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盐城看泌尿科怎么样盐城/有检查男科Science and technology科学技术Misconduct in science学术不端An array of errors一系列的错误Investigations into a case of alleged scientific misconduct have revealed numerous holes in the oversight of science and scientific publishing.对一起学术不端的调查揭示出在对科学以及科学出版的监督中存在着诸多漏洞。ANIL POTTI, Joseph Nevins and their colleagues at Duke University in Durham, North Carolina, garnered widesp attention in 2006.2006年,ANIL POTTI, Joseph Nevins和他们在杜克大学的同事们引起了广泛的关注。They reported in the New England Journal of Medicine that they could predict the course of a patients lung cancer using devices called expression arrays,他们在新英格兰医学杂志上报告说他们可以通过一种叫表达序列的设备预测病人的肺癌的扩散路径。which log the activity patterns of thousands of genes in a sample of tissue as a colourful picture.这种设备能够记录组织样本上成千个基因的活动模式,成为一幅色图像。A few months later, they wrote in Nature Medicine that they had developed a similar technique which used gene expression in laboratory cultures of cancer cells,几个月后,他们又在《自然-医学》杂志上发表说他们已经发展出了一种类似的技术-这类技术使用的是在实验室培养皿里癌细胞的基因表达,known as cell lines, to predict which chemotherapy would be most effective for an individual patient suffering from lung, breast or ovarian cancer.被称为细胞系,来预测对于某一位患肺癌、乳腺癌或者是卵巢癌的病人哪种化疗将会是最有效的。At the time, this work looked like a tremendous advance for personalised medicine—the idea that understanding the molecular specifics of an individuals illness will lead to a tailored treatment.这个工作在那时看起来是个人化医疗中的一个重大进步。The papers drew adulation from other workers in the field, and many newspapers, including this one, wrote about them.这些文章受到了一些同行以及包括《经济学人》在内的许多报纸的极力褒奖。The team then started to organise a set of clinical trials of personalised treatments for lung and breast cancer.于是研究小组开始着手组织一套针对肺癌和乳腺癌病人的个人化治疗临床试验。Unbeknown to most people in the field, however, within a few weeks of the publication of the Nature Medicine paper a group of biostatisticians at the MD Anderson Cancer Centre in Houston, led by Keith Baggerly and Kevin Coombes, had begun to find serious flaws in the work.可是大多数领域内的人不知道的是,由Keith Baggerly和Kevin Coombes领导的德州大学MD Anderson癌症中心的生物统计师们在这篇论文发表之后的几周就开始发现其中的严重问题。Dr Baggerly and Dr Coombes had been trying to reproduce Dr Pottis results at the request of clinical researchers at the Anderson centre who wished to use the new technique.在希望使用这项新技术的Anderson中心临床研究员的请求下,Baggerly士和Coombes士一直在尝试重现Potti士的研究结果。When they first encountered problems,当第一次碰到问题时,they followed normal procedures by asking Dr Potti, who had been in charge of the day-to-day research, and Dr Nevins, who was Dr Pottis supervisor, for the raw data on which the published analysis was based—and also for further details about the teams methods,他们按照惯例向主管日常研究的Potti士和他的导师Nevins士索要他们发表的文章的原始数据和关于其研究方法的进一步细节,so that they could try to replicate the original findings.这样他们就可以尝试重现原先的实验结果了。A can of worms一罐虫子Dr Potti and Dr Nevins answered the queries and publicly corrected several errors, but Dr Baggerly and Dr Coombes still found the methods predictions were little better than chance.Potti士和Nevins士回复了这些请求并且公布了几处修正后的错误,但是Baggerly士和Coombes士依旧发现由这个实验方法引出的结果几乎不比乱猜好。Furthermore, the list of problems they uncovered continued to grow.不仅如此,他们还发现了越来越多的问题。For example, they saw that in one of their papers Dr Potti and his colleagues had mislabelled the cell lines they used to derive their chemotherapy prediction model,例如,他们发现在Potti士和他的同事们发表的一篇文章中,错误标记了一个用来建立化疗预测模型的细胞系,describing those that were sensitive as resistant, and vice versa.把敏感的和抵制的弄反了。This meant that even if the predictive method the team at Duke were describing did work,这意味着就算杜克大学的这个研究小组的预测方法起作用,which Dr Baggerly and Dr Coombes now seriously doubted, patients whose doctors relied on this paper would end up being given a drug they were less likely to benefit from instead of more likely.现在Baggerly士和Coombes士对这点都很怀疑,依靠这个研究给病人用药的医生也只会更可能得到坏的而不是好的效果。Another alleged error the researchers at the Anderson centre discovered was a mismatch in a table that compared genes to gene-expression data.另一个据Anderson中心的研究员指出的错误是一张表中基因和其基因表达数据的不匹配。The list of genes was shifted with respect to the expression data, so that the one did not correspond with the other.表中基因的一列相对于表达数据发生了调换,导致两项不相对应。On top of that, the numbers and names of cell lines used to generate the data were not consistent.最重要的是,用来产生数据的细胞系的序号和名称也互相不一致。In one instance, the researchers at Duke even claimed that their work made biological sense based on the presence of a gene, called ERCC1,比如,杜克大学的研究员甚至声称,基于一个叫做ERCC1的基因的存在,他们的工作是具有生物学意义的,that is not represented on the expression array used in the teams experiments.但是这个基因并没有出现在小组实验使用的表达序列中。Even with all these alleged errors, the controversy might have been relegated to an arcane debate in the scientific literature if the team at Duke had not chosen,即使已经有了这么多错误被指出,这个争论也本可以停留在艰深难懂的学术论文的辩论中。within a few months of the papers publication to launch three clinical trials based on their work.可是杜克大学的研究组选择在论文发表后的几个月内就(此时试验数据的质量已经受到质疑了。Dr Potti and his colleagues also planned to use their gene-expression data to guide therapeutic choices in a lung-cancer trial paid for by Americas National Cancer Institute.士Potti和他的同事们还计划利用他们的基因表达数据指导一个肺癌临床试验的治疗,这个试验由美国国家癌症研究所赞助。That led Lisa McShane, a biostatistician at the NCI who was aly concerned about Dr Pottis results, to try to replicate the work.这促使已经在关注Potti士的研究结果的NCI生物统计师Lisa McShane尝试重现这个结果。She had no better luck than Dr Baggerly and Dr Coombes.她并不比Baggerly士和Coombes士更加幸运:The more questions she asked, the less concrete the Duke methods appeared.想了解的越多,杜克大学的这个方法就显得越不可靠。In light of all this, the NCI expressed its concern about what was going on to Duke Universitys administrators.考虑到这些,国家癌症研究所对杜克大学的管理状况表示了关注。In October , officials from the university arranged for an external review of the work of Dr Potti and Dr Nevins, and temporarily halted the three trials.年10月份,杜克大学方面安排了一个对Potti士和Nevins士研究工作的外部复审,而且暂停了那三个临床试验。The review committee, however, had access only to material supplied by the researchers themselves,可是,这个复审委员会只能得到杜克大学研究员自己提供的材料,and was not presented with either the NCIs exact concerns or the problems discovered by the team at the Anderson centre.国家癌症研究所的疑问和Anderson中心发现的问题也没有提交给这个复审委员会。The committee found no problems, and the three trials began enrolling patients again in February 2010.后来委员会没有发现任何问题,三个临床试验在2010年2月又开始招募病人。Finally, in July 2010, matters unravelled when the Cancer Letter reported that Dr Potti had lied in numerous documents and grant applications.终于在2010年7月,癌症快报揭发Potti士在多份文件和项目资助申请中撒谎。He falsely claimed to have been a Rhodes Scholar in Australia.他谎称自己是澳大利亚的Rhodes学者。Dr Baggerlys observation at the time was, I find it ironic that we have been yelling for three years about the science,Baggerly士当时的感想是,我们对研究结果大声疾呼了三年,which has the potential to be very damaging to patients, but that was not what has started things rolling.因为它有可能对病人产生非常有害的影响,但这却不能使得事情进展。 /201305/241936盐城治疗直肠炎多少钱 Youve probably heard that climate change is bad news formany animal species like polar bears.你可能听说过,气候变化对很多诸如北极熊这样的物种都是不利的。Warmer temperatures mean less sea ice in the Arctic region.温度越高,北极区域的海上浮冰就会越少,And with less ice, theres less room there is for polar bears to hunt.进而就会使得北极熊的狩猎范围缩小。And so their populations shrink.最后就会导致北极熊的物种数量萎缩。But rising temperatures do not affect all animals in equally harmful ways.但温度升高并不会对所有动物产生同样的不利影响。For some animals, evenfor some bears, warming may be beneficial. Take, for example, the grizzly.对有些动物,甚至是一些熊类来说,全球变暖是有利的。就拿灰熊来举个例子吧。Like pretty much all animals, grizzly bears thrive when they have more food.灰熊几乎跟所有动物一样,只要有足够的食物,他们就可以繁衍生息。A ten year study thatfollowed 112 bears in the Rocky Mountains of Alberta, Canada, has found that warmertemperatures have resulted in grizzlies having easier access to food.在一项为期十年的研究中,研究人员对加拿大亚伯达省落基山脉的112只熊进行了观察,发现温度越高,灰熊就越容易找到食物。The more food they have, the fatter the bears get.食物越多,灰熊就能够储存更多的脂肪。And the more fat lady grizzlies store, the bettertheir chances of having healthy cubs.然而雌熊储存的脂肪越多,他们繁殖健康幼崽的几率也就越大。Cubs born during warmer than normal years were found togrow into larger and healthier adults.在温度较高的时候出生的熊仔一般要比正常温度下的熊仔长的更大,更加健康。Of course, this in no way negates the fact that climate change is a serious issue requiringimmediate and ongoing attention.当然,不可否认的是,气候变化仍然是一个严重且需要我们密切关注的问题。For every species that may benefit from global warming, manymore may suffer and possibly go extinct.对于每一个能从全球变暖获益的物种来说,这里仍然存在着更多物种可能会面临着灭绝的危险。But the study does show that warming does not necessarily spell total gloom and doom for allanimal species.但是研究确实表明,全球变暖对所有物种来说并不都是噩耗。Plus, the research may give scientists a clue about how to alter forest harvestdesigns to increase the grizzly population in the Canadian Rockies.此外,科学家们从这项研究中还知道了如何通过改变森林收获量来增加加拿大落基山脉的灰熊数量。At the moment, there are onlyaround 750 bears in Alberta, making them an endangered species.目前,亚伯达地区只有大概750只灰熊,它们已经被列入了濒危物种的名单之中。 /201405/296983In physics, pressure depends on the amount of force acting on a surface and on the size of the surface.物理学上,压力大小取决于作用在表面力的大小和表面积大小。The smaller the surface, the greater the pressure.表面积越小,承受的力越大。Lets say that a woman steps on your toe; she weighs 120 pounds.假设一个重120磅的女人踩到你脚趾了。If shes wearing flat shoes, you would feel the force of 120 pounds sp out over the whole heel of the shoe, maybe around 4 square inches.如果她穿的是平底鞋,你会感到120磅的压力分散到鞋子的整个根部,大概4平方英寸。So the pressure would be 120 divided by 4, or 30 pounds per square inch.所以120磅的压力平均分为4份,或者每平方英寸30磅的力。But when she steps on you with a high heel, the whole 120 pounds of force is concentrated on a heel that is maybe one eighth of one square inch in area.但如果她穿的是高跟鞋,整个120磅的力集中在或许只有八分之一英寸大小的鞋跟上。Now the pressure of her step is eight times as much, or 240 pounds per square inch instead of 30 pounds per square inch.她踩下去的压力也是8倍之多,或者说240磅每平方英寸而不是30磅每平方英寸。Of course, it hurts more.当然,这更痛。It works the other way, too.同理,Spiked heels are painful to wear because your weight is all on the spike and the ball of the foot;穿细高跟鞋是痛苦的,因为你的重量全压在在细跟和脚趾球上。therefore, the pressure is much greater on these points than in running shoes, where your weight is sp out over the whole bottom of the foot.因此,压力在这些点上要比重量被分散在整个脚底的跑鞋大很多。 /201310/261769盐城协和医院网上预约

滨海县人民医院治疗男性不育多少钱盐城/协和妇科医院打胎怎么样好不好 盐城早泄去哪家好

盐城/看早泄哪个医院好 The national parks desginated three-day trail isnt for the faint-hearted. 国家公园指定三天的考验唯独不适合胆小者。You need to carry all your own equipment, food and water. 你需要备足所有你自己的装备,食物和水。And theres no electricity or showers on hand.而且手边没有电力,也不能淋浴。This walk is closed for five months of the year because of the heat. 这一旅途一年中有5个月因为天气炎热而关闭。And today I can understand why.时至今日我才理解个中缘由。And the further you climb away from the only water in the park, the more you realize how little shelter there really is. 你攀爬的离公园唯一水源越远,你就越清楚离遮蔽所越远。But the climb leads me to a high point, called, the best possible view of the Orange River.但是攀爬带给我无上荣耀,那里可有最好的奥兰治河美景在等待你。What a gorgeous gorge! 多么壮观的峡谷!She is a beauty! 她简直美不胜收!Definitely worth all that hard work to get up here.能够到达这里所有的努力都绝对值得。201309/258217盐城人流医院哪家便宜盐城市第一人民医院男科大夫



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