with the strongest growth in the north-east. The manager at the El Monte branch in Linden, New Jersey is seeing double-digit growth over last year. RV sales are up, too. According to the Recreation Vehicle Industry Association (RVIA), a trade group, wholesale shipments have increased 5% over 2010 and are expected to grow another 7% by the end of the year.今年夏天,大约有两千万美国人开着房车或者拉着拖车上了路。全美休闲车出租连锁公司艾尔蒙特休闲车租赁发现,2012年车辆出租数量比去年同比增长了40%,其中,东北地区增长最高。艾尔蒙特位于新泽西州林登市的分公司经理正在见两位数的同比增长。同时,休闲车的销售额也有所上涨。据美国房车工业协会(RVIA,一家贸易集团)透露,去年批发供货量比2010年提高了5%,预计今年再涨7%。RVs sell for as little as ,000 for a caravan to .5m and higher for a deluxe motor home. More than 90% of them are made in the ed States and more than 80% in a single county in Indiana. James Ashurst of RVIA sees the RV market as a sort of bellwether of the American economy. In 2009 it was hard to shift the things; but now, says Andy Heck, a dealer at Alpin Haus in Amsterdam, New York, ;Growth in sales is a good sign that credit is opening up.;在艾尔蒙特休闲车租赁,一辆休闲车只卖5000美元,拖车却要150万美元,豪华房车卖的更贵。这些车90%以上是产于美国,其中有80%以上都产自印第安纳州的一个县城。RVIA的詹姆斯#8226;艾舍斯特(James Ashurst)认为休闲车租赁市场是美国经济的一只领头羊。纽约州阿姆斯特丹市Alpin Haus的经销商安迪#8226;赫克(Andy Heck)称,在2009年作买卖相当困难,但是现在,;销售业绩增长是建立信誉的好兆头。;Affordability and flexibility are the main attractions. Most Americans get only two weeks of annual holiday and find it hard to escape work. Many prefer to go away for several long weekends, so do not stray far from home; RV-drivers often stay within 200 miles of it. Some even commute to work from campsites. The average rental cost is about ,200 a week, potentially much cheaper than a hotel, especially for families.房车两大主要卖点是价格合理,用途广泛。大多数美国人的年假都只有两个星期,要想借此逃离工作可不是那么简单。因此,很多人都选择出去度一个长周末[1],这样就不会离家太远;开休闲车就能把离家范围控制在200英里之内。甚至还有些人干脆就往返于工作和营地。租一辆房车一周大概只要1200美元,可能比住宾馆便宜很多,如果是全家一起出游,更为划算。And they are not just for holidays. Parents use RVs to haul children to matches. American football fans and NASCAR supporters use them for ;tailgating;, pre-game parties held in stadium car parks. Still, surveys show that ;seeing America; is one of the most important reasons for buying one. The National Parks Service has seen a slight jump in RV campers at its sites over the year to June. Just beware getting stuck behind one on a picturesque mountain road.休闲车不仅适用于假期,平时也一样。家长可以开着休闲车带孩子们去看比赛。橄榄球球迷和全美赛车协会的粉丝可以开车追逐每一场比赛,还可以在体育馆停车场开上几场赛前派对。但仍有调查表明,购买休闲车最重要的理由之一还是;走遍全美;。截至今年6月,在各大国家公园,休闲车野营者的接待数量有小幅度上涨。只用提防被房车堵在风景如画的山路之中就够了。 /201208/195606

We all have those days when all we want is to crawl back in bed for a few more hours. Unfortunately, few of us have that luxury. The following hints may help you stay energized, or at least get you going until you can make the time for rest. 我们都有过什么也不想,只想好好地在床上多呆几个小时的日子。不幸的是,很少人可以享受这份奢侈。 下面几点提示或者可以帮你保持精力充沛,至少可以让你在找到时间休息之前继续下去。 1. Engage in a quick conversation with a high-energy colleague. Their positive energy may refresh you. (Just be careful not to drag them down!) 与精力充沛的同事进行短暂的交谈。他们积极的干劲会让你精神爽快。(只是要小心不要也把他们拖下水) /200911/90107

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