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来源:康泰解答    发布时间:2019年02月19日 03:24:03    编辑:admin         

British social ills英国社会病Privet and privation水蜡树和贫困The government has fixed Britains broken inner cities. That was the easy part政府已经修复了英国破败的市内城区,但更难的还在后面TONY BLAIR gave his first major speech as prime minister not to MPs or activists, but to the residents of a housing estate in south London. Standing in front of grey slab-like flats and overhanging concrete walkways, he declared that the poorest people in Britain had hitherto been “ignored...except for the purpose of blaming them”. There would, he said, “be no forgotten people in the Britain I want to build.”托尼布莱尔作为英国首相所发表的第一次重要讲话并不是对国会议员或是激进分子说的,而是给了位于伦敦南部的一个住宅区的居民们。站在灰色厚石板公寓楼和悬伸在外的水泥走廊上,他宣称:“英国最贫穷的人们一直以来,除了受到指责的时候之外,都被忽视了。但是,在我希望建立的英国,他们将不再被遗忘。“In 1997 inner-city estates like the one Mr Blair visited were rife with crime, deprivation and alienation. Politicians think they still are. In 2008 David Cameron, now prime minister, gave a speech in east Glasgow declaring that Britain was “broken”. Yet such places are no longer the countrys most pressing problem. Over the past few years most social blights—from crime to teenage pregnancy—have declined. And the improvement has been fastest by far in the middles of big cities. In suburban and rural areas, and particularly in poor coastal towns, social ills have been ameliorated less or have even got worse. Their residents are the new forgotten people.在1997年,像布莱尔首相拜访的这种内城居民区充斥着犯罪、贫穷和冷漠。政客们认为情况仍然一如既往。到了2008年,戴维卡梅伦,也就是现任首相,在东格拉斯哥发表了演讲,宣称英国已经“破败了”。现在,这些地方已经不再是国家最为头痛的问题。在过去的几年间,大多数社会痼疾—从犯罪到未成人人怀—已经有所缓解。大城市的改善也是前所未有的迅速。然而在市郊和农村地区,尤其是在贫穷的海岸城镇,社会病并未得到有效的缓解甚至更为严重了。那里的居民变成了新一代的“被遗忘的人”。Since 2008 the murder rate in Englands biggest metropolitan areas—London, Manchester and the West Midlands—has declined five times faster than in the country as a whole. Teenage pregnancy, now much rarer in big cities like Birmingham, has ticked up in rural places such as Devon. Most dramatic is the change in schools. In 1997 Ofsted, Britains schools inspector, declared the schools of Tower Hamlets, an east London borough, the worst in Britain. Last year poor children in Tower Hamlets did as well in GCSEs, exams taken at 16, as did all children in the country as a whole. These trends are especially stark in Britain, partly because of the countrys excellent statistics. But they can be traced elsewhere too: violent crime dropped by 61% in Americas biggest cities between 1991 and 2012, but by only 36% nationally.自2008年起,英格兰最大的几个都市区的犯罪率下降速度是全国平均数的5倍。未成年人怀现象现在在伯明翰这样的大城市已经比较少见了,但在农村地区,比如德文郡,却在上升。变化最大的是学校。在1997年,英国教育局,即英国学校的监管当局,宣布东伦敦陶尔哈姆莱茨区的学校是全英国最差的。而在去年,陶尔哈姆莱茨区的贫困学生在GCSE中的成绩和全国其他地区的孩子一样好。这种趋势也许并不是很显眼,部分是因为英国整体都很优秀的成绩。但是这样的变化也表现在其他地方:美国大城市的暴力犯罪在1991年到2012年间下降了61%,而全国平均只下降了36%。This spectacular inner-city recovery—the result of gentrification, sober immigrants and government policy—is extremely welcome, but it leaves politicians with a problem. By European standards, Britain still ranks poorly on many measures: teenage pregnancy, alcoholism and educational failure are too common. And these ills are now dispersed around the country. Politicians who want to drive up school results and push down the national crime rate cannot simply focus on a benighted estate. They will have to fix problems in more unexpected places too. Poor children do worst at school in Peterborough, a cathedral town, and West Berkshire, in the Home Counties. Burglaries are most common in Yorkshire.内城的复原令人惊讶,这是地区贵族化、清醒的移民以及政府公共政策的共同结果,这种结果令人欣喜,却也给政治家留下了难题。根据欧洲的标准,英国在很多方面的排名仍处于下等:未成年人怀、酗酒和教育的失败。而现在,这些痼疾已经遍及全国了。那些希望能够提升学校教学成绩以及降低国家犯罪率的政客们,不能只顾着愚蠢的房地产业。他们需要在更多的以前没有关注的地方来解决问题。在彼得伯勒这个教堂小镇,以及伦敦周围诸郡中的西伯克郡,穷人的孩子在学校的表现最糟。在伯克郡里,抢劫案件最普遍。That means putting some noses out of joint. Despite years of reform, England and Wales still have 43 individual police forces. The smaller ones are in the rural areas; city forces are big. Small forces are less good at dealing with professional criminals or problems such as mental illness. The National Crime Agency, which launched last October, may go some way to forcing them to pool their expertise and to tackle problems which cross force boundaries. But it would be better to merge smaller forces into bigger ones, as has been done in Scotland. The police, who know where their weaknesses lie, are mostly willing to support this, but politicians have ducked it.这会把政府气得不轻。尽管改革了多年,英格兰和威尔士仍然还有43个独立的警察机关,小的在农村的,大的在城市。小的执法部门对于处理专业犯罪和其他诸如精神疾病方面心有余而力不足。在去年10月成立的英国国家犯罪局可能会通过种种举措整合全国的执法机构,运用他们的专业知识来共同解决问题。但更好的方法是将小的机构并入大的机构,这已经在苏格兰实施了。警察深知自己的弱点所在,所以很愿意持这项举措,但政客们却一直在回避。State cash should go to where the problems are. Schools in Tower Hamlets get 70% more money per pupil than do schools in Dorset. Given that it is now fairly easy to recruit ambitious young teachers in London, thanks to the increasingly powerful pull of the capital, that discrepancy is too high. Pay should be made more responsive to shortages in talent, whether among teachers or social workers. Programmes that send graduates to tough schools have so far focused on cities. In future their benefits should be more evenly sp.国家预算应该要“好钢用在刀刃上”。陶尔哈姆莱茨区的学校平均每个学生获得的资金比多赛特的学校多70%,是因为现在在伦敦地区很容易就能招聘到有干劲的青年教师,这也多亏了愈发强有力的资金持,而地区间的差距实在太大了。薪水应该与才能的稀缺挂钩,在教师和社工之间都应如此。在城市,将毕业生送去严格学校的项目是必须被执行的,未来这样的优势应该得到更均衡的推广。More broadly, politicians will have to move away from the photo op and grand initiative method of improving society. Dramatically taking charge from Whitehall worked when problems were concentrated; it will not work nearly so well now that they are dispersed. In future, Britains local councils—and indeed its neighbourhood charities and associations—will have to be trusted to do more themselves. Those that fail will need to be made more accountable. And Britains next prime minister ought to make his first speech about social policy from behind a privet hedge.更广泛地说,政客们应该把拍照作秀的时间用来发掘能够提高社会发展的良策。“新官上任三把火”只在问题集中的时候管用,但当问题分散之后效果就不怎么样了。今后,英国当地政府应当更为独立地施政并获得当地人的信任。办事不力的应当被更大程度地追究责任。下一届英国首相应该把他的初次社会政策演讲地点选在水蜡树篱笆的后面了。 /201405/301794。

Retail零售业Hard knocks沉重打击Department stores have been losing customers to other retailers for decades. But some are thriving几十年来,百货公司的消费者一直在转向其他零售商,但是一些百货公司正在复兴。Aug 17th 2013 | NEW YORK |From the print editionIN THE shopping calendar, the back-to-school period ranks behind only Christmas in importance to American retailers. It is a time for outfitting tots with superhero rucksacks and fashion-conscious teens with “metallic” oxford shoes. But events off the sales floor have distracted merchants from the tinkling of tills. In July Hudson’s Bay, a Canadian department-store chain, said it would buy Saks, an upmarket American one, for .4 billion. Then on August 13th Bill Ackman, an activist investor, quit the board of J.C. Penney, a less luxurious retailer, after a failed attempt to hasten the departure of its interim boss, Mike Ullman (see article).在购物时间表上,返校季对美国零售商来说是仅次于圣诞节的重要时期。这时候运动装搭配印有超级英雄图案的背包以及时尚的青少年所爱的金属色牛津鞋都将大卖。但是卖场之外的一些事件让商人们分心。7月,一家加拿大零售连锁店哈德逊湾表示将会收购以24亿美元的价格收购美国高档百货公司萨克斯百货。接着8月13日,激进投资者比尔·阿克曼退出了彭尼的董事会。彭尼是一家相对低端的零售公司,阿克曼在该公司催促其临时老板Mike Ullman退出未果后离开。Both events are symptoms of the weakness of department stores. J.C. Penney has not recovered from the short but disruptive reign of Ron Johnson, who tried to break shoppers’ addiction to price promotions but drove them away instead. He left in April. Saks is not a basket case (partly because its customers are richer). Richard Baker, the American property tycoon who controls Hudson’s Bay, has ambitious plans. But none involves new, full-sized stores in America. Instead, there will be savings of C0m (m) a year, a push into Canada and more discount outlets.上述两个事件是百货公司疲软的征兆。彭尼还没从罗恩·约翰逊短暂却充满破坏性的任职期恢复过来。当时罗恩试图停止价格促销,结果赶跑了消费者。他在四月离职。萨克斯百货也不是毫无是处(部分原因是其大部分消费者相对较富)。美国房地产大亨理查德·贝克控制着哈德逊湾百货公司,他有雄伟的计划。但是计划中不包括在美国开设新的大型商店。取而代之的是,每年节省出1亿加元(9700万美元)开发加拿大市场,提供更多折扣直销。The humbling of department stores began in the 1960s. First specialised retailers, their shopping-mall neighbours, stole sales, as did discounters. Then came “category killers”, which laid claim to electronics and toys, for example, followed by online-only retailers, the current menace. America’s biggest department-store group, Sears Holdings, is one of its sickest. J.C. Penney’s customers defected not to rival stores but to discounters like T.J. Maxx.百货公司的衰退始于60年代。首先是紧邻百货公司的专营商和折扣商店抢了百货公司的生意。然后是品类杀手,比如只经营电子产品和玩具的专卖店,接着是线上零售商,正是当前的威胁。美国最大的百货商店集团希尔斯控股集团是最惨的。彭尼的的消费者大都转战折扣店T.J. Maxx去了。It would be tempting to write off department stores altogether if some were not doing surprisingly well. Same-store sales at Nordstrom, a Seattle-based luxury retailer, have risen by 7.5% on average over the past three years. Those of Macy’s, which operates mainly in the tougher middle market, rose by 4.5% (but its second-quarter results, released on August 14th, were disappointing). Department stores started collecting data about their customers through loyalty-card schemes long before their rivals, says Mortimer Singer of Marvin Traub Associates, a consultancy. When these relationships shift to tablets and smartphones and are linked to modern logistics and inventory management, department stores have a fighting chance.但是还是有些百货商店做的不错。立足于西雅图的奢侈品零售商诺德斯特姆公司的同店销售额过去三年平均增长率为7.5%。梅西百货立足于竞争激烈的中端市场,销售额提高了4.5%(但是8月14日发布的二季度表现令人失望)。Marvin Traub Associates咨询公司的Mortimer Singer表示,百货商店通过忠诚卡计划开始收集消费者信息远远早于其竞争对手。当这些关系转移到平板电脑和智能手机上的时候,加上现代物流体系和库存管理,百货公司还有翻身的机会。Nordstrom’s newest stores have more mobile devices for accepting payment than fixed ones. With them, salespeople can tell, for example, if a customer is close to an upgrade, which would entitle her to such goodies as free alterations to clothing. She can then be encouraged to claim the benefit by buying a little more. Nordstrom’s grasp of inventory is good enough that shoppers can check online whether an item is available at a specific store.诺德斯特姆最新的商店比起老店有更多的移动设备付方式。依靠这些移动设备,店员可以判断很多东西,比如消费者近期是否需要更新自己的装备,这样她就会享有免费更换装的优惠。然后如果消费者多买点东西就会享有这个特权了。诺德斯特姆的库存控制能让顾客在线上看到某种商品在某个店是否有货。One of Macy’s tricks is to use its shops as distribution centres. This expands choice online and prevents stock going unsold. An unwanted coat in Boston can be shipped to a shivering shopper in Boise. That sounds expensive but “if you can prevent a markdown, that covers a lot of shipping costs and satisfies the customer,” says Karen Hoguet, Macy’s finance chief.梅西百货的一个小招数是将其商店用作配送中心。这样就增加了线上选择,同时也防止了库存积压。波士顿卖不出去的一件大衣可以运到尔西卖出去。梅西百货的财务主管卡伦·霍格特说,这样看起来很昂贵,但是如果你不降价的话,就能填补配送费用并且满足消费者。Mr Singer thinks that such wizardry makes “the next ten years incredibly promising” for some department stores. Perhaps not for J.C. Penney and Saks. Penney has burned through cash at an alarming rate this year; confidence among lenders and suppliers has been further shaken by boardroom infighting, says Liz Dunn, an analyst at Macquarie Securities. Saks would be lucky to thrive in the hands of a property mogul and may be bested in Canada by Nordstrom, which is also marching north, believes Robin Lewis, a retail pundit. Department stores have some hard schooling ahead of them.Singer先生认为这些计策使得很多百货商店未来十年看起来非常有希望。或许跟彭尼百货公司和萨克斯百货没什么关系。彭尼今年亏损严重,麦格理券分析师利兹·杜恩表示董事会的内战进一步减弱了借贷者和供应商的信心。萨克斯百货在房地产大亨的掌控下会比较幸运。零售界权威人士罗宾·路易斯相信,萨克斯公司会被同样向北部加拿大进军的诺德斯特姆击败。百货公司前面一片荆棘。 /201308/253516。

Don: So, Yael, how did the blind date go?唐:那么,雅艾尔,你的相亲怎么样了?Yael: Not so well. He was one of those ;anxious attachment; types.雅艾尔:不太好。他是那种“焦虑依附”类型的人。Don: ;Anxious attachment; types? I dont think I know about those.唐:“焦虑依附”类型?我想我不知道这些。Yael: Sure. Thats one of the three major psychological patterns that have been identified in adult romantic relationships—at least according to research done at Harvard Medical School and the University of California.雅艾尔:当然。根据哈佛大学医学院和加利福尼亚大学所做的研究,那是成人恋爱中的三种主要心理模式之一,。Don: What are the other two types?唐:其他两种类型是什么?Yael: Well, there are ;secure attachment; people. This kind of person tends to show a lot of trust and be willing to compromise. The majority of people fall into this category. ;Avoidant attachment; people are afraid of emotional intimacy and often say a lot of bad things about it. ;Anxious attachment; people are insecure about relationships in general and tend to try and control other people.雅艾尔:嗯,还有一种类型是“安全依附”型。这种人易相信别人,而且愿意妥协。大部分人都属于这种类型。而“逃避依附”型的人则害怕与人感情过于亲密,还经常对此进行抱怨。“焦虑依附”型的人对两人的关系缺乏安全感,倾向于去控制他人。Don: Sounds like ;secure attachment; is the one to look for.唐:听起来“安全依附”型的人是我要找的对象。Yael: Interestingly, in a study of over eight thousand people between the ages of fifteen and fifty-four, more ;anxious attachment; was found in young people than older people. Researchers have two theories about this. It may be that our younger generation is just more anxious than they used to be—maybe because of other things going on in their lives. Substance abuse, divorce and money worries all seem to steer young people into the ;anxious attachment; camp. Or it might be that a lot of people are anxious about love when they are young, and then as they get older they tend to find a stable relationship and take on more of the characteristics of the ;secure attachment; folks.雅艾尔:有趣的是,一项研究调查了八千多名年龄在15至54岁之间的人,研究发现年轻人中属于“焦虑依附”型的人比年老人更多。研究人员对此有两种看法。其一可能是我们年轻一代比以前更容易感到焦虑,或许是因为他们在生活中遇到坎坷。滥用药物、离婚、经济困难使年轻人落入焦虑型的阵营。其二或许是许多年轻人对爱情感到焦虑,随着年龄的增长他们往往会找到一份稳定的感情,因此就呈现出更多“安全依附”型的特点。Don: Thats a hopeful possibility! 唐:那是相当有可能的。原文译文属!201304/236593。

Are you surprised by all the attention现在你有着空前的关注度that is going on right now, surrounding you?有没有让你始料未及Its pretty intense.确实蛮热情的So I... this was what I told you earlier.就像我之前和你说的一样I mean, its kind of the craziest time in my whole life.这仿佛是我此生最疯狂的阶段I think of everything that I did, getting up to this moment,我回想过去发生的一切I feel like it was all just me training for this marathon我就像置身一场马拉松比赛that Im in the middle of right now.我已经跑过一半路程Its the most insanse week of my life,这是我至今最疯狂的一个礼拜and I dont know how Im still standing and kind of awake.我都佩我自己一直坚持 还保持着清醒Its kinda have been amazing, Ive just been everywhere.感觉很神奇 像是历经世间沧桑But making, you know, my album No.1 has been made it all okay可是当我的专辑登顶在榜单我觉得一切痛苦都没什么Yeah, congratulations to that. Thank you.是啊 恭喜你 谢谢I mean No.1 is so good.真的 第一名很棒Umm, well talk about ;Bangerz; in a second.我们一会儿再说你的专辑《Bangerz》But... the one thing that I think Im surprised by,我觉得最让我惊讶的一件事是Umm...you know, Robin Thicke was on stage as well.robin 当时也在台上啊Right, no one talks about that. And its...对的 完全没有人议论他 真是No one cares about the man behind the booty. Right.完全没人在乎PP后面的那个人 是的They only care about the one that was shaking it.他们只关心抖的那个人Well, yeah. the problem is that... double standard.对的 问题就在 双重标准哼I think what people thought was he was surprised by it.我觉得大伙认为他被吓到了And hes sort of... he was in the rehearsal as much as I was.他有点 他每次都是和我一起排练的好么And loving it, people. Yeah.而且可乐在其中 筒子们 是的And loving it.喜闻乐见呢So everyone there knew. there was rehearsal,所以有排的话 大家都知道and everyone there knew what was gonna happen.大家都知道接下来会发生什么Everyone there knew except maybe some other people in the audience,大家都知道可能除了有些观众吧I saw a lot of faces that were kinda like...因为我看到了好多像这样的表情注:EllenShow中英字幕来源于:艾伦秀字幕组 /201312/268109。

Russia and Ukraine俄罗斯和乌克兰A brief intermission课间休息The ceasefire holds uneasily, but tension in eastern Ukraine will still trouble the governments in both Kiev and Moscow停火维持不易,东乌紧张局势仍困扰乌俄双方政府THE war in eastern Ukraine has quietened, for now. Its disparate factions have as much reason to keep fighting as to put away their guns. But a ceasefire signed on September 5th in Minsk is so far mostly holding. Ukraines president, Petro Poroshenko, does not want to fight an unwinnable war against Russia, which is the situation he would have been in had he pressed on with Kievs “anti-terrorist operation” in the east. His Russian counterpart, Vladimir Putin, is happy to see Donetsk and Luhansk turn into breakaway territories that can serve as instruments against Kiev.发生在东乌克兰地区的战争暂时停止,但内部纷争依旧。它内部完全不同的派别有许多原因继续战争,停火也一样。但是9月5日在明斯克签署的停火协议迄今为止仍在生效。在东部强行推行基辅的“反分裂运动”,让乌克兰总理佩特罗·波罗申科并不打算在这样的情况下与俄罗斯展开一场毫无胜算的战争。它的俄罗斯伙伴,弗拉迪米尔·普京则非常高兴看到顿尼茨克与卢甘斯克转向领土分离,并且表示可以提供例如武器一类的持来反抗基辅方面。From the outset the Kremlin has been advocating a permanent ceasefire, not from humanitarian impulses but because it likes the idea of frozen conflict-zones in the east of Ukraine. The political mood in Kiev spurred Mr Poroshenko to press on as long as Ukrainian forces had momentum. But the incursion by Russian troops with heavy weapons in late August showed that Mr Putin would not allow Kiev a military victory. Without direct NATO aid, Mr Poroshenko felt forced to make a deal.从克里姆林宫提倡永久停火开始,并非出于推行人道主义角度,因为这是一个冻结乌克兰东部战争区的计划。基辅的政治环境刺激波罗申科,只要乌克兰人民武装力量露出苗头,他就要去镇压。但是俄罗斯重型武装军队在八月末的入侵表示了普京不会允许基辅方面的军事胜利。没有北约组织直接的指示,波罗申科处理起来力不从心。In the short term this will seem like a victory for Moscow. It has a mechanism to influence Ukrainian politics, much as it has in Moldova and Georgia. For as long as the status of Donetsk and Luhansk are undefined Ukraine cannot possibly join NATO. Mr Putin will have noted that his insertion of regular Russian soldiers met criticism but little action from abroad. Barack Obama declined to call it an invasion, but rather “a continuation of whats been taking place for months now”. The European Union will apply new sanctions next week, but describes them as “reversible”, perhaps to show that it is reluctant to isolate Russia. This week Russias Gazprom cut gas supplies to Poland in an effort to stop resupply back to Ukraine.在短期内来看这似乎是莫斯科当局的胜利,它用一种特别的技巧去影响乌克兰政局,很大程度上如同它对尔多瓦与格鲁尼亚所做的一样。长期以来顿尼茨克与卢甘斯克的情势都不明确,乌克兰不可能加入北约。普京将会注意他插手俄罗斯正规军,遭到了一小部分国家的批评。奥巴马拒绝称其为一场“入侵”,而是“最近几个月正在发生的一切都是一种扩张”。欧盟下周将会启动新的制裁,但把俄罗斯描述成“叛徒”,也许是为了表示他们隔离俄罗斯是无奈之举。这周俄罗斯天然气工业股份公司切断了对波兰的天然气供应,以防止他们二次供应给乌克兰。The war has felt distant to most Russians. State television has manipulated its narrative of the conflict to soothe viewers feelings of inadequacy and imperial nostalgia, while talking up Western plots and machinations. A poll by the Levada Centre found that 77% of those surveyed said America was the main initiator of Kievs operations in the east. The secret burials of Russian paratroopers killed in Ukraine, only to be disavowed by the Russian state, have proved uncomfortable. But compared with the short-lived season of protest three years ago, Russian society seems docile and unthreatening. Another Levada poll found only 8% willing to join protests if they started, against 21% in 2011.这场战争对于绝大多数俄罗斯人来说是十分遥远的。当在发生西方阴谋论的时候,州立电视台通过控制电视台对于争执的描述,去安慰观众们的不完全帝国主义怀旧情结。勒瓦达中心的一项民意调查发现,77%的被调查民众说美国是基辅在东部活动的主要发起者。被俄罗斯政府所否认的,隐瞒了伞兵在乌克兰遭遇不测的消息,已经引起了民众的不满。但是和三年前短命的抗议相比,俄罗斯社会看起来十分温顺不成威胁。另一项勒瓦达民意测试发现如果俄罗斯和乌克兰开战,只有8%的民众会加入抗议活动,与2011年的21%相反。Yet Mr Putins adventurism and revanchism will create new dangers for his regime. A falling rouble and a Kremlin-imposed ban on food imports from America and Europe means that inflation could hit 8% next year. That may spur a level of social discontent which the war itself has not. Existing sanctions, and the prospect of more to come, are dragging down Russias aly faltering economy. Morgan Stanley forecasts a recession in 2015. Rosneft, Russias biggest oil producer, has asked the government for billion to refinance its debts. Global oil prices have dipped below 0 a barrel, whereas the Russian budget is calibrated to balance at a price between 0 and 7 a barrel. Plugging those holes will be costly: Mr Putin must make awkward choices over what interests to offend. His likely response to economic hardship will be to blame Russias enemies abroad for starting a new cold war.但普京的冒险主义和复仇主义将会给俄罗斯争权带来新的危险。贬值的卢布和克里姆林宫对从美国和欧洲进口食品的禁令也意味着通货膨胀可能在明年达到8%。这可能会进一步刺激社会不满的程度,而战争本身却不会。现有的制裁以及未来前景将会拖累俄罗斯早已摇摇欲坠的经济。根史坦利投资公司预测俄罗斯在2015年将会有一场经济衰退。俄罗斯最大的石油生产商——俄罗斯石油公司,向政府索要4亿美元来偿还债务。全球石油价格已经降至100美元一桶,而俄罗斯却通过将每桶油价调整到110美元至117美元之间来平衡财政。堵住这些缺口耗资巨大:普京必须要在得罪什么样的利益之间做一个尴尬的决定。而他对经济困难的回应将会被国外反俄势力指责为要开始新一轮冷战。In Kiev Mr Poroshenko faces his own difficulties—which may materialise well before Mr Putins. He says he will introduce a law next week to create a “special status” for Donetsk and Luhansk. Many questions remain, however: not least, whether Ukraine will manage to regain control over its eastern border with Russia, a decisive factor in assessing if the pro-Russian insurgency can ever be pacified. All sides disagree over how much territory should fall under Mr Poroshenkos self-rule provision. Kiev sees only areas under rebel control—around a third of the two regions—with this status, but the rebels leaders lay claim to the whole of Donetsk and Luhansk. Such issues will weigh on Ukraines parliamentary election next month. Yuriy Yakymenko of the Razumkov Centre, a Kiev-based think-tank, says that, though most voters support peace in principle, the fate of Mr Poroshenko and his political block will come down to the question, “Peace at what price?”在基辅,波罗申科面临他的困难—这些困难是在普京做出关于乌克兰的各项决定之前就存在的。他说他下周将会宣布一项针对顿尼茨克和卢甘斯克的“特别时期”法律。即使有很多问题残留,然而:相当重要的一点是,无论乌克兰是否将要设法重新夺回它与俄罗斯接壤的东部边界的控制权,亲俄派叛乱能否被评定都将是评估中的一项非常重要的因素。且各方都在争执有多少领土应该归属在波罗申科的自治规定下。基辅只看到了叛乱者控制下的地区—大约是顿尼茨克和卢甘斯克地区的三分之一—但是叛乱者首领在这种情况下对外宣称整个顿尼茨克与卢甘斯克都在他们的控制之下。这些问题都将会影响下个月的乌克兰议会选举。基辅主要智库—拉祖姆科夫中心的尤里·雅基门科说,即使绝大多数选民在原则上持和平,但波罗申科与他政治团队的命运将在这个问题上出现下滑,“和平值多少钱?”More immediately, much hinges on whether the ceasefire will keep holding. Mr Poroshenko says that Russia has pulled back 70% of the troops it had inside Ukraine. Yet fighting has flared up and then died down in Mariupol, around Donetsk airport and in several other places. At the same time prisoners are being exchanged. A bigger upsurge in violence could easily reignite the entire conflict.更直接地,在停火协议是否能够继续维持方面有太多的“锁链”。波罗申科说俄罗斯必须撤除他们在乌克兰境内70%的军队。但是在顿尼茨克机场周围以及其他几个地方突然发生的抗争,随后在马里乌波尔消失。同一时间,俘虏们也正在被交换。一场更大的暴力高潮可以很轻易地重燃已经熄灭的争端之火。On the Ukrainian side of the lines most soldiers appear relaxed, but few believe the ceasefire is anything but a respite. Visiting Mariupol on September 8th, Mr Poroshenko said the war was over and now Ukraine had to win the peace. That may be wishful thinking. Rebel leaders still aim to separate from Ukraine. Sergei Baryshnikov, a member of the rebel “parliament”, says a long military and political fight lies ahead. The rebel state of Novorossiya, he says, should eventually comprise all of the Black Sea coast to the borders of Romania and Moldova. And then it will become part of Russia, he adds.在乌克兰边境线上绝大部分士兵表现得轻松,但有极小部分相信停火只是期望。在9月8日访问马里乌波尔,波罗申科说战争已经结束,现在乌克兰用和平取胜。那也许是一厢情愿的想法。叛乱者头目依然把从乌克兰分裂出去作为目的。叛乱者“议会”的议院的谢尔盖·巴雷什尼科夫说长期的军事政治斗争摆在面前,诺沃罗西斯克的叛乱州应该包括黑海沿岸到罗马尼亚与尔多瓦边境的全部地区。他又补充道,然后他们全部会变成俄罗斯的一部分。 /201409/329468。

But there is a problem with the idea that hunting caused the mass extinction. Mammoths were not the only animals to disappear. 但是狩猎带来的一个问题是大量物种的灭绝,猛犸象并不是唯一的消失的动物。Camels survived for millions of years in North America, but disappeared around the same time as the mammoths. Wild horses first evolved here and became dominant grazers. Yet they, too, vanished soon after the Ice Age ended. But there’s little evidence to suggest that humans hunted horses or camels. This seems to go against the hunting argument. 骆驼在北美洲生存了上百万年,但是也和猛犸象大约同一个时间消失了,野马首先在这里代代繁衍,并主宰了这里的草地,然而不久他们也随着冰河时代结束而灭绝了,但是几乎没有据可以表明人们狩猎过马匹和骆驼,这似乎与狩猎规则不符。So what else would have triggered such large-scale extinctions? 那么还有其他的因素可以触发这种大规模的灭绝吗?The other major possibility is climate change. The end of the Ice Age was a turbulent, erratic period. In some areas, rain patterns were shifting, bringing moisture back to dry landscapes and turning grassland into forest.另一种主要的可能性是气候的变化,冰河时代末期是个动荡流离的时期,在一些地区,降雨发生了改变,很多干燥的地区变得湿润,草地变成了森林。Other regions of the continent were plunged into prolonged periods of draught. For grazers such as horses, this led to a massive change in habitat, one they were not flexible enough to overcome. 北美大陆的其他地区仍然陷于长期的干旱,像野马这样的食草动物,它们的栖息地发生了大规模改变,而他们并没有足够的能力来适应这些改变。As the land dried out, many grass eaters disappeared. We may never know for certain what killed off most of the larger animals at the end of the Ice Age. We do know that there was a time of coincidence—people were arriving just as the climate was in a state of change. Both may have played their part. Whichever was responsible, more than 70 species vanished for good, but some large animals did survive and still live here today.随着陆地的干旱,大量食草动物灭绝,冰河时代末期为什么大多数大型动物灭绝,这对于我们来说,可能永远是个不解之谜。但我们可以肯定的是一个时间巧合,人类达到大陆的时候也正是气候改变的时候。两者可能都起了一定的作用。不管到底谁是动物灭亡的罪魁祸首,70多个物种都永远地灭绝了,但是如今仍有一些大型动物存活至今。英文文本来自普特英语,译文属未经许可不得转载。201311/263480。