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  • Normally, after the parties of Bastille Day, the French begin drifting off on holiday. People disappear to country homes, beaches or resorts where they spend weeks eating, drinking and lazing. Meanwhile foreign tourists — one of France’s few growing income streams — flood the world’s most visited country.“巴士底日”(Bastille Day,即法国国庆日)狂欢后,法国人通常会开始外出度假。人们遁往乡间别墅、海滩或度假胜地,享受数周的休闲时光,吃喝消遣。与此同时,外国游客(法国为数不多还在增长的收入来源之一)也会纷纷涌入这个世界最热门的旅游目的地国。But after a jihadist in a truck killed 84 people in Nice on Bastille Day, the French are trying to comprehend their new normal: terror attacks. As prime minister Manuel Valls admitted: “France must live with terrorism.” In just 18 months, the country has fundamentally changed.但经历了国庆日当天的尼斯惨案(一名圣战分子驾驶卡车冲进人群导致84人死亡)之后,法国人正在试着接受他们的新常态:恐怖袭击。法国总理曼努埃尔#8226;瓦尔斯(Manuel Valls)承认道:“法国不得不与恐怖主义生活在一起。”不过一年半时间,这个国家就发生了翻天覆地的变化。There are three layers to French life. Layer one is everyday perfection: that glass of wine in an ordinary bistro in a commonplace street. The Germans call it “living like God in France”. Layer two is economic stagnation, the sense that set in early this century that the country’s model is stuck. In December 2014, a fairly typical survey by BVA-WIN found that only 17 per cent of French people thought 2015 would be better than 2014. That ranked France 60th out of 65 countries for pessimism. Moreover, the French were unhappier than people in other rich countries — a finding now so commonplace in happiness research that it’s known as the “French paradox”.法国人的生活包含三个层次。第一层是完美的日常生活:在街头巷尾普通的小酒馆里喝上一杯。德国人称“在法国活得像上帝”。第二层是不景气的经济,本世纪初人们就开始觉得法国模式不行了。2014年12月,法国民调机构BVA与WIN联合进行的一项相当具有代表性的调查发现,仅有17%的法国人认为2015年会比2014年更好些。因此以悲观程度而言,法国在65个国家中排名第60位。此外,与其他富裕国家的民众相比,法国人的幸福感更低——在关于幸福的研究中这个结论已是如此常见,以至于被称为“法国悖论”。And French pessimists were right: 2015 began with the deadly attacks on Charlie Hebdo newspaper and the kosher supermarket in Paris. Since then, the surface layer of French life has been fear of terrorism.法国的悲观论者没看错:2015年一开始就发生了针对巴黎《查理周刊》(Charlie Hebdo)总部以及犹太超市的致命袭击。自那时起,对恐怖主义的恐惧就成了包裹法国人生活的表层了。This fear is the parents’ meeting to discuss whether terrorists could break into your children’s school. It’s the university seminar you can only attend if you register in advance, with full passport details. It’s the security guard who searches you before you can enter your local post office. (Incongruously, the booming anti-terror sector has created thousands of jobs for low-skilled Muslim men.)家长们聚在一起讨论恐怖分子是否可能闯入孩子们的学校;只有提前登记并提供完整的护照信息,你才能参加大学研讨会;走入当地邮局前,你得接受保安人员搜身——这些无不体现了这种恐惧。(奇怪的是,急速发展的反恐产业为没有一技之长的穆斯林男性创造了数千个就业岗位。)The French now live with the constant worry that the sky could fall on their heads. One glorious afternoon during the Euro 2016 football tournament, over a drink in Marseille’s Old Port, the friend I was with half-joked: “Shall we go, before this terrace is raked with machinegun fire?” The terror in Nice soon afterwards was terrifyingly predictable. The previous day in Paris, passing a poster advertising James Watkins’ new movie Bastille Day, about a massive terrorist plot, I had thought: Don’t let this be prescient.如今,法国人生活中挥之不去的担忧是:天可能会塌下来。2016年欧洲杯赛事期间一个阳光明媚的下午,我和一位友人在马赛老港(Marseille’s Old Port)喝酒,朋友半开玩笑地说:“我们是不是该在这个露台遭到机扫射之前离开?”不久后发生的尼斯惨案被料中了。惨案发生前一天,在巴黎街头走过詹姆斯#8226;瓦特金斯(James Watkins)执导的关于一场大规模恐怖主义阴谋的新电影《巴士底日》(Bastille Day)的宣传海报时,我心想:但愿这不会成为预言。France has experienced some variety of terrorism in every postwar decade, but never as bad as this. The last seven months have seen the two deadliest acts of terrorism in modern French history: the Paris attacks in November that killed 130 people, and Nice.战后每一个十年中,法国都经历了某种形式的恐怖主义,但情况从未像今天这样严重。过去七个月见了造成法国现代史上伤亡最惨重的恐怖活动:去年11月导致130人遇难的巴黎恐怖袭击以及刚刚过去的尼斯惨案。Before Nice, fear was focused on Paris. Almost every aspect of French life is overcentralised, and the capital had suffered disproportionately from terror. But if hell can break out in a sleepy beach town that lacks only a sandy beach, a place where millions of French people have happy holiday memories, then nowhere in France feels safe.尼斯惨案发生前,恐惧主要集中在巴黎。法国人生活的几乎每一个方面都过度集中,因此,首都巴黎是遭受恐怖袭击最多的地方。但是,在一座悠闲的只差一片沙滩就完美、给数百万法国人留下开心假日记忆的海滨城市都能发生如此残暴的袭击,那法国就没有任何能让人感到安全的地方了。Like other recent terrorists, the Nice jihadi seems to have acted alone. Whereas al-Qaeda liked to orchestrate elaborate attacks, Isis has “crowdsourced” terrorism, says the Soufan Group, a security consultancy. And France has a reservoir of thousands of potential do-it-yourself jihadis.像近期其他的恐怖分子一样,制造尼斯惨案的圣战分子似乎是单独行动。安全咨询公司Soufan Group表示,基地组织(al-Qaeda)喜欢精心策划复杂而周密的攻击,而ISIS已将恐怖活动“众包”出去。而法国境内存在成千上万的潜在的“独狼”圣战分子。Terrorism that requires barely any planning beyond renting a truck is almost unstoppable. The French authorities cannot turn the entire country into a kind of airport security zone. Perhaps it’s lucky that France lost the final of Euro 2016 to Portugal last Sunday. Had Les Bleus won, the crowds waving tricolours in every town square could have been targets. Only one other developed country lives with comparable everyday danger: the US, with its bizarre gun laws.只需租一辆卡车就可以发动的恐怖袭击几乎无法被阻止。法国当局不可能把整个国家变成一个类似机场安全区的地方。法国在2016年欧洲杯决赛中输给葡萄牙或许并非坏事。如果法国队赢了决赛,每个城市广场上挥舞三色旗的人群都可能成为袭击目标。在其他发达国家中,只有一个国家的民众每天生活在类似危险中——有着奇怪法律的美国。So far, the French have remained surprisingly tolerant in the face of Islamist terror. The annual survey by the National Consultative Commission on Human Rights found that racism decreased in 2015. In regional elections last December, just after the worst attack, the French mainstream voted tactically for Socialist and Republican candidates to prevent the anti-immigrant Front National from winning a single region. Voters may repeat the trick in next year’s presidential elections.迄今为止,法国在面对伊斯兰恐怖主义时仍保持着惊人的宽容。法国国家人权咨询委员会(CNCDH)进行的一年一度的调查发现,种族歧视在2015年有所减轻。去年12月在地区选举中(就在那次最严重的袭击发生之后),法国主流选民有策略地投票持社会党和共和党候选人,以防反移民的法国国民阵线(National Front)在任一选区获胜。在明年的总统选举中,选民们可能还会这样做。Still, if the French were pessimistic and unhappy before the increase in terrorism, imagine the national mood now.不过,如果说在恐怖活动增多前法国人就已经感到悲观、不幸福,想象一下现在国民该是什么样的心态。 /201607/455309
  • People don#39;t often look back on the early 1900#39;s for advice, but what if we could actually learn something from the Lost Generation?通常人们不会为了求取生活妙方而去回顾20世纪初的年代,不过如果那个“垮掉的一代”真的能对我们有所助益呢?The New York Public Library has digitized 100 ;how to do it; cards found in cigarette boxes over 100 years ago, and the tips they give are so practical that millennials ing this might want to take notes.纽约公共图书馆将一组100多年前的香烟盒上的“生活妙招”卡片进行了数字化处理,这些卡片上的小贴士实在太实用了,二十一世纪的我们看到了也会多加留意!How to Light a Match in the Wind如何点燃风中的蜡烛The familiar difficulty of lighting a match in a wind can be to a great extent overcome if thin shavings are first cut on the match end, as shown in the picture.起风的时候想点燃一根蜡烛往往困难重重,按照图中所示的办法,点燃火柴之前在火柴末端刮出细小的木梢,就能很大程度上解决这个问题了!On lighting the match, the curled strips catch fire at once; the flame is stronger, and has a better chance.点燃火柴时,翘起来的木梢马上被点燃;火焰燃烧得更旺,燃烧的时间也更长。 /201705/509212
  • European enclave欧洲飞地Another model for London would be for it to assert the European identity it has developed in the past 20 years by becoming a European enclave within an otherwise Eurosceptic Britain. The model for that is West Berlin, which survived as an enclave in hostile East Germany after the Berlin Wall was built. West Berlin was connected to West Germany by a narrow strip of railway line; that role would be assigned to the high-speed line to the Channel tunnel.对伦敦来说,还有一条路。那就是坚守过去20年来形成的欧洲身份认同,成为一块欧洲的飞地,即使英国其他地区都怀疑欧洲。西柏林就是一个例子。在柏林墙修建起来以后,西柏林就成了敌意重重的东德中的一块飞地。西柏林仅仅依靠一条狭长的铁路线与西德联系;而穿越英吉利海峡隧道的高速铁路将扮演起这个角色。London could only become a European enclave thanks to quite a lot of creativity about what it means to be a citizen. As proposed by Rohan Silva, founder of the tech co-workspace Second Home, London could have its own visa system, which would allow for freedom of movement between London and the EU, so long as people lived and worked in London. Presumably this would have to be matched by complex arrangements over London’s access to the single market and contributions to the EU budget. One leading London politician described the visa plan thus: “It is an absolutely bonkers idea. We are 100 per cent behind it.”只有在定义公民方面发挥极大创意,才有可能使伦敦成为一个欧洲飞地。科技共同工作空间Second Home创始人罗恩#8226;席尔瓦(Rohan Silva)提议,伦敦可以实施一套自己的签制度,允许人员在伦敦和欧盟之间自由流动,只要人们在伦敦生活和工作。那么,在伦敦进入单一市场和对欧盟财政的贡献方面,想必需要复杂的安排来作为配套。伦敦的一名主要政治人士对这个签计划的描述如下:“这绝对是一个疯狂的主意。我们100%持。”The UK might have to reimagine London as a “special European economic zone”, much as Shenzhen was China’s portal to the rest of the world. An alternative might be that London, like US immigration gateway cities such as Charlotte, North Carolina, could create its own identity card to entitle people to use local services even if they do not have full citizenship. People who did not get past the new points-based immigration system would be like the metics in ancient Athens: aliens who were permanently resident in the city.英国可能不得不再次把伦敦想象成“欧洲经济特区”,就像深圳作为中国面向世界其他地方的门户一样。一个替代方案是,伦敦可以效仿像美国北卡罗来纳州的夏洛特(Charlotte)这样的移民门户城市,发放本地区自己的身份,让没有正式获得英国国籍的人也能使用当地的务。在积分制移民新政下没有攒够分数的人们就像是古代雅典的外邦人:永久居留在这座城市的外来人员。None of this will be possible, however, unless the UK becomes even more of a patchwork state of devolved powers to nations, regions and cities, something a Theresa May-led government is unwilling to countenance even with former London Mayor Boris Johnson as foreign secretary. George Osborne was the great decentraliser. To force such a shift, London would have to become much more organised politically and mobilise a movement for independence, perhaps in alliance with other pro-European cities like Cambridge, Oxford and Bristol.然而,除非英国将权力下放给各构成国、各地区和各城市,变成一个更加松散的国家,否则以上这些情况都是不可能的。而由特里萨#8226;梅(Theresa May)领导的英国政府并不愿持这种松散组合,即使担任外长的是前伦敦市长鲍里斯#8226;约翰逊(Boris Johnson)。前财政大臣乔治#8226;奥斯本(George Osborne)是坚定的去中心化人士。要强行推动这样的转变,伦敦的组织形式必须更有政治性,并且发起一场独立运动,或许还可以和其他亲欧洲城市,如剑桥(Cambridge)、牛津(Oxford)、布里斯托(Bristol)联合起来。The hovercraft city漂浮城市A fourth option would be to imagine London hovering just above the territory of the UK, a global city-state governed by British law, like Singapore.第四个选项是想象伦敦只是漂浮在英国的版图之上,受到英国法律管辖的全球化城邦,和新加坡类似。London will respond to this current crisis in the way a great trading city always does, by following the money. The money is all coming from Asia. The people who see Brexit as an opportunity are Chinese and other Asian investors who want to snap up London property companies, heritage brands and tech companies. Central London at times aly resembles Dubai-on-Thames. It could become Shangdon.对于当前的危机,伦敦会以一个伟大贸易城市的一贯做法来应对——跟着资金走。目前资金都从亚洲来。把英国退欧视为机会、想要抢购伦敦的地产公司、历史悠久的品牌和科技公司的,正是中国和亚洲其他地方的投资者。伦敦市中心已经时不时像是泰晤士河上的迪拜。它也可以变成第二个山东。Seen in this light, Brexit might be a blessing in disguise for London. An ageing Europe is gripped by slow growth and German-led austerity. Employment in banks has aly passed its high point as artificial intelligence starts to lay waste to trading floors.从这个角度来看,英国退欧可能会让伦敦因祸得福。日渐老龄化的欧洲已经被经济增长缓慢和由德国主导的紧缩所束缚。的就业高峰已经过去,因为人工智能开始让交易大厅变成无用之地。This could be a chance for London to jump on to a different trajectory. Its strength is that it is a pragmatic, commercial trading city that gives shape to whatever forces are running through the world. Just as Miami is a largely Latin American city on the southern tip of the US, so London could become an Asian outpost in Europe.对伦敦来说,这可能是转向截然不同的发展路径的机会。伦敦的长处在于它是一个务实的商业贸易城市,可以帮助塑造在世界各地蔓延的任何力量。就像迈阿密大体上是一个位于美国南端的拉美城市,伦敦也可以变成欧洲的亚洲前哨。This shift would require London to follow its own foreign policy. It would have to be prepared to embrace Asian companies, values and culture in a way it has only played with so far. Shanghai was once a western enclave in China; London might become a Chinese enclave in Europe. We are just getting used to the idea of Chinese tourists; we will have to get used to the idea of Chinese landlords, owners and employers. Suck it up.这种转变可能需要伦敦实行自己的外交政策。伦敦必须准备好接纳亚洲的企业、价值观和文化,在这方面,迄今为止伦敦只是漫不经心。上海一度是中国的西方飞地;伦敦也可能变成欧洲的中国飞地。我们正在习惯中国游客的想法;我们以后也会习惯中国房东、业主和雇主的想法。接受这个事实吧。Muddling through挺过危机The most likely and perhaps the most optimistic scenario is that everyone muddles through, in Europe, in the UK and in London, perhaps with aspects of all four of the previous scenarios in play at the same time. This London would be part of a UK that would still be an associate member of the EU albeit on strained terms. A model for this is Greece and a model for London might be what has happened to Athens.最有可能发生,同时也是最乐观的情景是,无论是在欧洲,在英国,还是在伦敦,每个人都凑合着对付过去,与此同时,上述4种情景的一些方面也可能出现。在这种情况下,英国依然是欧盟的准成员,尽管条件会很严格,而伦敦是这样的英国的一部分。对此可参照希腊,伦敦则可以参照雅典。The Conservative party now faces a challenge not unlike the Syriza-led government in Greece, which threatened to pull out of the eurozone over the punitive terms of the bailout. Syriza, led by Alexis Tsipras, campaigned strongly against the plan, winning elections on that ticket in 2015. However, the exit deal offered by the EU was so unappealing that eventually most of Syriza swallowed its pride and decided to stay in the fold. The party split as a result. Surely the EU will play the UK the same way: offering it a deal so bad that choosing to remain seems the better option.英国保守党现在面临的挑战与激进左翼联盟(Syriza)领导的希腊政府所之前面临的挑战很相似,后者因为纾困方案中的惩罚性条款威胁退出欧元区。亚历克西斯#8226;齐普拉斯(Alexis Tsipras)领导的激进左翼联盟激烈反对这一计划,并借此在2015年赢得大选。然而,欧盟提出的退出方案太缺乏吸引力,最终大多数激进左翼联盟人士都放下自尊,决定留在欧盟。结果是该党出现了分裂。欧盟肯定也会对英国使出这一招:提供一个非常糟糕的方案,使得选择留欧似乎是一个更好的选择。If Brexit negotiations are drawn out; if the Leavers grow remorseful and distracted; if the terms offered are deeply unattractive, then the question of leaving the EU might once again become a dispute confined to the ranks of the Tory party and its splinter groups.如果英国退欧协商旷日持久地进行下去;如果脱欧人士开始后悔,注意力也被其他事情分散;如果欧盟提供的退欧条款极度缺乏吸引力,那么退出欧盟的问题可能会再次变成一场局限在保守党及其分裂的派别之中的争论。Athens, under the leadership of Mayor Giorgos Kaminis, has been a model of civic resilience during these crises. Not only has it had to cope with existential economic and political crises, but with an influx of refugees as well. Athens has come through, albeit with its port of Piraeus majority-owned by the Chinese government, thanks in no small part to a mass of collaborative self-help among citizens to take over the running of parks, public spaces and cultural institutions, inspired by Amalia Zepou, a documentary film-maker-turned-politician. London will have to be like Athens, resilient enough to cope, make do and get through the next few years before something akin to normality and common sense returns.在市长乔治#8226;卡米尼斯(Giorgos Kaminis)的领导下,雅典在这些危机中成为了城市韧性的典范。雅典不仅需要应对关乎存亡的经济和政治危机,还要同时应对涌入的难民。尽管比雷埃夫斯港(Piraeus)由中国政府持有多数股权,在纪录片制作人出身的政治人士阿马利娅#8226;泽普(Amalia Zepou)的启发下,市民之间进行大规模的协同自救,接手公园、公共空间、文化机构的运营,这起到了相当大的作用,让雅典挺过了这些危机。伦敦必须效仿雅典,有足够的韧性去应对、将就、度过接下来的几年,直到类似常态和常识的东西再度回归。‘The flour of Cities all’“众城之精粹”Whichever of these scenarios comes to pass, given the shock that London has experienced over the past few weeks, a few things have become clear.不管今后会发生以上哪一种情景,考虑到伦敦在过去数周经历的冲击,有几点显而易见。First, London will need new levels of ambitious, shared leadership and not just from the mayor. London’s universities should be pooling their expertise to chart a better future for the city. Cultural institutions should start programmes to promote European culture and values. London needs to show the world through thousands of everyday acts that the city remains open, a place where minorities are not just succoured but celebrated. This is an extraordinary opportunity for London’s leadership to galvanise a city that was close to self-satisfied complacency. The challenge and so the opportunity is far greater than the easy wicket Mayor Johnson enjoyed with the 2012 Olympics.首先,伦敦需要全新水准的有抱负的集体领导,不应该只由市长来行使领导权。伦敦的大学应该集思广益,为这座城市描绘一个更美好的将来。文化机构应该启动推广欧洲文化和价值观的项目。伦敦需要通过成千上万种日常行动向全世界展示,伦敦依然是一个开放的城市,少数群体不仅能在这里得到帮助,还会受到欢迎。在这个已经近乎自鸣得意的城市,现在是该市领导者激发人们行动起来的绝佳机会。其中的挑战比前伦敦市长鲍里斯#8226;约翰逊在2012年奥林匹克轻易达成目标的过程中遇到的挑战要大得多,但因此其中的机遇也要大得多。Second, other European cities tempted to gloat at London’s travails should recognise that the faultline between more cosmopolitan, innovation-driven cities and their more nationalistic, cautious hinterlands now runs around the globe. Major cities in different countries share as much with one another as they do with the nations that host them. There’s a strong case for the recreation of the medieval Hanseatic League of free-trading northern Europe cities, of which London was one. European cities have a strong shared interest in a civic, open, cosmopolitan Europe. If cities are held hostage by the forces of provincial conservatism and nationalism then Europe has no future.第二,其他忍不住为伦敦的困境而幸灾乐祸的欧洲城市应该认识到,更国际化、创新驱动型的城市和更具民族主义色、更谨慎的内陆城市之间的断层线现在贯穿全球各地。不同国家的主要城市之间彼此的共同点,就如这些城市和它们所在国家之间的共同点一样多。有充分理由重建中世纪欧洲北部城市之间自由贸易的汉萨同盟(Hanseatic League),伦敦也是当年的汉萨同盟中的一员。一个市民化的、开放、国际化的欧洲非常符合欧洲各城市的共同利益。如果城市被地方保守主义和民族主义的势力挟持,欧洲就没有未来。Third, London has a prodigious capacity for reinvention, precisely because it is messy, slightly chaotic and not overly planned. Above all it must remain a polyglot city, what the 16th-century poet William Dunbar described as “the flour of Cities all”.第三,伦敦有惊人的再造能力,这正是因为伦敦有些混乱无序,并没有被过分规划。最重要的是,伦敦必须保持自己的多语性,就像16世纪的诗人威廉#8226;邓巴(William Dunbar)所说的,伦敦是“众城之精粹”(London, thou art the flour of Cities all)。London is not a place for people to feel sorry for themselves. No one owes the city a living. London must be a city for people excited by mixing with people who are different. Those who find that alarming should live quietly in Arcadian suburbs and provincial towns. Good on them. They should leave London to pursue its own role to give form to the ideas and forces that are remaking the world.伦敦不是一个适合人们自怨自艾的城市。没人欠这座城市什么,以至于必须无偿供养它。伦敦必须是这样一座城市,人们会因为和与自己不一样的人相处而感到兴奋。那些对此感到惊慌的人们应该在郊区和城镇过着田园牧歌式的平静生活。这对他们挺好的。他们应该让伦敦去扮演自己的角色,即塑造在当下改变世界的思想和力量。 /201608/459578
  • The US department of commerce is preparing to temporarily lift some sanctions on ZTE, the Chinese telecommunications equipment maker accused of illicitly supplying US technology to Iran. 美国商务部准备暂时解除对中国电信设备制造商中兴通讯(ZTE)的部分制裁,后者被指控非法向伊朗提供美国的技术。 The sanctions, announced on March 8, in effect ban US companies from supplying one of China’s highest-profile technology companies. After Huawei, ZTE is China’s second-largest global exporter of telecoms infrastructure, and the third-largest seller of Android smartphones in the US. 美国3月8日宣布的制裁措施,从实质上禁止美国企业向中兴供货。中兴是中国知名科技公司之一,是仅次于华为(Huawei)的中国第二大电信基础设施全球出口商,也是美国市场上的第三大Android智能手机销售商。 The ban was imposed after an investigation by the commerce department found earlier this month that ZTE “planned and organised a scheme to establish, control and use a series of ‘detached’ [or shell] companies to illicitly re-export controlled items to Iran in violation of US export control laws” according to a March 8 announcement. 3月8日的公告称,实施这一禁令是因为美国商务部展开的一项调查在本月早些时候发现,中兴“策划和组织了一套方案,建立、控制和使用一系列的‘分离’(即空壳)公司非法向伊朗转口受管制物品,违反美国的出口管制法律”。 But following weeks of discussions, the commerce department appears poised to relax the measures. 但在经历了为期数周的磋商后,美国商务部似乎打算放松制裁。 According to the text of a document seen by the Financial Times that could be posted to the Federal Register as early as Thursday, the ban could be waived until June 30 as a result of binding commitments made by ZTE. 英国《金融时报》看到的一份文件的文本显示,由于中兴作出了具有约束性的承诺,这项禁令可能直至6月30日都会被免于执行。这份文件可能最早将于本周四发布在《联邦公报》(Federal Register)上。 According to the document the US Commerce Department would “restore temporarily the status quo ante licensing policy pertaining to exports, re-exports, and transfers (in-country) to ZTE Corporation and ZTE Kangxun”. 根据这份文件,美国商务部将“暂时恢复原有的与向中兴通讯和中兴康讯(ZTE Kangxun)出口、转口和(国内)转交有关的许可政策”。 ZTE Kangxun, a subsidiary, according to the department of commerce, facilitated the supply of US technology to Iran by buying US technology and providing them to a Chinese intermediary trading company for re-export. 美国商务部称,通过买入美国技术并将它们提供给中国的一家中间贸易公司用于转口,中兴子公司中兴康讯帮助向伊朗供应了美国的技术。 Beijing 8-Star and ZTE Parsian, two other entities connected to ZTE that according to the department of commerce were implicated in the re-exporting of US technology to Iran, are not to be taken off the sanctions list, the document said. 这份文件显示,与中兴有关的另两家实体——北京八星(Beijing 8-Star)和中兴伊朗(ZTE Parsian)——并未被撤下制裁名单。根据美国商务部的说法,这两家实体也涉及把美国技术转口给伊朗。 ZTE’s Hong Kong and Shenzhen shares have been suspended since March 7. 中兴在香港和深圳上市的股票自3月7日起都已停牌。 /201603/433009
  • The chairman of Gecamines, the state-controlled mining company in the Democratic Republic of Congo, has outlined ambitious plans to partner with Chinese investors to ramp up production of copper and other commodities in the resource-rich African country.刚果民主共和国的国有控股矿业公司Gecamines的董事长介绍了雄心勃勃的计划,打算与中国投资者合作,提高这个资源丰富的非洲国家的铜和其他大宗商品的产量。Albert Yuma Mulimbi told the Financial Times he was dissatisfied with most existing joint ventures involving western mining companies, and claimed they had failed to generate adequate returns for Gecamines.艾伯特.尤马.穆林比(Albert Yuma Mulimbi)告诉英国《金融时报》,他对现有大多数跟西方矿业公司组建的合资企业感到不满,称它们未能为Gecamines带来足够高的回报。Gecamines is proposing to use a partnership with China Nonferrous Metal Mining Group to develop a major new copper mine as a blueprint for future joint ventures with other Chinese companies or overseas investors.Gecamines提出,为了开发一座新的大型铜矿而与中国有色矿业(China Nonferrous Metal Mining)组建的一家合资企业,可以作为未来与其他中国企业或海外投资者组建合资企业的范本。Mr Yuma said Gecamines was seeking to lift production at projects involving the company to more than 100,000 tonnes of copper a year by 2018, compared with less than 20,000 in 2015. As well as being home to 10 per cent of the world’s copper reserves, the DRC is also a major source of cobalt, widely used in so-called superalloys and lithium ion batteries.尤马表示,Gecamines正寻求到2018年把该公司所参与项目的年度铜产量提高到10万吨以上,而2015年的这一数字尚不足2万吨。除了拥有世界铜储量的10%,刚果民主共和国也是钴的重要产地。钴被广泛应用于超耐热合金和锂离子电池。“We want to become again, as in the past, one of the biggest players in copper and cobalt,” said Mr Yuma in an interview with the Financial Times.“我们希望像以往那样,再次成为铜和钴的最大供应方之一,”尤马在接受英国《金融时报》采访时说。After the country’s mining sector was nationalised in the 1960s by the then dictator Mobutu Sese Seko, Gecamines became a major industry force, producing almost 500,000 tonnes of copper each year during the mid-1980s.1960年代,该国的采矿业被当时的独裁者蒙托.塞塞.塞科(Mobutu Sese Seko)收归国有。之后,Gecamines成为了一重要的行业力量,在1980年代中期的年度铜产量接近50万吨。But the company came close to collapse during the final years of Mobutu’s rule, which ended in 1997.但Gecamines在蒙托统治的最后几年里接近崩溃。蒙托统治终结于1997年。Mr Yuma said the DRC had been told in the early 2000s by international bodies such as the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund to sell assets to overseas mining companies that would develop the projects and pay dividends and other income streams to the country.尤马表示,在21世纪初,世界(World Bank)和国际货币基金组织(IMF)等国际机构建议刚果民主共和国向海外矿业公司出售资产,后者将开发矿业项目,向该国提供红利和其他收入。This left Gecamines with minority interests in major DRC mines, with western companies such as Freeport-McMoRan of the US, Switzerland’s Glencore and Canada’s Ivanhoe Mines having controlling stakes and operating the projects.这导致Gecamines在国内各大矿业项目中持有少数股权,而西方公司——如美国的自由港迈克墨伦(Freeport-McMoRan)、瑞士的嘉能可(Glencore)和加拿大的艾芬豪矿业(Ivanhoe Mines)——持有控股股份,并作为项目作业方。But Mr Yuma complained that existing deals with international companies had failed to generate dividends for Gecamines, which is burdened with almost .5bn of debt.但是,尤马抱怨称,与海外公司达成的现有交易未能为Gecamines带来红利,该公司目前背负着近15亿美元的债务。“We don’t have dividends and all the revenue is exported and transferred,” he said. “So this kind of business is not good any more.”“我们没有收到红利,所有营业收入都被输出和转移了,”他说。“所以这种生意不再是好业务了。”Gecamines is embroiled in a legal dispute with Freeport over Tenke Fungurume, the DRC’s largest copper mine, where the two companies were partners.眼下,Gecamines与自由港在Tenke Fungurume铜矿问题上深陷法律纠纷。两家公司在刚果民主共和国的最大铜矿项目中曾是合作伙伴。Freeport announced plans in May to sell its controlling stake in Tenke to China Molybdenum.今年5月,自由港宣布了把自己在Tenke Fungurume所持的控股股份出售给洛阳钼业(China Molybdenum)的计划。Last week the deal was completed after Canada’s Lundin Mining, which owns 24 per cent of Tenke, said it had agreed to sell its stake to BHR Partners of China for .1bn.最近,在拥有Tenke 24%股权的加拿大伦丁矿业(Lundin Mining)表示已同意将其股权以11亿美元出售给中国的渤海华美(BHR Partners)之后,这笔交易已完成了。Gecamines, which owns 20 per cent of Tenke, said the deals involving Freeport and Lundin ignored its pre-emptive rights to buy the stakes.拥有Tenke 20%股权的Gecamines表示,自由港和伦丁矿业的交易忽视了其买断股权的优先权利。Gecamines has taken its case to an international court in Paris in an attempt to block the Freeport deal.Gecamines已将此案诉至巴黎的一家国际法庭,企图阻止自由港的那笔交易。“We’re not blocking the Chinese,” said Mr Yuma, who claimed Gecamines had financial backing to buy Freeport’s stake. “We are blocking Freeport who want to sell without respecting our rights.”“我们不是要阻止中资,”尤马说。他声称,Gecamines拥有买下自由港所持股份的资金后台。“我们要阻止自由港,是为了不让他们在不尊重我们权利的情况下出售股份。”Meanwhile, in an effort to secure dividends and royalties from existing mines involving overseas companies, Gecamines is planning to audit all major projects in the DRC to see whether it has been treated fairly as a minority investor.同时,为了确保从海外公司入股的现有矿山获得红利和特许权使用费,Gecamines计划对刚果民主共和国境内的所有大型项目进行审计,以判断自己作为少数股投资者是否得到了公平对待。“We are conducting various audits in all the joint ventures we have because, I am sorry to say, generally speaking we are not happy with most of them,” said Mr Yuma.尤马说:“我们正对所有合资项目进行各种审计,因为,我要遗憾地说,总体上看,我们对大多数合资项目都不满意。”He added the new partnership with China Nonferrous Metal Mining — under which the Chinese company has agreed to spend bn to build and operate a copper processing facility in the mineral-rich Katanga province — could be a suitable model for future joint ventures.他接着说,与中国有色矿业组建的新合资企业,可能成为未来合资企业的合适范本。中国有色矿业同意付20亿美元,在矿产丰富的加丹加省(Katanga)建造和经营一家铜加工工厂。China Nonferrous Metal Mining will have a 51 per cent stake in the facility, with Gecamines holding the remainder, and Mr Yuma said the Chinese company would have its investment repaid through copper sales. Once this was done, he added Gecamines would aim to secure control of the project, suggesting that would happen within eight to 10 years.中国有色矿业将拥有该厂51%的股份,而Gecamines持有余下的股份。尤马表示,中国有色矿业将通过铜的销售来收回投资。他接着说,一旦中方收回了投资,Gecamines将力求取得项目的控股权。他暗示,这将在8到10年内实现。“That’s the new vision,” he added, indicating Gecamines initially wanted stakes as high as 49 per cent in future joint ventures, rather than the smaller ones it has in existing partnerships with overseas mining companies.“这是新愿景,”他补充说。他指出,Gecamines当初想要在未来合资企业中持有至多49%的股权,而不是像现在这样,在与海外矿业公司组建的现有合资企业中持有较少股权。“If you are not y to do that#8201;.#8201;.#8201;.#8201;we’ll pull you out, push you out and if we have to fight in court to have a decision, we’ll do it,” he said.“如果你不准备这样做……我们会把你拉出来,把你推出去,如果我们非要诉至法庭以获得一个判决,我们会那么做的,”他说。Analysts said Mr Yuma’s ability to execute his plan to increase production of copper and cobalt in the DRC could be hampered by the country’s political crisis.对于尤马提高国内铜和钴产量的计划,分析师们表示,他的执行能力可能会受到该国政治危机的阻碍。Joseph Kabila, president, was due to step down this December but elections have been delayed until April 2018, raising tensions in the country. Angry opposition parties have promised to escalate their protest movement if Mr Kabila clings to office.该国总统约瑟夫.卡比拉(Joseph Kabila)原定今年12月下台,但现在选举已被推迟到2018年4月,这加剧了该国的紧张局势。愤怒的反对党承诺,如果卡比拉拒不下台,他们将升级抗议运动。Campaigners have called on Gecamines to be more transparent and also question whether the company can raise financing for projects.活动人士们则呼吁Gecamines提高透明度,并质疑该公司能否为项目融到资金。“They are a black box in the middle of the Congolese mineral system,” said Nathaniel Dyer of Global Witness. “They haven’t been able to demonstrate on a large scale the ability to carry out these copper projects themselves. They would need to massively up their game in terms of corporate governance.”“他们是刚果采矿体系中的一个黑匣子,”全球见(Global Witness)的纳撒尼尔.戴尔(Nathaniel Dyer)说。“他们无法大规模地展示自己具有实施这些铜项目的能力。他们需要大幅度提高公司治理水平。”Freeport and Lundin declined to comment on Mr Yuma’s complaint about dividends.自由港和伦丁矿业拒绝就尤马对红利的抱怨置评。However, one person familiar with Tenke said it had not paid dividends because the mining companies needed to recover their costs and the funds invested in the project. He added the companies had paid taxes and other monies for exploration to the DRC.然而,一位熟悉Tenke的人士说,该项目没有付红利,是因为矿业公司需要收回自己的成本和项目初期投资。他接着说,相关企业已向刚果民主共和国缴纳了税款和其他勘探费用。Glencore declined to comment. While its DRC operations have not issued a dividend, last year Glencore paid 0m in taxes and royalties to the country.嘉能可拒绝置评。虽然在刚果民主共和国的业务从未发放红利,但去年嘉能可向该国付了6亿美元的税款和特许权使用费。Ivanhoe was not immediately available for comment.记者未能立即联系到艾芬豪矿业请其置评。 /201611/480279
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