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2019年02月17日 20:43:18 | 作者:飞度问答 | 来源:新华社
Telephone interview with Yoshinori Ohsumi following the announcement of the 2016 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 3 October 2016. The interviewer is Adam Smith, Chief Scientific Officer of Nobel Media. Yoshinori Ohsumi (YO): Moshi, Moshi, Yoshinori speaking. Adam Smith (AS): Hello, Professor Ohsumi. My name is Adam Smith. Im calling from the official website for the Nobel Prize. YO: Ah ha, yeah. AS: First of all, our congratulations on the award of the Nobel Prize. YO: Thank you so much. Yeah, I was surprised. AS: [Laughs] How did you hear the news? YO: I had a call from Thomas Perlmann. AS: Yes, Secretary of the Nobel Committee, yes indeed. YO: Yeah, Nobel Assembly. AS: Nobel Assembly, yes. And where were you when you received the news? YO: I was in my lab. AS: And your first reaction? YO: I heard that, single, only me! It was also a surprise for me. AS: Its true, because its rare that they give the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine to just a single Laureate. What do you think this says about the role of the single researcher these days? YO: Thats my real surprise because so many people are now working in the autophagy field. AS: Autophagy is a huge area. But its not…its not something… YO: Yeah, recently. AS: Recently, exactly. YO: Just recently, I think. Yeah. AS: Very largely because of your work. YO: Yeah, its so, developed fast, yeah. When I started my work, probably every year 20 or less papers appeared on autophagy. Now, more than 5,000 or something like that. Its a huge change within probably these 15 years or so. AS: Yeah, a real explosion. YO: I actually started more than 27 years ago. AS: It was a good choice of field. YO: Yeah, yeah, it was lucky. Yeah, yeast was a very good system and autophagy was a very good topic to work. Still we have so many questions. Yeah, even now, we have more questions than when I started. AS: Once again, it underlines the power of yeast as an experimental model. YO: Yeah. AS: You can do so much with yeast. And does it surprise you how similar yeast is to ourselves? YO: I believe there are fundamental functions of the cells should be conserved from yeast to mammals. So thats my belief. But, of course, vacuole is different from lysosome, but I thought that most fundamental mechanisms must be conserved. That was my assumption when I started my work. AS: You sound as if youre still in a slight state of shock. YO: Yeah…mmm. AS: And will you be coming to Stockholm in December to receive your award? YO: Yeah, yeah. AS: Wonderful. Well, we very much look forward to meeting you then and to talking further. YO: OK. Yeah. AS: Thank you very much indeed for speaking to us now. YO: Thanks so much. AS: Congratulations again and we wish you a wonderful day.201610/472136And theyre wrong about yours Graduates. 关于你们这一代 同样会如此 毕业生们Theres the statement of history its never ever been a good bet to bet against America. 这是历史的叙述 把赌注都压在美国失败上 永远都不是很好的策略And its a very bad bet to bet against your generation Youre the most competent, capable, caring generation. 把赌注压在你们这一代人失败上 则更是糟糕透顶 你们是美国有史以来最胜任 最能干 最具关怀的一代This country has ever produced and Im confident youll write a new and better chapter of American history. 你们是美国有史以来最胜任 最能干 最具关怀的一代 我很有信心 你们将书写美国历史更新更好的篇章So have faith Have faith. 你们要有信心 要有信心Do what you feel in your heart The possibilities are unlimited. 做你们心中觉得正确的事 一切皆有可能I spent ten days with President Xi, the new president of China at the request of then-President Hu and President Obama. 我和中国的新主席 习主席一同度过了十天 这是应前任胡主席和奥巴马总统的邀请To establish a personal relationship Tip ONeill made famous the expression. 以建立个人关系 蒂普.奥尼尔有一句着名的话;all politics is local; Far be it from me to improve upon my friend Tip ONeill. ;所有政治都是地方政治; 倒不是我想改进我朋友蒂普.奥尼尔的话But I think all politics is personal, including international politics Ladies and gentlemen. 不过我认为 所有政治都是个人的 包括国际政治 女士们 先生们I looked and listened to the questions he had to ask, and the interest he had And the President asked me, what did I think after ten days. 我仔细听闻了他所希望求解的问题和他所拥有的兴趣 习主席问我 十天后我怎么想201610/470338VOA流行美语 137: workaholic/nuttyLesson 137 - workaholic / nuttyLarry陪李华带着她新领养的猫咪-小雪球-去看兽医。两人聊起了一位共同的朋友。今天李华会学到两个常用语:workaholic和nutty.LL: I'm really worried about Bob. He seems as though he has turned into a real workaholic.LH: 你很担心Bob,因为他成了workaholic. Workaholic, 那是什么意思?是不是Bob生病了?LL: No, Bob doesn't have a disease. He's a workaholic. A workaholic is someone who works all of the time and never takes time for anything else.LH: 啊,我懂你的意思了。Workaholic是指一个人工作过度,从来不休息。就是“工作狂”的意思嘛!Bob天天加班,怪不得他看起来总是那么累。这样对身体很不好呢!LL: No, it's not. Workaholics often get stress-related problems such as high blood pressure or ulcers.LH: 就是,高血压和溃疡都是一些工作过度的人常有的毛病。我爸爸就是个工作狂。我小的时候很少见到他,因为他总是在办公室里加班。结果在我10岁的时候,他得了溃疡,医生要他立刻减少工作量。LL: That's a shame, but it's actually pretty common. I've known a few workaholics, too.LH: 现代人工作忙碌,变成工作狂是很常见的。哎,Larry也许我们应该和Bob谈谈,让他知道我们很担心他。LL: I don't know how he'll respond to that. Maybe it would be better if we just pressured him to hang out with us and relax more.LH: 这倒是个好主意,让他和我们一起出去玩,一定可以放松心情的! 要不这样吧!我们可以邀请Bob下星期到我家玩,顺便看看我的小雪球!LL: I don't know if meeting your crazy cat is going to help prevent Bob from becoming a workaholic, but at least it will get him out of the office for a while.LH: 嘿!我的小雪球才不疯呢!她只不过是只小猫咪,爱玩而已嘛!******LL: Well, did the vet officially diagnose your cat as being totally nutty?LH: Nutty? 那是什么意思。你该不是在说我的小雪球有什么行为方面的问题吧?LL: You could say that. Nutty means crazy.LH: 所以nutty就是疯疯颠颠的意思。哎,我跟你说过了,小雪球不疯。她只是比较好动。LL: Did the vet agree with you?LH: 当然喽!兽医还说,小雪球既不疯,也没有心理问题。她只是一只小猫,所以特别需要别人注意她。兽医还说我应该经常陪小雪球玩。LL: Oh, I see, she's so nutty because she has too much extra energy. If we play with her and tire her out, she'll be calmer.LH: 没错,只要我们多陪陪她,消耗她的体力,她就不会精力旺盛地动来动去。所以我打算用绳子做一些小玩具,每天至少陪她玩15分钟。LL: Hey, that actually sounds fun. Can I help?LH: 当然喽!但是你得先答应我,不可以再叫她是个小疯子,或是nutty了。这样我才让你和她玩。可以吗?LL: All right, I won't make fun of your nutty cat anymore.LH: Larry! 你怎么又这么说她啊!LL: I'm just kidding. I think it's funny that you get so offended when I call Snowball nutty.LH: 我当然要生气咯!小雪球是只很乖的小猫。我真的很喜欢她。所以你不可以这样嘲笑她。LL: Okay, I won't. Let's take her home and play with her now. I'm sure she doesn't want to stay here any longer.今天李华学到两个常用语,一个是workaholic,指的是一个人工作过度,不休息,也就是我们常说的:工作狂。另一个常用语是nutty,是指行为疯疯颠颠的,不太正常。 /200602/3357So theres things you cant do, and these limitations on the human voice have always really annoyed me,所以说,总有声响是你发不出来的,这些人声的局限总是困扰我呀because beatbox is the best way of getting musical ideas out of your head and into the world,因为B-Box是把你脑子里的音乐想法发挥出来并走向世界的最好的办法but theyre sketches at best, which is whats annoyed me.但它们最多算得上草稿,那就是困扰我的地方If only, if only there was a way for these ideas to come out unimpeded by the restrictions which my body gives it.要是有一个方法可以让这些想法不受身体限制并顺畅的表达出来就好了So Ive been working with these guys, and weve made a machine.所以,我一直和这些家伙合作,我们成功造出了一台机器Weve made a system which is basically a live production machine,我们制造了一个系统一台实时的创作机器a real-time music production machine, and it enables me to, using nothing but my voice,一台实时的音乐创作机器,它能让我只用自己的声音create music in real time as I hear it in my head即时创作我脑袋里听到的音乐unimpeded by any physical restrictions that my body might place on me.不受任何我身体构造可能对我造成的限制And Im going to show you what it can do.接下来我就给你们演示一下And before I start making noises with it, and using it to manipulate my voice,在我用它制造噪音、用它控制我的声音之前I want to reiterate that everything that youre about to hear is being made by my voice.我想重申一下,待会儿你们听到的所有声音都是我的声音This system has -- thank you, beautiful assistant --这个系统...谢谢你,美丽善良的助手this system has no sounds in it itself until I start putting sounds in it,在我往这个系统里录音之前,它本身是没有任何声音的so theres no prerecorded samples of any kind.所以,没有任何形式的事先录音201612/483708

I think this was synthesized from tractor fuel three days ago So instead, what I implore you to do 我猜 这是三天前用拖拉机燃料合成的 相反 我请你们去做的是Is believe that if you make courageous choices and bet on yourself 相信只要你们作出了勇敢的选择 赌自己能行And put yourself out there that you will have an impact as a result of what you do 放开手大干一场 你们所做的必将具有重要影响And you dont need to know now what that will be or how it will happen because nobody ever does 只是你们现在无需知道 那会是怎样的情景 因为没人做过So I like to think of you guys in the metaphor of my early improve days as having been backstage preparing 所以说 我愿意把你们看成是早期即兴演出 站在后台做准备的那个我And you are here now and look at everything youve accomplished Its remarkable 你们现在都在这里 看着自己获得的成就 这很了不起You are just also amazing to me and Im so proud of everything youve done But as you get y to walk out under the bright lights 你们很让我惊叹 我为你们所做的感到自豪 但你们现在要步入到聚光灯下Of the improvisational stage of the rest of your life I implore you to remember those two lessons I learned years ago 踏上人生下一阶段的即兴演出舞台 我请你们记住我多年前的那两点经验教训Be bold make courageous choices for yourself 要大胆 为自己作出勇敢的选择Be in the Keebler Elf Factory, what are you afraid of? And secondly, dont always worry about what your next line is supposed to be 就当是在奇宝饼干厂 有什么好怕的 第二 不要总想着下一句台词应该是什么What youre supposed to do next, theres no script Live your life, be in this moment 不要想下一步应该怎么做 没有剧本 过好生活 只想此刻Be in this moment, now be in this moment. Twenty years from now 只想此刻 现在 只想此刻 二十年后的今天You will be sitting in a different seat in this stadium and you will be lying in a field looking up at the clouds 你们会坐到体育场的不同位置 你可能正躺在一块场地上 仰望云端And you will be holding a patients hand walking into surgery and you will be grading or evaluating a students essay 你可能正握住病人的手 走入手术室 你可能在给学生的论文打分And you will be sitting on the sidelines of your daughters soccer practice and you will be standing behind this podium 你可能在旁观子女的橄榄球训练 你也可能站在这个讲台之后Be right there and nowhere else in that moment soak it all in and remember to say thank you 那一刻 你只用想那一刻的光景 沉浸在那一番情景中 记得说声谢谢Thank you, hashtag, go blue谢谢大家 #GO BLUE(前进 蓝色 蓝色是密歇根大学象征色)201607/454378

The Senate will soon have the chance to help preserve our democratic institutions for our children参议院将很快有机会为我们的孩子捍卫我们的民主制度by voting to confirm Judge Gorsuch to the Supreme Court.投票确认戈萨奇法官就职最高法院。Judge Gorsuch is going to serve our people by devoting himself to our beloved Constitution.戈萨奇法官将自己献身给我们挚爱的宪法,来务我们的人民。The Senate saw this firsthand in hours of Judge Gorsuchs impressive testimony.参议院的人们曾见到戈萨奇法官数小时让人印象深刻的宣言。In every step of the process, what has been clear to all is that Judge Gorsuch is a man who respects the law.在这一进程的每一步里,对所有人所明确的是,戈萨奇法官是尊重法律的。He defends the Constitution. And in so doing, he will protect our freedoms.他捍卫着宪法。这样做,他将保护我们的自由。With Judge Gorsuch on the Supreme Court, America will be a more free, fair, and just Nation for all of our citizens.最高法院有了戈萨奇法官,美国将是我们所有公民更加自由公平公正的国家。Thank you, and God bless you.谢谢大家,上帝保佑你们。201704/505415

16 household appliances words gadget device music centre speaker tv set dvd player microwave iron switch socket battery plug in / out extensive lead wire electric toothbrush electric shaver sewing machine hair drier vacuum cleaner fan press run on (batteries) break function telephone button repair fix phrases stop working keep breaking (down) make a noise (not) work properly Something wrong with(it) Out of order Beginner A: good morning. I understand that you’ve got a problem with your washing machine. I’m from the repair company. B: excellent. Come in please. The washing machine is in the bathroom upstairs. It keeps breaking down. A; when did it first break down? A: about ten days ago. I’ve tried to use it since then. Sometimes it works and sometimes it doesn’t. it’s very frustrating. B: is it still under warranty. If it is and I can’t fix it, it would be quicker and easier to exchange it for a new one. A: yes, it’s still under warranty. Over the last few weeks, it’s also been making a high-pitch noise when it’s in use. a: ok. I’ll start by looking at the motor. I’ll just unplug it and take a look inside the machine…..oh, yes. There’s the problem. It’s quite simple. I’ll sort it out in a few minutes. b: what’s wrong with it? A: part of the motor is loose. I can put it back in place quite easily. B: that’s great. Thanks very much. Would you like a cup of tea or coffee? Intermediate A: so, you friend’s getting married on Saturday. What have you bought her as a wedding gift. I find is so hard to choose the right gift. B: my friend and her fiancé had a really good idea. They have cut out pictures from catalogues and pasted them in a notebook. The picture are of things they want. People sign their name by the item they will buy. A; that’s clever! Then everyone knows that they are buying something the couple really want and there’s no chance of two people buying the same gift. What things were in the notebook? B: most of the things were household appliance. You know, everything from an iron through a vacuum cleaner to a cooker. I think it’s an excellent way for everyone who knows the couple to help them set up home. A: so , what did you get them? B: I bought a sewing machine. I know that my friend likes making her own clothes, but her current sewing machine is quite old and has some problems. A: what’s wrong with is? B: she says that after several years of use, it’s not working properly. When she uses it, it makes a funny noise. A: household appliance don’t seem to last for a long time nowadays. B: I think it’s because the manufactures are constantly bringing out new models. Because they know that we will buy the new models, the appliances don’t need to last more than five or ten years at most /200704/12855

My fellow Americans,我的美国同胞们,I’m joining you today from the deck of what will be our Nation’s newest aircraft carrier, the soon-to-be commissioned Gerald R. Ford,我今天在我们国家最新的航空母舰甲板上和你们交流。这是很快就要役的杰拉尔德·R·福特号。and as you can see, I’m wearing a jacket and a hat that they just gave me.正如你看到的,他们刚刚赠给我了夹克和帽子。Not really used to it, but it feels awfully good - I’m very proud of it actually.我还没有真正习惯它们,但感觉好得很--我实际上非常骄傲。Our carriers are the centerpiece of American military might, projecting power and our totally unparalleled strength at sea.我们的航空母舰是美国军事力量的核心设施,投射力量和我们无与伦比的海上力量。This beautiful new warship represents the future of naval aviation,这艘崭新的漂亮战舰代表着海军航空的未来,and she will serve as a cornerstone of our national defense for decades and decades to come.在未来的几十年里她将成为我们国防力量的奠基石。A famous aviator once wrote that, to build a truly great ship,一个著名飞行员曾写道,打造真正伟大的舰船,we shouldn’t begin by gathering wood, cutting boards, or distributing work,我们不应该以收集木头,切割木板,分配工作开始,而but instead by awakening within the people a “desire for the vast and endless sea.” So true.是以提醒人们去“渴望浩瀚无垠的大海”作为开始。这非常正确。In the same way, we must continue to renew the American spirit in order to rebuild our country, and rebuild it we will.我们必须用相同的方式强调美国精神,来重建我们的国家,我们将能重建它。On Tuesday, before a Joint Session to Congress, I laid out a vision - I hope you all watched - for how to accomplish that national rebuilding.在周二,在国会联席会议之前,我诉说了愿景--我希望你们所有人都观看--为了如何完成这样全国性的重建。201703/498749

Thank you. Thank you. Ambassador Shannon, dignitaries, esteemed guests, ladies and gentlemen: Im deeply humbled to be here today to honor these 12 remarkable and inspirational women, who have given so much for so many, regardlesf the unimaginable threat to their own personal safety. Each one of these heroic women has an extraordinary story of courage, which must inspire each of uo also achieve more than we had ever imagined possible. Their liveemind uf the boundless capacity of the human spirit when guided by moral clarity and desire to do good. These honoreen the stage with me have fought for their rights and for the rightf others. Each battle forces – such aovernments, the courts, gender bias, terrorism, war and corruption – and were willing in each moment to face harsh penalties, including imprisonment and death. Ahey continue to persevere against unimaginable odds, these women are extraordinary examplef reaching within to find the courage that lienside us all to change the world. While learning the storief these 12 honorees, I would like to ask each of uo take thioment and try to imagine what it would be like to experience the trying obstacles, domestic abuse, gender-biased violence, or governor impression that some of these women have faced. Let ury to envision ourselven their place, struggling against gender bias and discriminatory laws, which serve to protect the perpetratorf unthinkable crimes while punishing their victims, who even dare to speak out. Ask yourself if you would have the fortitude of spirit, the courage of your convictions and the enormounner strength required to stand up and fight against such overwhelming odds. Amazingly, each of our honorees has courageously answered ;yes; to those questions, for it iheir strength and the strength of others like them which will ignite a global battle against inhumanity. Together, with the international community, the ed Stateust send a clear message that we are watching. It iherefore our duty to continue to shine the light on each miraculous achieved by women, all capable of trying, truly leading the change to fight for those that cannot fight for themselves. Theirs are the storief human greatneshat will continue to inspire, and therefore must be told far and wide. These honorees, who have fought on the frontlines against injustice are true heroes. Their storief individual bravery remind uhat there is always hope whenever the human spirit is brought to bear in the service of others, and that healing and personal empowerment are often born from such deeds. I believe that bravery ihe ability to live ones life, refusing to be discouraged, and instead, choosing a life of purpose. Only when we do this are we able to suppress what we previously believe to be possible. Each of these 12 women represents a life of enormous courage – to save a child, to help a family, to make a neighborhood or school safe or to boldly speak out against evil by refusing to back down, no matter the personal cost. To the young people here today, I ask you to allow the triumphxemplified by these heroic women to inspire you in your own lives, and to remind yourself that you, too, are capable of greatness. I urge you to not be afraid to fail, as failure will never have the power to define you as long as you learn from it, and realize that your first steps will alwaynvolve taking a leap of faith by believing in yourself while choosing to replace fear for hope. Let these brave women serve as daily inspiration, at iow up to each of you to remain vigilant against injustice in all itany forms. As you go forward, remember their journeys as push ahead and strive to bring about a better community, a better country and a better world in an ongoing fight for right over might. We must continue once again to shine the light on the horrendous atrocitieaking place in neighborhoods around the corner and around the globe, where innocent families are crying out to live in safety. We must continue to fight injustice in all its forms, in whatever scale or shape it taken our lives. Together, we must declare that the era of allowing the brutality against women and children iver, while affirming that the time for empowering around the world iow. For wherever women are diminished, the entire world is diminished with them. However, wherever women are empowered, towns and villages, schools and economies, are empowered, and together we are all made stronger with them. We must begin now to challenge old fears, fight long-held prejudices and stand up against evil and injustice wherever it may be. As leaderf our shared global community, we must continue to work towardender empowerment and respect people from all backgrounds and ethnicities, remembering alwayhat we are all ultimately memberf one race: the human race. Each one of us uniquely gifted. We must continually our American values as we join with the international community to make our world safer through actf collaborative and individual bravery. Thank you, honorees, for your courage. And thank you, Ambassador Shannon, for your support. God bless you and God bleshireat nation. Thank you.201704/505500

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