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2019年02月19日 03:28:43来源:京东媒体

Electing a US President in Plain English简说美国总统大选Every four years, Americans who are eighteen or older have a big responsibility. Our votes decide who becomes the President of the ed States. Unfortunately, the U.S. election system isnt that simple! This is Electing a U.S. President in Plain English.每四年,十八岁以上的美国人就有个重大的责任。我们的选票决定谁会成为美国总统。不幸的是,美国选举系统不是那么的简单!这里是“简说美国总统大选”。Its easy to imagine every U.S. citizens vote being counted together on Election Day, but this is not the case. U.S. elections are not decided by the total or popular vote, but individual states. Let me explain.很容易联想到的是在大选之日,每位美国公民的选票被集中起来开票,但不是这样子的。美国选举不是由直选或普选决定,而是由每一个州来决定。让我为你解释。It starts with your vote. On Election Day, youll vote for president and their vice president. You get one choice. Then, all the votes in your state are counted. The candidate with the most state-wide votes becomes the candidate your state supports for president. This happens across the country until each state has selected their candidate.从你投票开始。在大选之日,你将投票选出总统和他们的副手。你只能选一个。然后,你的州所有票数被加以计算。州内得票数最高的候选人成为你的州所持的总统候选人。全国都是这样,直到每个州都选出它们的候选人。We end up with most of the fifty states and the District of Columbia voting to support one candidate each. But theres a problem. We cant elect a president by just counting up the choices of these states. U.S. states are different.结果我们得到的是大部分的五十州加上哥伦比亚特区,各投票持一位候选人。但有个问题。我们不能只是算一算这些州的选票就选出总统。美国的州各有不同。Consider this: California has about thirty-six million people; Kansas has less than three million. We need a way for Californias choice to have more influence on the election because the state has more people. The question becomes: how do we make sure each state has the right amount of influence on the election?想想看:加州有三千六百万人;堪萨斯州只有不到三百万人。我们需要有个方法,让加州的抉择对大选更有影响力,因为这一州人口较多。问题变成:我们要如何确保每个州对选举拥有正确的大选影响力?Well, we need a way to account for the population of each state.这个嘛,我们需要一个能够说明每个州的人口之影响力的方法。As an example, lets consider my home state of North Carolina. Like every state, it is divided up into congressional districts that are based on population. North Carolina has thirteen districts, California has fifty-three and Kansas has four. When it comes to a states influence on the election, the number of districts matters most. More population equals more districts equals more influence.举例来说,看看我的家乡北卡罗莱纳州吧。就像每个州一样,它以人口数为基础来划分为不同的众议员选区。北卡罗莱纳州有十三个区,加州有五十三个区而堪萨斯州有四个区。谈到一个州对大选的影响力,区的数量影响最大了。较多的人口等同于较多的区也就等于较大的影响力。The influence a state has in the election is measured by the number of Electors. This number comes from the number of districts in a state plus the number of U.S. senators, which is always two. North Carolina has fifteen Electors, while California has fifty-five.一个州在大选所拥有的影响力是用“总统选举人票数”来衡量的。这数字是从州内众议员选区的总和加上美国参议员数而来,参议员数目都是两位。北卡罗莱纳州有十五张总统选举人票,而加州有五十五张总统选举人票。When a candidate wins the voting in a state, they win that states number of Electors. Thats why big, populous states can be so important to candidates. Their electors add up quickly. And the number of electors is what really matters.当一位候选人在州内赢得选举,他们就赢得那一州的总统选举人票数。那就是为何大的、人口众多的州对候选人来说是非常重要的。它们的总统选举人票数会很快地增加。而总统选举人票数才真正是关系重大。Heres why:这里是为什么:If you add up the Electors of all fifty states and the District of Columbia, there are five hundred and thirty-eight in total. The candidates goal on Election Day is to win the majority of five hundred and thirty-eight, or two hundred and seventy electors. Once a candidate wins enough states to reach the two hundred and seventy majority, they have won the election and become the President-elect. Yeah!如果你把全部五十州和哥伦比亚特区的总统选举人票数加起来,总共有五百三十八张票。在选举日,候选人的目标是要赢得五百三十八票中的大多数,或是说两百七十票。一旦一位候选人赢得足够的州数,达到两百七十票的多数,他们就已经赢得选举,成为总统当选人。耶!So, lets recap. Your vote helps your state choose a single candidate. That candidate receives all the electors from your state. The candidate who can win enough states, to reach two hundred and seventy total electors wins the national election and becomes the President-elect.所以,让我们来重述一下要点。你的选票帮助你的州选出一位候选人。那位候选人接收你州所有的总统选举人票。能够赢得足够州数,抵达总共两百七十张总统选举人票数的候选人赢得全国大选并成为总统当选人。Then, on the following January 20th the President-elect is sworn in as the next President of the ed States. And it all starts with your vote. Make it count!然后,在次年一月二十日,总统当选人宣誓就职成为下一任美国总统。而这一切都是从你的投票开始的。让你的选票说话吧!Im Lee Lefever, and this has been Electing a U.S President in Plain English on the Common Craft Show. One more thing: the Common Craft Store now offers downloadable versions of our s for use in the workplace. Find them at commoncraft.com/store.我是Lee Lefever,而这是Common Craft Show的“简说美国总统大选”。还有一件事:Common Craft Store现在提供让你在工作场所使用我们的可下载版本影片。在commoncraft.com/store可以找到它们。201505/373907。

  • 栏目简介:《造物小百科How its made》介绍了许多东西的制作或者说发明方法,非常实用。其中的英语视频发音地道,内容浅显易懂,过程形象生动,是提高英语听力水平,积累英语知识和一些简单生活常识的好素材。201509/392015。
  • Premier Li joins discussion with Fujian deputies李克强参加福建代表团全体会议Chinese Premier Li Keqiang has joined lawmakers from Southeast Chinas Fujian province in a panel discussion.李克强7日参加十二届全国人大四次会议福建代表团全体会议。Premier Li hailed the economic and social development in Fujian over the past year. He says the region boosted green development and maritime economy.李总理称赞了过去一年福建的经济和社会发展。他还称赞说,该地区推动了绿色发展和海洋经济。Going forward, he says Fujian should develop intelligent manufacturing and modern services industries.谈到未来发展,他表示福建应该开发智能制造业及现代务业。The Premier also says Fujian should boost trade and cultural exchanges with Taiwan, and build itself into an open economic platform.李克强总理还说,福建应与台湾促进贸易和文化交流,并将自身打造成一个开放的经济平台。 译文属201603/430017。
  • TED演讲者们对这个世界各抒己见。201506/382101。
  • Moscow celebrates 868th anniversary of City Day莫斯科庆祝建城868周年This weekend, Moscow is celebrating its 868th birthday, in what is known as City Day.本周末莫斯科将迎来著名的城市日,868岁生日。Hundreds of festive events are being held.成百上千的节日活动将会举行。Military bands from different countries participated in the annual Military Music Festival ;Spasskaya Tower.;从不同国家赶来的军乐团在“斯帕斯基城门”参加一年一度的军事音乐节。The band of the Peoples Liberation Army of China performed several songs.中国人民解放军乐队也演奏了几首曲目。The Moscow government plans to hold more than 500 activities. These include outdoor concerts, a fireworks show, sports events and exhibitions.莫斯科政府计划举办包括户外音乐会、烟花表演、运动会及展览在内的500多场活动。Some are open free to the public.其中有些是对公众免费开放。 译文属201509/397624。
  • Anyone who goes fishing probably has a fishy story about ;the one that got away,;It was this big,doncha know.Yah,that was a bummer...but its actually quite important that big fish get away,both for fish and fishermen.For most of the species that we fish,commercial and recreational fishermen are only allowed to keep individuals.about a minimum legal size.每一个钓鱼的人都有个 大鱼脱钩的故事。你要知道 它老大了。嗯 是很悲催。但对于鱼和渔夫们来说,大鱼脱钩却十分重要。对于我们钓上来绝大多数的鱼种而言,职业和休闲渔民仅可以保留那些超过,最小合法尺寸的鱼。The idea behind these laws is to protect juveniles so they can grow big enough to reproduce at least once before becoming our dinner.In theory,that means there will always be enough fish for dinner tomorrow.And insuring dinner for tomorrow is important enough that the British Parliament discussed protecting young-that is,small-fish as early as 1376,and today its a common regulation for fisheries worldwide.Except,it doesnt really work.法律背后是为了保护鱼的幼苗,使其可在被送上餐桌前,长大到至少能繁殖一次。理论上,这意味着我们明天的餐桌上鱼永远够吃。保明日的供应是如此重要 以至于英国议会曾考虑过保护鱼的幼苗,也就是小鱼,早在1376年 而今日它仍是全世界渔民通用的规矩。只不过 这没啥用。First,large individuals have the greatest number of successful offspring both because bigger fish produce more eggs and because the eggs they produce ALSO contain a more generous food supply for the baby fishies.So by removing the largest fish of a given species,we severely decrease the populations ability to replenish itself.首先,大鱼繁衍后代成功率是最高的,因为大鱼产卵更多,也因为它们产下的卵中,为幼鱼准备的食物更充足。正因去除一种鱼类中的大鱼,我们极大地削弱了种群繁衍的能力。Second,if we only remove the largest fish,that means fish that are smallfor their age and thus smaller when they first reproduce-are more likely to live long enough to make babies.其次,如果我们仅拿走了大鱼,这就意味着同龄鱼类中的小鱼 ,同时在产卵时体格更小,更可能活到产卵的时候。So individuals with small-fish genes tend to stay in the water,reproduce and pass on their small-fish genes to new generations,while big fish and big-fish genes become rarer and rarer.Were basically breeding smaller fish,unintentionally-and its not a small change.Size-selective fishing has caused the body mass of large commercial fish to be cut in half over the last 40 years-let me say that again:heavily-fished fish are now half the weight they used to be.因此,携带小鱼基因的鱼更可能活下来,繁衍后代。将小鱼基因传给下一代,而大鱼和大鱼基因愈发稀有。我们只是在不觉中催生了小鱼,但这变化来的不小。大小选择性捕捞造成大个头商品鱼的重量 在近40年内下降一半,让我再说一遍,大量捕捞鱼的重量比以前下降了一半。Six-year-old haddock,for example,weigh 40% of what they did in 1970.Imagine if full-grown men weighed 65-pounds!Clearly,size-selective fishing means feser and smaller fish in the water,which suggests its not the best way to keep our fish supply stocked for future human generations.And in fact,theres a new idea called;balanced harvesting;y to save the day.Instead of reeling in all of the largest individuals,fishermen would catch a smaller number of fish across a wider range of sizes,keeping the numbers and sizes of fish,well,balanced.比如,今天六年黑线鳕的重量比1970年减少了40%。想象一下只有65磅的成年人吧!显然 ,大小选择性捕捞意味着水中鱼类更少,更小,也就是说,这不是保持未来鱼类供应的最佳方案。实际上,一个名为“均衡捕捞”的理念为此而生。与卷走所有大鱼相反,渔民在每种大小的鱼类中捕捞一小部分,保持鱼类数量和尺寸的均衡。However,old habits die hard,and the use of size limits is deeply ingrained in our collective fisheries management DNA.But sooner rather than later,well have to accept that its good to let some of the ;big ones;get away,for only they can change the course of fishtory.但是,旧习难除,大小限制深深地扎根在,我们渔业管理的DNA中。但不久之后,我们必须接受,让一些大鱼溜走是好事,只有它们能够改变的历史。201502/357372。
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