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酉阳土家族苗族自治县看自然流产哪家医院最好的合川永川区看免疫性不孕哪家医院最好的SINGAPORE — Savir Singh’s taxi rolled into downtown Singapore, taking an overpass that provides a stunning view of the popular hotels and tourist attractions around Marina Bay.新加坡——萨维尔·辛格(Savir Singh)的出租车驶进新加坡市中心,开上了一座立交桥。那里景色壮丽,人们可以将滨海湾周边的热门酒店和旅游景点一览眼底。The only problem was that he could barely see them. Thick haze from forest fires set in neighboring Indonesia to clear land for agriculture has blanketed this island state for weeks, and has sp to Malaysia and southern Thailand.唯一的问题是,他几乎看不到那些美景。数周来,邻国印度尼西亚烧林垦荒造成的浓重烟雾笼罩着这个岛国,并已向马来西亚和泰国南部扩散。While many Singaporeans have sought refuge from the pollution in their homes, offices or shopping malls, Mr. Singh’s only haven is his mobile workplace, and a small bottle of eyedrops lying near his armrest.为了躲避污染,很多新加坡人待在家、办公室或商场里,但对辛格来说,出租车这个移动工作场所,和车座扶手旁边放着的一瓶滴眼液,是他仅有的庇护。“Look at this,” he said, pointing to the partly obscured Singapore Flyer, a 540-foot-tall Ferris wheel. “I wish they had haze in Jakarta. Then the government there would do something about it.”“你看看,”他指着有些模糊的新加坡天观景轮(Singapore Flyer)说。“我希望雅加达也有雾霾。这样那里的政府就会采取点行动了。”新加坡天观景轮是一座高540英尺(约合165米)的天轮。Mr. Singh’s anger is part and parcel of a near-annual ritual: Fires set in Sumatra and the Indonesian side of Borneo blanket parts of Southeast Asia with smoke for weeks. While this has been going on for decades, an especially long dry season this year coupled with the effects of El Ni漀, threaten to make it the worst on record, scientists say.辛格的愤怒是一项几近年度仪式中必不可少的一部分:苏门答腊岛和婆罗洲印尼一侧点燃的大火,让东南亚部分地区数周都处在浓烟的笼罩下。这种情况已经持续了数十年,但科学家称,今年的干季特别漫长,再加上厄尔尼诺现象的影响,可能会造成有记载以来最恶劣的后果。Around the region, flights have been grounded, schools have been closed, and tens of thousands of people have sought medical treatment for respiratory problems, allergies, eczema and other ailments. The first night of an international sports competition, the FINA Swimming World Cup, set for last Saturday and hosted by Singapore, was canceled because of health concerns — as was a marathon in Kuala Lumpur, the Malaysia capital, set to be run the next morning.在该地区各地,航班停飞,学校停课,数万人因呼吸疾病、过敏、湿疹和其他病症而求医。出于健康方面的考虑,由新加坡主办、定于上周六举行的国际性体育赛事国际泳联世界杯短池游泳赛(FINA Swimming World Cup)第一天晚上的活动被取消。此外,定于第二天早上在马来西亚首都吉隆坡举行的一场马拉松比赛也被取消。This year, there have been more vocal complaints from people affected in Singapore, Malaysia and even in Indonesia. There has also been high-profile sniping among government leaders, along with lawsuits, investigations and arrests of accused fire-starters — a familiar replay from 2013, when the region suffered its last major bout of haze.今年,在新加坡、马来西亚乃至印度尼西亚,受到影响的人们表示了更强烈的不满。政府领导人也进行了高调的抨击,此外还出现了诉讼、调查和被控点火的人遭到逮捕的情况。这一幕很眼熟,实际上是2013年,也就是该地区上一次深受浓烟之苦时的情景再现。After the skies cleared in 2013, the issue was once again forgotten — until last month, when the crisis erupted anew.在2013年,碧空重现后,这个问题就被抛之脑后,直到上个月危机再次爆发。The consensus this year is the same as it was then: The slash-and-burn techniques used in Indonesia’s palm oil industry are continuing unabated, and there is no magic bullet for ending the practice — or the haze it causes — in the short term.人们今年所持的一致看法和那时一样:印尼棕榈油行业使用的刀耕火种做法保持不减,且短期没有灵丹妙药能结束这种做法,及其带来的浓烟。Finding the long-term solution requires reducing agriculture in Indonesia’s carbon-rich peatland, curtailing slash-and-burn methods for clearing land and halting the conversions of forests to agricultural uses including palm oil, said Peter Holmgren, director general of the Center for International Forestry Research, a global scientific organization with its headquarters in Bogor, Indonesia.总部位于印尼茂物的全球性科学组织国际林业研究中心(Center for International Forestry Research)总干事彼得·霍姆格伦(Peter Holmgren)表示,找到长期解决办法需要减少印尼在碳含量丰富的泥炭地的农业种植、限制砍烧这种开荒方式,并停止把林地变成农业用地和生产棕榈油的土地。“Fire is the most cost-effective way of clearing, which is why it is done,” he said.“放火烧是最省钱的开荒方式,这就是个中缘由,”他说。Finding a permanent solution is daunting enough, but more than a month into the crisis, it seems that the region cannot curb the haze in the short term. Indonesia says that its military personnel are battling more than 1,000 forest-fire clusters, while Greenpeace says that figure does not include fires that started aboveground on peatland and are now burning out of control.找到永久性的解决办法是很难,但危机已出现一月有余,而该地区似乎无法在短期内控制烟雾。印尼称,该国军事人员正在1000多个林火现场奋战,但绿色和平(Greenpeace)表示,这个数字未包括泥炭地上燃烧起来的,以及眼下火势失控的大火。Up until Wednesday, Indonesia had rebuffed offers by neighbors to help it battle the blazes and had even admonished Singaporean and Malaysian leaders for daring to complain about the haze.在周三之前,印度尼西亚都还在断然回绝邻国协助灭火的提议,甚至还斥责新加坡和马来西亚领导人竟敢抱怨浓烟。On Thursday, President Joko Widodo of Indonesia said his government had requested “help and assistance” the day before from Singapore and Malaysia, as well as Russia and Japan, in getting the peatland fires under control, according to a statement released by his cabinet secretariat.不过,印尼总统佐科·威多多(Joko Widodo)的内阁秘书处已经发表声明,说总统周四表示,他领导的政府已于前一天请求新加坡和马来西亚,以及俄罗斯和日本,在控制泥炭地上的火势上提供“帮助和援”。Mr. Joko said his government had specifically requested firefighting aircraft with a water-carrying capacity of 12 to 15 tons, saying that Indonesian planes currently fighting the blazes have carrying capacities of between two and three tons.佐科表示,以他为首的政府明确请求获得载水量在12到15吨之间的消防飞机的援,称眼下参与灭火的印尼飞机的承载能力只有两到三吨。The aid request seemed to reflect a new seriousness from the Indonesian government.求援似乎反映出印尼政府对此事的重新重视。Late last month, the country’s outspoken vice president, Jusuf Kalla, repeated a statement he made earlier in the year in which he said that neighboring countries “should be grateful” to Indonesia for the clean air they have the other 11 months of the year.上月末,该国说话并不婉转的副总统优素福·卡拉(Jusuf Kalla)重复了他今年早些时候的言论,声称对一年中其他11个月的好天气,邻国“应该感谢”印度尼西亚。During the 2013 haze crisis, Agung Laksono, a senior Indonesian cabinet minister at the time, compared Singaporean leaders to a child having a temper tantrum after they complained about the impact that thick haze was having on tourism, which is a major contributor to Singapore’s economy.2013年烟雾危机期间,在新加坡领导人抱怨浓烟影响了新加坡重要的经济柱旅游业后,当时担任印尼内阁高级部长的阿贡·拉克索诺(Agung Laksono)把他们比作乱发脾气的小孩。“It’s like a blame game,” said Bustar Maitar, global leader of the Indonesia Forest Campaign at Greenpeace.“像是在互相推卸责任,”绿色和平印度尼西亚森林项目(Indonesia Forest Campaign)全球负责人布斯塔尔·迈塔尔(Bustar Maitar)说。“Of course all the fires are coming from Indonesia, but Singapore is enjoying the ‘deforestation economy’ of Indonesia as a financial center,” he said, “and there are many Malaysian palm oil companies operating in Indonesia, and Singaporean companies are there as well.”“当然,所有的大火都来自印尼,但作为金融中心的新加坡也享受着印尼的‘毁林经济’带来的好处,”他说。“而且马来西亚的很多棕榈油公司在印尼有业务,新加坡的公司也是。”Ultimately, Mr. Maitar said, the cycle will continue until rain forest deforestation is severely curtailed in Indonesia, where it remains rampant, and the Indonesian government bans the draining and clearing of peatland for agricultural use. Currently, Indonesian government policy allows peatland of less than about nine feet deep to be cleared.迈塔尔表示,最终这个循环会继续下去,直到印尼依然很普遍的雨林砍伐现象受到严厉限制,并且印尼政府禁止把泥炭地的水排干开荒以用于农业。目前,印尼政府的政策允许开垦不足九英尺深的泥炭地。“That’s the only long-term way to stop haze,” he said.“这是唯一一个阻止烟雾的长久之计,”他说。Then there is the issue of who is responsible for the fires. As in 2013, this time around, there has been ample finger-pointing: Multinational palm oil companies, pulp and paper companies, the smaller plantations that sell to them, traditional farmers and even day laborers have all been blamed for starting the fires — and they in turn have blamed one another.然后就是谁该为大火负责的问题。和2013年一样,这一次也出现了大量的相互指责:跨国棕榈油公司、纸浆和纸业公司、为它们供货的小种植园、传统务农者乃至零工都被指是大火的始作俑者,而它们之间又相互指责。On Wednesday, NTUC FairPrice, Singapore’s largest supermarket chain, released a statement saying it had pulled from its shelves toilet paper and other products sourced from Indonesia’s Asia Pulp amp; Paper, one of the world’s largest pulp and paper companies.周三,新加坡最大的连锁超市职总平价超市(NTUC FairPrice)发布了一则声明,声称已将从印尼的亚洲浆纸业有限公司(Asia Pulp amp; Paper,又称金光纸业,简称APP)采购的厕纸等产品下架。后者是全世界最大的浆纸业公司之一。The supermarket said it had made the move “following notification from the Singapore Environment Council that it has instituted a temporary restriction on the use of the ‘Singapore Green Label’ certification for A.P.P. products,” the statement said.超市在声明中称,做出此举是“遵循新加坡环境理事会(Singapore Environment Council)的通知行事。其中表示,该机构开始实行一项临时规定,禁止对APP的产品进行‘新加坡绿色标志’认”。On Monday, the council had released a statement saying that it took action after an Asia Pulp amp; Paper subsidiary was “one of five companies named by the National Environment Agency (NEA) suspected to be contributing to the haze pollution.”周一,理事会曾发表声明称,APP的一家子公司“被新加坡国家环境局(National Environment Agency,简称NEA)列为涉嫌制造烟雾污染的五家公司之一”后,促使它采取了行动。Aida Greenbury, managing director of sustainability for Asia Pulp amp; Paper, said in a statement on Thursday that the company was “firmly against” the intentional setting of forest fires and would disengage from any supplier proven guilty of illegally starting one.APP负责可持续发展的执行董事艾达·格林伯里(Aida Greenbury)在周四发表的声明中称,公司“坚决反对”故意放火烧林,并将与一切明犯有非法纵火罪行的供应商解除关系。“We understand why FairPrice feels the need to take urgent action and we feel the same urgency also in addressing this haze issue, but accuracy is just as important,” she said. “The fire situation is complex, and both the Singapore and Indonesia governments, and authorities are still investigating the situation.”“我们理解职总平价超市为什么觉得有必要采取紧急行动,我们也感觉到了应对这一烟雾问题的紧迫性,但准确也同样重要,”她说。“火情复杂,新加坡和印尼政府及权威机构仍在调查情况。”Ang Peng Hwa, a university professor and founder of an antihaze activist group in Singapore, is promoting an American model for dealing with environmental negligence: suing those responsible, using a law passed by the Singaporean Parliament in 2014.在新加坡创立了一个反烟雾活动团体的大学教授汪炳华(Ang Peng Hwa)正在倡导美国处理环境疏忽的模式:用新加坡议会2014年通过的一项法律起诉责任人。Mr. Ang noted that under the Transboundary Haze Pollution Act, Singapore-listed companies involved in illegal land clearance in Indonesia can be sued in civil court for causing financial losses to businesses and individuals.汪炳华指出,按照《跨境阴霾污染法令》(Transboundary Haze Pollution Act)的规定,与印尼非法垦荒活动有牵连的新加坡上市公司,可以因为给企业和个人造成经济损失而被告上民事法庭。People have been coming forward to say that they have lost business because of the haze, Mr. Ang said. The prospective plaintiffs include a sporting events company and a sports training academy, though no lawsuits have yet been filed under the new law.汪炳华称,人们纷纷站出来说,因为烟雾,生意受到了影响。可能的原告包括一家体育赛事公司和一家体育训练学校,不过尚未有人依据这部新通过的法律提起诉讼。Possible injured parties include upscale hotels that suffer canceled bookings during haze periods and the organizers of the annual F1 Singapore Grand Prix. The F1 race was held on Sept. 20 despite concerns about air quality.可能的受害方包括高档酒店和每年一届的F1新加坡大奖赛的组织方。烟雾出现期间,酒店遭遇了预定取消的现象。9月20日,尽管有人担心空气质量,但F1大奖赛仍照旧举行。The problem, Mr. Ang said, is that it is very difficult to determine liability because “there are layers that protect ultimate owners of companies.”汪炳华称,问题是很难界定责任,因为“有一层又一层的外壳保护公司的最终所有人”。Yet, he said, the fact that some people have aly come forward asking about financial compensation for haze through Singapore’s courts leads to an inescapable conclusion that should concern governments around the region. “People are getting more angry, more worked up.”但他表示,一些人已经站出来,询问通过新加坡的法院获得经济赔偿的可能,而这一现象会引出一个必然的结论,当令该地区的各国政府警醒。“民众正变得愈发愤怒和激动。”Whether that anger will lead to more lasting change is yet to be seen. Mr. Ang is not optimistic. “They burn for a period, everyone gets upset, and then people forget,” he said of the fires.这种愤怒是否会带来更持久的变化还有待观察。不过汪炳华对结果并不乐观。“大火烧一段时间,于是群情激奋,过后又都忘了,”他说。 /201510/402722江北沙坪坝区治疗输卵管堵塞 China#39;s push to become a world leader in high-tech industries has one neighbor particularly worried about new competition on the block: South Korea.中国正在努力寻求成为高科技产业的世界领导者,这样的野心引起了邻国韩国的忧虑。韩国担心自己会迎来新的竞争对手。In China#39;s new economic blueprint unveiled during the Two Sessions, known as the 13th Five-Year Plan, Chinese officials identified semiconductors as a potential tech sector to dominate. That has raised an alarm in South Korea#39;s semiconductor industry, the world#39;s largest after the U.S. with an 18 percent global market share.在“两会”上公布的中国新经济蓝图(即十三五规划)中,中国官员表示,确定将半导体这个具有巨大潜力的技术作为新的发展方向。这一决定引起了韩国半导体业的恐慌。韩国是仅次于美国的世界第二大半导体生产商,占全球市场份额的18%。At present, China commands just 3 percent of the global semiconductor market share but Beijing is hoping to increase that figure as part of its plan for new services industries, dubbed ;New China,; to bolster gross domestic product (GDP). Aside from semiconductors, ;New China; sectors also include chip materials, robotics, aviation equipment and satellites.目前,虽然中国在全球半导体市场上只占有3%的份额,但中国希望增加这一比例,并将这作为其全新务产业(即“新常态”计划)的一部分,从而提高GDP水平。此外,除了半导体产业,该计划还涉及芯片材料、机器人、航空设备和卫星等多个领域。Officials intend to achieve that goal by increasing the share of spending on research and development (Ramp;D) to 2.5 percent of GDP for the 2016-2020 period, from 2.1 percent in 2011-2015, according to the new Five-Year Plan.中国官员表示,根据新的五年计划,在2016年-2020年期间,相关领域的研发资金将由2011年-2015年占GDP的2.1%增加至2.5%。;China#39;s announcement has of course not remained unnoticed, especially by large players in high-tech industries,; economists at investment bank Natixis remarked in a report.著名投行法国外贸的经济专家在一份报告中指出,“国际社会其实已经注意到了中国在这方面的发展,特别是几家高科技领域的巨头们。”;Its aggressive push is worrying for [South] Korea#39;s industrial giants. If we consider that Korea#39;s major global comparative advantage is high-tech electronics, such threat becomes a systemic threat for the country#39;s economic future.;“中国的积极行动让韩国的工业巨头们忧心不已。鉴于韩国在全球的主要竞争优势在于其高科技电子产品,中国的这一举动对韩国的未来经济造成了系统性威胁。”South Korea#39;s semiconductor industry is certainly paying attention. A day after the new Five-Year Plan was announced, Korea#39;s Semiconductor Industry Association (KSIA) urged President Park Geun-Hye#39;s government to counter the new market threat.韩国半导体产业对此密切关注。就在中国“十三五规划”公布的第二天,韩国半导体产业协会便要求总统朴槿惠制定措施应对新的市场威胁。;I thought that China had attempted to invest only in the semiconductor industry but it seems that China has gone a step further,; KSIA Chairman Park Sung-wook was ed as saying, referring to Beijing#39;s aspirations to become a major semiconductor maker.对于中国有志成为半导体制造大国的雄心,韩国半导体产业协会主席朴星昱近日表示:“我原以为中国只是试图投资半导体产业,但没想到中国比这还更近了一步。”Leading Korean producers such as Samsung and SK Hynix should be worried, Natixis argues, citing three key factors.法国外贸认为,这样的现状的确应该引起三星和海力士等韩国主要制造商的重视,并给出了三个重要原因。Heavy consumption强大的消费力China is aly the largest consumer of semiconductors globally, which should support its domestic producers, Natixis explained.法国外贸解释称,中国已成为世界最大的半导体消费国,这会为其国内的半导体生产商提供持。;This is particularly relevant for Korean firms since they serve the Chinese market in quite a massive way.;“这与韩国公司紧密相关,因为中国原本是他们的一个巨大市场。”After Intel, Samsung and SK Hynix are the biggest semiconductor suppliers in the Chinese market.在中国市场,三星与海力士是仅次于英特尔的第二大和第三大半导体供应商。China is South Korea#39;s largest trading partner and the exchange of goods between the two nations is set to ramp up in the wake of last year#39;s Korea-China Free Trade Agreement.中国是韩国最大的贸易伙伴。去年,两国签订了《中韩自由贸易协定》,这将会促进两国之间的贸易量进一步增长。A bottom-down model以市场为主导Beijing has also unveiled new steps that demonstrate its commitment to becoming a semiconductor superpower.中国还公布了一些新的措施,显示了它想成为半导体产业超级大国的决心。China has strived to become a global player for a decade now but it hasn#39;t achieved success thus far due to its insistence on a state-led centralized approach to industrial development, Natixis said. Now, officials are embracing a more market-oriented method that encourages competition and allows companies to tap public funds to buy expertise abroad.法国外贸称,中国为成为全球半导体产业领导者努力了十年,但并未取得成功。原因在于此前中国一直采取国家主导的方式控制产业发展,如今中国更多地采用市场主导的方式 ,鼓励竞争,允许企业利用公共资本购买国外技术。For example, China created the National Integrated Circuit Industry Equity Investment Fund in 2014, endowing it with .4 billion. Moreover, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology intends to spend 3 billion over the next decade to support the semiconductor sector - the bulk of which will be spent on buying expertise from foreign competitors, according to Natixis.法国外贸在报告中举例称,2014年,中国设立了国家集成电路产业股权投资基金,注资184亿美元。此外,工业和信息化部计划在未来十年内投入1530亿美元持半导体领域,其中大部分资金将用于从国外竞争对手手中购买专业技术。;This obviously increases China#39;s competitive threat [to Korea] in as far as they are able to execute appropriate merger amp; acquisition (Mamp;A) deals in this sector.;“中国在这个领域进行的合并与收购交易,很显然加大了对韩国的竞争威胁。”Chinese investors have aly started snapping up semiconductor assets. Last year, a consortium of China private equity firms snapped up U.S. firm Omnivisions Technologies for .9 billion in cash while a separate group of Chinese investors bought Nasdaq-listed Integrated Silicon Solution for 0 million.中国投资者们已经开始抢购半导体资产。去年,一家中国民营企业以19亿美元现金收购了美国豪威科技公司。另一拨中国投资者以6.4亿美元的价格收购了纳斯达克上市公司——芯成半导体有限公司。Shift to mobile转向移动领域Lastly, Korean semiconductor manufacturers tend to focus more on computers rather than mobile handsets, demand for which is growing at a faster clip. Because China dominates mobile demand, it is ideally placed to profit from semiconductor growth.此前,韩国半导体制造商更注重电脑领域而非移动设备,而移动设备领域正在以更快的速度发展。中国对移动设备的半导体需求是最大的,这也将为半导体产业的发展带来了可观的利润。Samsung Electronics and SK Hynix are the world leaders in DRAM chips, key for personal computers, so as demand for those chips decline, semiconductor profits at both firms have slowed in recent quarters, Natixis said.法国外贸还说,三星电子和海力士是世界存储芯片制造商的领导者。该芯片是个人电脑的核心组件。因此,随着对这些芯片需求的减少,这两家半导体公司近几个季度的利润增长也随之放缓。;Samsung and other Korean firms will need to push to achieve competitiveness in a higher tech level due to the changing nature of demand for chips as well as China#39;s push for technology gains.;“由于芯片需求的改变以及中国的科技野心,三星与其他韩国企业需要提高科技水平,以应对竞争。” /201603/431206万州妇幼保健院不孕不育专家

重庆三峡中心医院做腹腔镜手术多少钱Volvo is bringing Made in China to American drivers. The Swedish carmaker plans to export a roomy, long wheelbase version of its S60 saloon to the US from Chengdu in China, where it operates a factory with its owner and Chinese joint-venture partner Geely.沃尔沃(Volvo)正在将“中国制造”的汽车送到美国司机的手中。这家瑞典汽车制造商计划从中国成都向美国出口一款内部较宽敞、轴距较长版本的S60轿车。目前,沃尔沃在成都与它的母公司兼中国合资伙伴吉利(Geely)运营着一家汽车制造厂。The vehicle, called the S60L, marks a possible turning point for the motor industry, as a mainstream carmaker pilots the long-awaited introduction of Chinese vehicles in the US, the world’s second-biggest auto market — albeit with a European badge.这款名为S60L的汽车可能标志着汽车业的转折点,它标志着一家主流汽车制造商开始试行一个备受期待的计划:向美国引进中国制造的汽车——尽管这款汽车仍顶着欧洲的徽标。目前,美国是全球第二大汽车市场。“It’s something that’s unique and we’re very proud to be the first,” says Hakan Samuelsson, Volvo’s chief executive, speaking at the North American International Auto Show in Detroit.在底特律北美国际汽车展(North American International Auto Show)上发言时,沃尔沃首席执行官哈坎#8226;萨缪尔森(Hakan Samuelsson)表示:“这是十分独特的经历。让我们非常自豪的是:我们是第一个这样做的人。”China’s car manufacturers have so far failed to make a dent in the global auto market, despite the fact that it is now more than three decades since Volkswagen set up one of the country’s first big joint ventures. For example, BYD, the electric carmaker backed by billionaire investor Warren Buffett, had planned to introduce China-made vehicles in the US in 2010, but the plans fizzled out.自大众(Volkswagen)在中国创办首个大型合资企业以来,时间已过去了逾30年。然而到目前为止,中国汽车制造商仍未对全球汽车市场产生很大影响。比如,曾获亿万富翁沃伦#8226;巴菲特(Warren Buffett)投资的电动汽车制造商比亚迪(BYD),曾计划在2010年向美国引进中国制造的汽车,结果却不了了之。Volvo began production of the S60L at the Chengdu plant in 2013, and has capacity to make 120,000 vehicles each year.沃尔沃于2013年开始在成都的工厂生产S60L,其产能为每年12万辆。The question is whether US consumers are y for vehicles made in China, which lacks a strong reputation in carmaking despite it being the world’s biggest producer of manufactured goods and boasting industrial prowess in areas from consumer technology to textiles.现在的问题在于,美国消费者是否为接受中国制造汽车做好了准备。毕竟,虽然中国是全球最大的制造品生产国,在包括消费高科技产品和纺织品在内的领域,中国也以强大的工业实力而自豪,但是中国在汽车制造领域的名声并不是十分响亮。“This is something the industry is going to watch very closely,” says Stephanie Brinley, analyst at IHS Automotive. “We want to understand how consumers feel and are going to react, but right now we just don’t know.”思迈汽车信息咨询公司(IHS Automotive)分析师斯蒂芬妮#8226;布林利(Stephanie Brinley)表示:“汽车业对此将极为关注。我们很想了解消费者的感受,并了解他们将会如何回应,然而目前我们还对此一无所知。”Volvo says it is simply making best use of the global manufacturing footprint offered by Geely. It stresses the factory equipment, training and employee qualifications are the same whether in Gothenburg or Chengdu.沃尔沃表示,该公司所做的只是充分利用了吉利提供的全球生产基地。该公司强调,不论是在哥德堡还是在成都,工厂设备、人员培训以及员工素质都是完全一样的。“We are not talking about exporting a Chinese car,” says Mr Samuelsson. “It’s a Volvo. Nobody has said the S60 [made in Genk] is a Belgian car. We know the quality is absolutely the same, if not better.”萨缪尔森表示:“我们在讨论的并不是出口中国轿车。我们出口的是沃尔沃。没人会说在根克(Genk)市生产的S60是比利时轿车。我们知道的是,这些产品的品质就算不能说是更好,也得说是完全一样。”“In the end you have to be a bit humble and accept that the customers are the ones deciding.”“归根结底,大家还是应该谦卑一点,让顾客来做决定。”Honda sells its Chinese-made Fit car in Canada. But for some US consumers, the Volvo S60L will trigger some uncomfortable associations, according to analysts.本田(Honda)也在加拿大销售中国制造的飞度(Fit)轿车。不过,按照分析师的说法,沃尔沃S60L会让美国消费者产生不好的联想。“Many Chinese cars are not y for American primetime, as we’ve seen some very subpar Chinese vehicles displayed at American auto shows,” says Michelle Krebs, analyst for Autotrader.com. But she adds that very few US consumers know — or care — where their cars are made.Autotrader.com网站分析师米歇尔#8226;克雷布斯(Michelle Krebs)表示:“许多中国汽车都没有做好走入美国‘黄金档’的准备,尽管我们曾在美国车展上看到过一些十分低档的中国汽车。”不过,她补充说,美国消费者极少有人了解或关心汽车的产地。Volvo’s S60L, which has sold to about 25,000 customers in China since launch, forms part of the company’s wider plan to resurrect its fortunes in the US.自推出以来,沃尔沃S60L轿车已在中国出售了2.5万辆,该款车型是沃尔沃在美国打翻身仗的更大计划的一部分。Volvo this month reported record sales of 466,000 vehicles for 2014, thanks to strong growth in the Chinese market, the world’s largest by sales.由于在中国市场的强劲增长,沃尔沃这个月录得2014年销售46.6万辆的创纪录销量。目前,中国是全球汽车销量最大的市场。But the US, once Volvo’s biggest market, has been a problem and is now just 12 per cent of sales. The company sold 56,000 vehicles in the US last year, down 8 per cent on 2013.不过,曾一度是其最大市场的美国对沃尔沃来说却是个问题。如今,在沃尔沃销量中美国市场所占的比例只有12%。去年,该公司在美国的销量是5.6万辆,比2013年下降8%。“Our programme narrowed, so we concentrated on too few cars,” says Mr Samuelsson. “We have to reverse that.”萨缪尔森表示:“我们收窄了产品计划,专注生产的非常少的几类轿车。我们必须改变这种状况。”Volvo has put in place a new management team in the US and ramped up its marketing activities in the country.目前,沃尔沃已经在美国配置了新的管理团队,并加大了在美国的营销力度。Initial volume expectations by Volvo for the S60L in the US are low — about 1,500 a year. More important will be the XC90, a sport utility vehicle, and a new S60 saloon, being launched in Detroit.沃尔沃对S60L在美销量的初步预期很低,只有大约每年1500辆。对沃尔沃来说,更重要的车型将会是XC90这款运动型多功能车(SUV),以及在底特律推出的新款S60轿车。Mr Samuelsson wants to get the company selling 100,000 vehicles in North America by broadening its product range, part of a plan to reach 800,000 in global sales over the medium term. “We need to grow here faster and this [S60L] is a piece in that puzzle,” he says.萨缪尔森希望,通过增加产品种类,能让沃尔沃在北美的销量达到10万辆,从而实现在中期内达到全球销售80万辆的计划。他说:“我们需要在北美市场的快速增长,这款(S60L)车型就是这一完整拼图中的一块。”But the importance of the S60L stretches beyond its volumes.不过,S60L的重要性不止是在销量方面。Mr Samuelsson says the car could be followed by other Volvo models made in China for export. Analysts say rival manufacturers may replicate Volvo’s move, including Buick, the General Motors brand that builds its Envision crossover SUV in China’s Shandong province for the Chinese market.萨缪尔森表示,在S60L之后,沃尔沃还会出口其他在华生产的车型。分析人士表示,包括别克(Buick)在内的沃尔沃对手可能会采取与沃尔沃同样的举措。别克是通用汽车(General Motors)旗下品牌,它在中国的山东省针对中国市场生产昂科威(Envision)跨界车。 /201501/354150巫溪黔江区武隆县哪家医院做腹腔镜手术 T. Ryan Gregory’s lab at the University of Guelph in Ontario is a sort of genomic menagerie, stocked with creatures, living and dead, waiting to have their DNA laid bare. Scorpions lurk in their terrariums. Tarantulas doze under bowls. Flash-frozen spiders and crustaceans — collected by Gregory, an evolutionary biologist, and his students on expeditions to the Arctic — lie piled in beige metal tanks of liquid nitrogen. A bank of standing freezers holds samples of mollusks, moths and beetles. The cabinets are crammed with slides splashed with the fuchsia-stained genomes of fruit bats, Siamese fighting fish and ostriches.来到安大略省圭尔夫大学(University of Guelph),走进进化生物学家T·瑞安·格雷戈里(T. Ryan Gregory)的实验室,你会感觉好像走进了一个基因组学的大观园,各种各样活着或者已经死去的生物正等待着自身的DNA被解读:蝎子潜伏在饲养箱里;狼蛛在小盆下面打瞌睡;格雷戈里和他的学生在北极探险时采集的蜘蛛和甲壳类动物的速冻标本存放在米色金属液氮罐里;软体动物、飞蛾和甲虫标本保存在一排立式冷冻柜中;而橱柜里则塞满了果蝠、暹罗斗鱼和鸵鸟基因组的品红染色涂片标本。Gregory’s investigations into all these genomes has taught him a big lesson about life: At its most fundamental level, it’s a mess. His favorite way to demonstrate this is through what he calls the “onion test,” which involves comparing the size of an onion’s genome to that of a human. To run the test, Gregory’s graduate student Nick Jeffery brought a young onion plant to the lab from the university greenhouse. He handed me a single-edged safety razor, and then the two of us chopped up onion stems in petri dishes. An emerald ooze, weirdly luminous, filled my dish. I was so distracted by the color that I slashed my ring finger with the razor blade, but that saved me the trouble of poking myself with a syringe — I was to supply the human genome. Jeffery raised a vial, and I wiped my bleeding finger across its rim. We poured the onion juice into the vial as well and watched as the green and red combined to produce a fluid with both the tint and viscosity of maple syrup.在对所有这些基因组进行研究的过程中,格雷戈里学到了重要的一课:从最根本的层面上来说,生命真是一团乱麻。他很喜欢用“洋葱测试”来对此加以明。这个测试的目的是比较洋葱与人类的基因组孰大孰小。为此,格雷戈里的研究生尼克·杰弗里(Nick Jeffery)从大学的温室里采了一棵小洋葱拿到实验室,然后递给我一把单刃安全剃须刀,和我一起在培养皿中把洋葱茎切碎。不一会儿,我的培养皿里就堆起了一坨带着古怪光泽的色软泥。这奇异的颜色让我走了神,一不小心切到了自己的无名指,不过这样也好,省得我用注射器再戳自个儿一次了——这次测试中,我是提供人类基因组的志愿者。杰弗里拿出了一个小瓶,让我把手指上的血抹在瓶沿上,随后我们把洋葱汁也倒入瓶中,看着绿色和红色的液体混合起来,产生一种从色调和粘度上都跟枫糖浆十分相似的东西。After adding a fluorescent dye that attaches to DNA, Jeffrey loaded the vial into a boxy device called a flow cytometer, which sprayed the onion juice and blood through a laser beam. Each time a cell was hit, its DNA gave off a bluish glow; bigger genomes glowed more brightly. On a monitor, we watched the data accumulate on a graph. The cells produced two distinct glows, one dim, one bright, which registered on the graph as a pair of peaks.杰弗里向瓶中加入了能与DNA相结合的荧光染料,然后将小瓶放进一种叫做流式细胞仪的四四方方的装置中。这种仪器可以将洋葱汁和血液喷洒在激光束的光路上,每当一个细胞被击中,其DNA就会发出蓝色辉光,细胞的基因组越大,发出的光也就越亮。在我们的注视下,显示器上图表的数据逐渐积累,它表明两种细胞产生了两种截然不同的光,一种暗淡,一种明亮,相应地在图表上显示为两个峰。One peak represented my genome, or the entirety of my DNA. Genomes are like biological books, written in genetic letters known as bases; the human genome contains about 3.2 billion bases. Print them out as letters on a page, and they would fill a book a thousand times longer than “War and Peace.” Gregory leaned toward the screen. At 39, with a chestnut-colored goatee and an intense gaze, he somewhat resembles a pre-Heisenberg Walter White. He pointed out the onion’s peak. It showed that the onion’s genome was five times bigger than mine.其中一个峰代表我的基因组,也就是我的全套DNA。基因组就好比一本用名为碱基的遗传学字母写成的生物学大书。人类的基因组约包含32亿个碱基,如果把这些字母打印在纸上,足够组成一本比《战争与和平》(War and Peace)还长一千倍的巨作。格雷戈里朝着屏幕俯下身来,今年39岁的他留着栗色的山羊胡子,目光热切,有点像剧集《绝命毒师》中成为“海森堡(Heisenberg)”之前的主角瓦特·怀特(Walter White)。他用手指着代表洋葱的峰。它表明,洋葱的基因组是我的五倍大。“The onion wins,” Gregory said. The onion always does.格雷戈里宣布:“洋葱胜出。”一如既往。But why? Why does an onion carry around so much more genetic material than a human? Or why, for that matter, do the broad-footed salamander (65.5 billion bases), the African lungfish (132 billion) and the Paris japonica flower (149 billion)? These organisms don’t appear to be more complex than we are, so Gregory rejects the idea that they’re accomplishing more with all their extra DNA. Instead, he champions an idea first developed in the 1970s but still startling today: that the size of an animal’s or plant’s genome has essentially no relationship to its complexity, because a vast majority of its DNA is — to put it bluntly — junk.只是,为什么会这样呢?为什么洋葱会携带比人还多那么多的遗传物质?同样的问题也适用于宽足蝾螈(655亿对碱基),非洲肺鱼(1320亿)和衣笠草(又名重楼百合,1490亿)。这些生物并不比我们人类复杂,所以格雷戈里不认为这些多出来的DNA的作用是完善它们的机能。相反,他更赞同一个在20世纪70年代首次提出,但至今听来仍然有些惊世骇俗的学说:动植物基因组的大小与其复杂程度基本无关,因为——说穿了——绝大部分的DNA都是“垃圾”。The human genome contains around 20,000 genes, that is, the stretches of DNA that encode proteins. But these genes account for only about 1.2 percent of the total genome. The other 98.8 percent is known as noncoding DNA. Gregory believes that while some noncoding DNA is essential, most probably does nothing for us at all, and until recently, most biologists agreed with him. Surveying the genome with the best tools at their disposal, they believed that only a small portion of noncoding DNA showed any evidence of having any function.人类基因组约含2万个基因,或者说,编码蛋白质的DNA片段。但这些基因仅占整个基因组的1.2%左右。其余的98.8%称为非编码DNA。格雷戈里认为,虽然某些非编码DNA是必不可少的,但大部分很可能没有任何用处。直到最近,大多数生物学家都同意他的意见。他们利用手头最好的工具对基因组进行了调查,发现现有据表明,只有一小部分非编码DNA具有生物学功能。But in the past few years, the tide has shifted within the field. Recent studies have revealed a wealth of new pieces of noncoding DNA that do seem to be as important to our survival as our more familiar genes. Many of them may encode molecules that help guide our development from a fertilized egg to a healthy adult, for example. If these pieces of noncoding DNA become damaged, we may suffer devastating consequences like brain damage or cancer, depending on what pieces are affected. Large-scale surveys of the genome have led a number of researchers to expect that the human genome will turn out to be even more full of activity than previously thought.然而,在过去的几年中,该领域的风向开始变化。近期的研究揭示,新发现的众多非编码DNA对我们生存的重要程度不亚于我们较为熟悉的那些基因。例如,其中有许多DNA可编码引导我们从受精卵发育为健康成年人的特殊分子。如果这些非编码DNA片段受损,因其具体功能的不同,我们将可能遭受脑损伤或癌症之类的灾难性后果。大规模的基因组研究给大批研究人员带来了这样的期望:或许,人类基因组比以前认为的更加活跃。In January, Francis Collins, the director of the National Institutes of Health, made a comment that revealed just how far the consensus has moved. At a health care conference in San Francisco, an audience member asked him about junk DNA. “We don’t use that term anymore,” Collins replied. “It was pretty much a case of hubris to imagine that we could dispense with any part of the genome — as if we knew enough to say it wasn’t functional.” Most of the DNA that scientists once thought was just taking up space in the genome, Collins said, “turns out to be doing stuff.”今年1月,美国国立卫生研究院(National Institutes of Health, N.I.H)主任弗朗西斯·柯林斯(Francis Collins)就目前共识意见的转变发表了。在旧金山举行的一次卫生会议上,一位听众就“垃圾DNA”向他提问。“我们已经不再使用这个术语了,”柯林斯回答道。“以为我们可以摈弃基因组的某些部分,这实在是一种非常狂妄自大的想法——就仿佛我们敢打包票它们没有任何功能似的。”科林斯指出,在曾经被科学家们认为只是白占地方的基因组DNA中,大部分“其实都各有用途”。For Gregory and a group of like-minded biologists, this idea is not just preposterous but also perilous, something that could yield bad science. The turn against the notion of junk DNA, they argue, is based on overinterpretations of wispy evidence and a willful ignorance of years of solid research on the genome. They’ve challenged their opponents face to face at scientific meetings. They’ve written detailed critiques in biology journals. They’ve commented on social media. When the N.I.H.’s official Twitter account relayed Collins’s claim about not using the term “junk DNA” anymore, Michael Eisen, a professor at the University of California, Berkeley, tweeted back with a profanity.这种想法在格雷戈里和一群与他志同道合的生物学家看来不仅荒谬而且危险,很可能会带来“伪科学”。他们认为,反对“垃圾DNA”的概念,不过是基于对少数据的过度解读,以及对多年来扎实的基因组研究的刻意忽视。于是,他们在学术会议上面对面地向对手发起了挑战,还在生物学期刊上撰写了详细的文章,并在社交媒体上发声。当N.I.H.的官方Twitter帐号转发柯林斯有关不再使用“垃圾DNA”这一术语的声明时,加州大学伯克利分校(University of California, Berkeley)的教授迈克尔·艾森(Michael Eisen)在Twitter上骂了回去。The junk DNA wars are being waged at the frontiers of biology, but they’re really just the latest skirmish in an intellectual struggle that has played out over the past 200 years. Before Charles Darwin articulated his theory of evolution, most naturalists saw phenomena in nature, from an orchid’s petal to the hook of a vulture’s beak, as things literally designed by God. After Darwin, they began to see them as designs produced, instead, by natural selection. But some of our greatest biologists pushed back against the idea that everything we discover in an organism had to be an exquisite adaptation. To these biologists, a fully efficient genome would be inconsistent with the arbitrariness of our genesis, with the fact that every species emerged through pure happenstance, over eons of false starts. Where some look at all those billions of bases and see a finely tuned machine, others, like Gregory, see a disorganized, glorious mess.如今,“垃圾DNA”之战正在生物学的前沿上打响,但它们事实上不过是近200年来知识界纷争中最近的几场小战役罢了。在查尔斯·达尔文(Charles Darwin)发表著名的进化论之前,大多数物学家都认为自然界中的现象——从兰花的花瓣到秃鹫喙上的钩——都是上帝设计出来的杰作。在达尔文的理论得到广泛接受之后,他们又开始将其视为自然选择的产物,认为生物的方方面面都是精确适应的结果。然而,一些最伟大的生物学家却提出了反对意见。在这些生物学家看来,充分高效的基因组与我们起源的随意性不符,事实上,每一个物种都是在无数次错误的尝试中偶然诞生的。有些人从这数十亿碱基里看到一架调控精妙的机器,而在格雷戈里等其他人眼里,那只是一片狼藉。In 1953, Francis Crick and James Watson published a short paper in the journal Nature setting out the double-helix structure of DNA. That brief note sent biologists into a frenzy of discovery, leading eventually to multiple Nobel Prizes and to an unprecedented depth of understanding about how living things grow and reproduce. To make a protein from DNA, they learned, a cell makes a single-stranded copy of the relevant gene, using a molecule called RNA. It then builds a corresponding protein using the RNA as a guide.1953年,弗朗西斯·克里克(Francis Crick)和詹姆斯·沃森(James Watson)在《自然》杂志(Nature)上发表了一篇短文,展示了DNA的双螺旋结构。这篇短文让生物学家们投入了探索的狂潮之中,最后还产生了多个诺贝尔奖,人们对生物的生长和繁殖的了解达到了前所未有的深度。他们发现,要根据DNA来生产蛋白质,细胞要使用一种叫做RNA的分子来制作相关基因的单链拷贝,然后再利用该RNA来指导相应蛋白质的合成。This research led scientists to assume that the genome was mostly made up of protein-coding DNA. But eventually scientists found this assumption hard to square with reality. In 1964, the German biologist Friedrich Vogel did a rough calculation of how many genes a typical human must carry. Scientists had aly discovered how big the human genome was by staining the DNA in cells, looking at the cells through microscopes and measuring its size. If the human genome was made of nothing but genes, Vogel found, it would need to have an awful lot of them — 6.7 million genes by his estimate, a number that, when he published it in Nature, he admitted was “disturbingly high.” There was no evidence that our cells made 6.7 million proteins or anything close to that figure.这项研究促使科学家们猜想基因组的绝大部分应该是编码蛋白质的DNA,但后来他们发现,这种假设与现实相去甚远。科学家们通过对细胞中的DNA进行染色,并以显微镜观察和测量,估算出了人类基因组的大小。1964年,德国生物学家弗里德里希·福格尔(Friedrich Vogel)在《自然》杂志上发表了一篇文章,粗略计算了如果人类基因组完全由基因组成,一般来说,一个人应该携带的基因数目是670万个基因。这个数字简直惊人地大,福格尔自己也承认它“高得令人不安”。没有任何据表明,我们的细胞可以产生670万种或接近这一数字的蛋白质。Vogel speculated that a lot of the genome was made up of essential noncoding DNA — possibly operating as something like switches, for example, to turn genes on and off. But other scientists recognized that even this idea couldn’t make sense mathematically. On average, each baby is born with roughly 100 new mutations. If every piece of the genome were essential, then many of those mutations would lead to significant birth defects, with the defects only multiplying over the course of generations; in less than a century, the species would become extinct.于是福格尔推测基因组大部分是由必需的非编码DNA组成——举例来说,它们可能是发挥了类似于开关的作用,管理着基因的活跃与关闭。但其他的科学家们意识到,即使按照这个想法,在数学角度上还是不合理。平均而言,每个婴儿出生时约带有100个新的基因突变。如果基因组中的所有片段都是必不可少的,那么这些突变中有很多都会导致重大的天生缺陷,即使这些缺陷只有在传代过程中才会成倍增加,该物种也会在一个世纪内灭绝。Faced with this paradox, Crick and other scientists developed a new vision of the genome during the 1970s. Instead of being overwhelmingly packed with coding DNA, the genome was made up mostly of noncoding DNA. And, what’s more, most of that noncoding DNA was junk — that is, pieces of DNA that do nothing for us. These biologists argued that some pieces of junk started out as genes, but were later disabled by mutations. Other pieces, called transposable elements, were like parasites, simply making new copies of themselves that were usually inserted harmlessly back in the genome.面对这一悖论,克里克和其他科学家在20世纪70年代提出了关于基因组的新观点:基因组并没有塞满编码DNA,事实上,基因组绝大部分是非编码DNA。更重要的是,大多数非编码DNA都是“垃圾”——也就是说,这些DNA片段对我们来说一无所用。这些生物学家认为,某些“垃圾DNA”片段最初也是基因,只是后来因为突变的缘故失活了。其他的DNA片段称为转座因子,它们就好像寄生虫一样,单纯地复制自己并插入到基因组的新位置上去(这种插入通常是无害的)。Junk DNA’s recognition was part of a bigger trend in biology at the time. A number of scientists were questioning the assumption that biological systems are invariably “well designed” by evolution. In a 1979 paper in The Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Stephen Jay Gould and Richard Lewontin, both of Harvard, groused that too many scientists indulged in breezy storytelling to explain every trait, from antlers to jealousy, as an adaptation honed by natural selection for some essential function. Gould and Lewontin refer to this habit as the Panglossian paradigm, a reference to Voltaire’s “Candide,” in which the foolish Professor Pangloss keeps insisting, in the face of death and disaster, that we live in “the best of all possible worlds.” Gould and Lewontin did not deny that natural selection was a powerful force, but they stressed that it was not the only explanation for why species are the way they are. Male nipples are not adaptations, for example; they’re just along for the ride.当时,识别“垃圾DNA”是生物学研究的大趋势之一。许多科学家都开始质疑所有生物体系都是进化“精心设计而来”的这一假设。1979年,哈佛大学(Harvard)的史蒂芬·杰伊·古尔德(Stephen Jay Gould)和理查德·列万廷(Richard Lewontin)在《伦敦皇家学会会刊》(The Proceedings of the Royal Society of London)上发表了一篇文章,抱怨有太多的科学家纵容自己讲故事般轻松自信地将每一个性状——从鹿角到嫉妒心——都解释成为了实现什么必不可少的功能而自然选择出来的适应性。古尔德和列万廷称这种习惯是“盲目乐观”(Panglossian)的典范——这个字眼来自伏尔泰(Voltaire)的小说《憨第德》(Candide)中那位一再坚持,即使面对死亡和灾难,人们的处境仍然是“在所有可能的情况中最理想”的愚蠢教授潘格罗士(Professor Pangloss)。古尔德和列万廷并不否认自然选择是一种强大的力量,但他们强调,它并不是解释物种为何会演化成现在这个模样的唯一。例如,雄性的乳头就不是一种适应性,它们不过是在进化中凑凑热闹罢了。Gould and Lewontin called instead for a broader vision of evolution, with room for other forces, for flukes and historical contingencies, for processes unfolding at different levels of life — what Gould often called “pluralism.” At the time, geneticists were getting their first glimpses of the molecular secrets of the human genome, and Gould and Lewontin saw more evidence for pluralism and against the Panglosses. Any two people may have millions of differences in their genomes. Most of those differences aren’t a result of natural selection’s guiding force; they just arise through random mutations, without any effect for good or ill.古尔德和列万廷呼吁人们以更开阔的眼光来看待进化,为其他的进化力量,如意外和历史突发事件,以及在生命的不同层面上展开的过程留下空间——也就是古尔德常说的“多元主义”。当时正值遗传学家们第一次触及人类基因组的分子秘密之时,古尔德和列万廷发现了更多持多元主义,反对盲目乐观的据。任何两个人的基因组之间都可能存在数百万个差异,其中大多数都不是自然选择引导下的结果,它们只是些随机突变,无所谓好坏。When Crick and others began to argue for junk DNA, they were guided by a similar vision of nature as slipshod. Just as male nipples are a useless vestige of evolution, so, in their theory, is a majority of our genome. Far from the height of machine-like perfection, the genome is largely a palimpsest of worthless instructions, a den of harmless parasites. Crick and his colleagues argued that transposable elements were common in our genome not because they did something essential for us, but because they could exploit us for their own replication. Gould delighted at this good intellectual company, arguing that transposable elements behaved like miniature organisms, evolving to become better at adding new copies to their host genomes. Our genomes were their ocean, their savanna. “They are merely playing Darwin’s game, but at the ‘wrong level,’#8201;” Gould wrote in 1981.当克里克等人开始为“垃圾DNA”而辩时,他们也抱持着类似的观点:大自然是个漫不经心的家伙。他们认为,雄性的乳头只是进化中的一个无用的痕迹,我们的绝大部分基因组也是如此。基因组远未达到机械般的精确和完美,在很大程度上,它更像是一本被反复擦去又重写的抄本,又像是无害的寄生虫们的巢穴。克里克和他的同事们指出,转座因子之所以在我们的基因组中十分常见,不是因为它们有什么必不可少的功能,而是因为它们可以利用我们来完成它们自身的复制。这种学术上的志同道合令古尔德十分欣喜,他也主张转座因子的行为与微生物相似,在进化过程中,它们越来越擅长在宿主基因组中增加新的自身DNA拷贝。我们的基因组就好比它们生存的海洋和草原。古尔德在1981年写道:“它们不过是在‘错误的层面上’玩达尔文的游戏罢了。”Soon after Gould wrote those words, scientists set out to decipher the precise sequence of the entire human genome. It wasn’t until 2001, shortly before Gould’s death, that they published their first draft. They identified thousands of segments that had the hallmarks of dead genes. They found transposable elements by the millions. The Human Genome Project team declared that our DNA consisted of isolated oases of protein-coding genes surrounded by “vast expanses of unpopulated desert where only noncoding ‘junk’ DNA can be found.” Junk DNA had started out as a theoretical argument, but now the messiness of our evolution was laid bare for all to see.就在古尔德写下上面那番话后不久,科学家们开始着手破译整个人类基因组的精确序列。但直到2001年,古尔德去世前不久,他们才发表了第一稿研究结果。他们识别出了带有“死基因”标志的数千个DNA片段,还发现了数以百万计的转座因子。“人类基因组计划(Human Genome Project)”团队宣称,我们的DNA就像“一大片由‘垃圾DNA’组成的荒漠”,其中星星点点散布着编码蛋白质的基因“绿洲”。“垃圾DNA”最初只是一个理论上的争论,但现在我们在进化上的杂乱无章已经是有目共睹。If you want to see the genome in a fundamentally different way, the best place to go is the third floor of Harvard’s Department of Stem Cell and Regenerative Biology, in a maze of cluttered benches, sequencing machines and microscopes. This is the lab of John Rinn, a 38-year-old former competitive snowboarder who likes to ponder biological questions on top of a skateboard, which he rides from one wall of his office to the other and back. Rinn is overseeing more than a dozen research projects looking for pieces of noncoding DNA that might once have been classified as junk but actually are essential for life.如果你想要用一种迥然不同的方式去考察基因组,哈佛大学干细胞与再生生物学系(Department of Stem Cell and Regenerative Biology)乱糟糟地放满了试验台、测序仪和显微镜的迷宫般的三楼是一个绝佳场所。这里是约翰·里恩(John Rinn)的实验室,他今年38岁,曾是一名竞技雪板滑雪运动员,现在依然喜欢驾驭着雪板从办公室的一面墙滑到另一面墙,同时思考生物学问题。里恩负责着十几个项目,目的是研究一些曾经被视为“垃圾”,其实却为生命所必需的非编码DNA片段。Rinn studies RNA, but not the RNA that our cells use as a template for making proteins. Scientists have long known that the human genome contains some genes for other types of RNA: strands of bases that carry out other jobs in the cell, like helping to weld together the building blocks of proteins. In the early 2000s, Rinn and other scientists discovered that human cells were ing thousands of segments of their DNA, not just the coding parts, and producing RNA molecules in the process. They wondered whether these RNA molecules could be serving some vital function.里恩的研究对象是RNA,但不是我们的细胞用以作为制造蛋白质的模板的那种RNA。科学家们早已知道,人类基因组中包含着一些其他类型的RNA的基因:这些碱基组成的长链在细胞内执行着其他任务,比如协助蛋白质组装等。21世纪初,里恩和其他科学家发现,人类细胞可以阅读数千个自身DNA片段(不仅包含编码区),并在此过程中制造RNA分子。他们想知道这些RNA分子是否具有什么生死攸关的功能。As a postdoctoral fellow at Stanford University, Rinn decided he would try to show that one of these new RNA molecules had some important role. After a couple years of searching, he and a professor there, Howard Chang, settled on an RNA molecule that, somewhat bizarrely, was produced widely by skin cells below the waist but not above. Rinn and Chang were well aware that this pattern might be meaningless, but they set out to investigate it nevertheless. They had to give their enigmatic molecule a name, so they picked one that was a joke at their own expense: hotair. (“If it ends up being hot air, at least we tried,” Rinn said.)里恩在斯坦福大学(Stanford University)做士后时就决定要尝试明这些新的RNA分子具有重要的作用。经过几年的检索,他与该大学的教授张元豪(Howard Chang)选定了一种特殊的RNA分子,这种分子非常奇怪,它在腰部以下的皮肤细胞中广泛存在,但在腰部以上却完全不见踪迹。里恩和张都清楚地知道,这种模式可能毫无意义,但他们仍然开始了研究。他们给自己的神秘分子取了个颇具自嘲意味的名字:“hotair”。“如果最终明它什么也不是(hot air有“吹牛”、“空话”之意——译注),起码我们曾经努力过,”里恩说。Rinn ran a series of experiments on skin cells to figure out what, if anything, hotair was doing. He carefully pulled hotair molecules out of the cells and examined them to see if they had attached to any other molecules. They had, in fact: they were stuck to a protein called Polycomb.里恩对皮肤细胞进行了一系列的实验,想看看hotair有什么功能(就是说,如果有的话)。他小心翼翼地将hotair分子从细胞中提取出来,并检查它们是否曾与任何其他分子相连接。事实上,是的:它们可与一种名为Polycomb的蛋白质紧密结合。Polycomb belongs to a group of proteins that are essential to the development of animals from a fertilized egg. They turn genes on and off in different patterns, so that a uniform clump of cells can give rise to bone, muscle and brain. Polycomb latches onto a number of genes and muzzles them, preventing them from making proteins. Rinn’s research revealed that hotair acts as a kind of guide for Polycomb, attaching to it and escorting it through the jungle of the cell to the precise spots on our DNA where it needs to silence genes.Polycomb隶属于一组对于从受精卵到动物成体的发育过程必不可少的蛋白质。它们可在不同的模式下激活或关闭基因,从而使一群细胞统一地发育成骨骼、肌肉或脑。Polycomb蛋白可以与多种基因相结合并使其失活,无法再生产蛋白质。里恩的研究显示,hotair的作用就像是Polycomb蛋白的向导,当它结合在Polycomb上后,就可以护送该蛋白穿过乱七八糟的细胞内环境,准确地结合到需要被沉默的基因位点上。When Rinn announced this result in 2007, other geneticists were stunned. Cell, the journal that released it, hailed it as a breakthrough, calling Rinn’s paper one of the most important they had ever published. In the years since, Chang and other researchers have continued to examine hotair, using even more sophisticated tools. They bred engineered mice that lack the hotair gene, for example, and found that the mice developed a constellation of deformities, like stunted wrists and jumbled vertebrae. It appears very likely that hotair performs important jobs throughout the body, not just in the skin but in the skeleton and in other tissues too.2007年,里恩在《细胞》(Cell)杂志上发表了自己的研究结果,震惊了遗传学界。《细胞》杂志称其为巨大的突破,并表示里恩的这项研究是他们曾经发表过的最重要的论文之一。在随后的几年中,张和其他研究人员使用更复杂的工具继续对hotair深入研究。例如,他们利用基因工程,培育出了缺乏hotair基因的小鼠,并发现这些小鼠出现了一系列畸形,如腕部发育迟缓、椎骨混杂等。显然hotair很可能在皮肤、骨骼以及全身的其他组织中也发挥着重要的作用。In 2008, having been lured to Harvard, Rinn set up his new lab entirely in hopes of finding more hotair-like molecules. The first day I visited, a research associate named Diana Sanchez was dissecting mouse embryos the size of pinto beans. In a bowl of ice next to her were tubes for the parts she delicately removed — liver, leg, kidney, lung — that would be searched for cells making RNA molecules. After Rinn and I left Sanchez to her dissections, we ran into Martin Sauvageau, a blue-eyed Quebecer carrying a case of slides, each affixed with a slice of a mouse’s brain, with stains revealing cells making different RNA molecules. I tagged along with Sauvageau as he headed to a darkened microscope room to look at the slides with a pink-haired grad student named Abbie Groff. On one slide, a mouse’s brain looked as if it wore a cerulean mustache. To Groff, every pattern comes as a surprise. She once discovered an RNA molecule that created thousands of tiny rings on a mouse’s body, each encircling a hair follicle. “You come in in the morning, and it’s like Christmas,” she said.2008年,里恩应邀来到哈佛大学,并在此建立了自己的新实验室,一心一意希望能找到更多类似hotair的分子。我去参观的第一天,正赶上他的研究助理戴安娜·桑切斯(Diana Sanchez)在解剖只有斑豆大小的小鼠胚胎。她旁边的冰浴槽中插着好些个试管,里面盛放着她精心剥离的各种器官和身体部件——肝脏、腿、肾脏、肺等,用于从其中搜寻制造RNA分子的细胞。为了不打扰桑切斯的解剖工作,里恩和我离开了,然后我们碰到了马丁·索瓦若(Martin Sauvageau),这个蓝眼睛的魁北克人拿着一盒玻片,每片玻片上都固定着一片小鼠大脑切片,并以染色显示了制造不同RNA分子的细胞。我随同索瓦若前往黑暗的显微镜室,和一个有着粉红色头发的研究生阿比·格罗夫(Abbie Groff)一起查看了这些切片。有一张切片上的小鼠脑部就像留了一簇天蓝色的小胡子。在格罗夫看来,每种模式都是一个惊喜。她曾经发现了一种RNA分子可以在小鼠体内产生数千个微小的环状物,每个环都包绕着一个毛囊。“每天早上进来的时候,感觉都像在过圣诞节,”她这样形容道。In December 2013, Rinn and his colleagues published the first results of their search: three potential new genes for RNA that appear to be essential for a mouse’s survival. To investigate each potential gene, the scientists removed one of the two copies in mice. When the mice mated, some of their embryos ended up with two copies of the gene, some with one and some with none. If these mice lacked any of these three pieces of DNA, they died in utero or shortly after birth. “You take away a piece of junk DNA, and the mouse dies,” Rinn said. “If you can come up with a criticism of that, go ahead. But I’m pretty satisfied. I’ve found a new piece of the genome that’s required for life.”2013年12月,里恩和同事们发表了第一批搜索结果:有三个新的潜在的RNA基因可能对小鼠的生存至关重要。为了调查每个潜在基因,科学家设法删除了小鼠体内该基因两个拷贝中的一个。当这些小鼠交配时,一部分胚胎将带有两个基因拷贝,有的带有一个,有的则一个也没有。不论是缺少这三种DNA片段中的哪一个,小鼠都会胎死宫中或在出生后不久死亡。“敲除了一个‘垃圾DNA’片段,小鼠就无法存活,”里恩说。“如果你要提出批评意见,尽管说好了。但我已经很满意了。我又发现了一个新的生命必需的基因组片段。”As the scientists find new RNA molecules that look to be important, they are picking out a few to examine in close molecular detail. “I’m totally in love with this one,” Rinn said, standing at a whiteboard wall and drawing a looping line to illustrate yet another RNA molecule, one that he calls “firre.” The experiments that Rinn’s team has run on firre suggest that it performs a spectacular lasso act, grabbing onto three different chromosomes at once and drawing them together. Rinn suspects that there are thousands of RNA molecules encoded in our genomes that perform similar feats: bending DNA, unspooling it, bringing it in contact with certain proteins and otherwise endowing it with a versatility it would lack on its own.在寻找新的具有重要功能的RNA分子的同时,科学家们也从中选出了几个来进行分子层面上的详细研究。里恩站在白板前,用循环线图示向我阐释另一种被他命名为“firre”的RNA分子,“我想我已经深深爱上它了,”他说。里恩的团队目前对firre进行的实验表明,它的功能像一个巨大的套索,可以同时抓住三个不同的染色体并把它们拉到一块儿来。里恩怀疑我们的基因组编码了成千上万个可以进行类似壮举的RNA分子,它们可以弯曲DNA、解开DNA螺旋,使其与某些特定的蛋白质接触或者赋予其本身没有的广泛功用。“It’s genomic origami,” Rinn said about this theory. “In every cell, you have the same piece of paper. Stem cell, brain cell, liver cell, it’s all made from the same piece of paper. How you fold that paper determines if you get a paper airplane or a duck. It’s the shape that you fold it into that matters. This has to be the 3-D code of biology.”“这就好比在基因组层面上做折纸手工,”里恩这样解释他的理论。“每个细胞都拥有一张同样的纸。干细胞、脑细胞、肝脏细胞……全都是从同样的纸上诞生的,是你的折法决定了最后会得到一架飞机还是一只鸭子。你折叠出来的形状才是最重要的。这是生物学的三维代码。”To some biologists, discoveries like Rinn’s hint at a hidden treasure house in our genome. Because a few of these RNA molecules have turned out to be so crucial, they think, the rest of the noncoding genome must be crammed with riches. But to Gregory and others, that is a blinkered optimism worthy of Dr. Pangloss. They, by contrast, are deeply pessimistic about where this research will lead. Most of the RNA molecules that our cells make will probably not turn out to perform the sort of essential functions that hotair and firre do. Instead, they are nothing more than what happens when RNA-making proteins bump into junk DNA from time to time.一些生物学家认为,里恩这类新发现提示我们的基因组中隐藏着一座大宝库。由于已有研究明,有几种这样的RNA分子至关重要,他们认为,基因组其余的非编码片段一定也蕴藏着丰富的宝藏。但是格雷戈里和其他人表示这种想法不过是潘格罗士士那样的盲目乐观罢了。相比之下,他们倒是对这项研究的前景深感悲观。事实上,我们的细胞制造的大多数RNA分子很可能并没有像hotair或firre那样的重要功能。相反,在大部分情况下,不过是制造RNA的蛋白质偶尔撞上了“垃圾DNA”而已。“You say, ‘I found it — America!’#8201;” says Alex Palazzo, a biochemist at the University of Toronto who co-wrote a spirited defense of junk DNA with Gregory last year in the journal PLOS Genetics. “But probably what you found is a little bit of noise.”“你兴奋地宣称:‘我发现了美洲新大陆!’”多伦多大学(University of Toronto)的生化学家,与格雷戈里协力在《公共科学图书馆:遗传学》杂志(PLOS Genetics)上撰文为“垃圾DNA”坚决辩护的亚历克斯·帕拉佐(Alex Palazzo)说,“但你发现的很可能只是一点点噪音罢了。”Palazzo and his colleagues also roll their eyes at the triumphant declarations being made about recent large-scale surveys of the human genome. One news release from an N.I.H. project declared, “Much of what has been called ‘junk DNA’ in the human genome is actually a massive control panel with millions of switches regulating the activity of our genes.” Researchers like Gregory consider this sort of rhetoric to be leaping far beyond the actual evidence. Gregory likens the search for useful pieces of noncoding DNA to using a metal detector to find gold buried at the beach. “The idea of combing the beach is a great idea,” he says. But you have to make sure your metal detector doesn’t go off when it responds to any metal. “You’re going to find bottle caps and nails,” Gregory says.帕拉佐和同事们还将目光转向了近期的一次大规模人类基因组调查的胜利宣言。一项N.I.H.项目最近发布新闻称:“人类基因组中之前被称为‘垃圾DNA’的片段其实大多是巨大的控制面板,内含数以百万计的开关,调节着我们的基因活性。”格雷戈里等研究人员认为这是远远超出了实际据的浮夸之辞。格雷戈里将寻找有用的非编码DNA片段比作使用金属探测器搜索埋在沙滩里的黄金。“把海滩彻底搜查一番是个好主意,”他说。但你必须确保你的金属探测器不会遇到任何金属都警铃大作。“不然你找到的绝大部分都将是瓶盖和钉子。”格雷戈里说;He expects that as we examine the genome more closely, we’ll find many bottle caps and nails. It’s a prediction based, he and others argue, on the deep evolutionary history of our genome. Over millions of years, essential genes haven’t changed very much, while junk DNA has picked up many harmless mutations. Scientists at the University of Oxford have measured evolutionary change over the past 100 million years at every spot in the human genome. “I can today say, hand on my heart, that 8 percent, plus or minus 1 percent, is what I would consider functional,” Chris Ponting, an author of the study, says. And the other 92 percent? “It doesn’t seem to matter that much,” he says.他预计,随着我们更仔细地检查基因组,还会发现许多瓶盖和钉子。他和其他人表示,这个预测是基于我们基因组深厚的进化史做出的。数百万年来,必需基因并没发生多少变化,而“垃圾DNA”却带上了很多无害的突变。牛津大学(University of Oxford)的科学家们衡量了过去一亿年来人类基因组的每个位点在进化上的改变。该研究的作者之一,克里斯·庞廷(Chris Ponting)说:“现在我敢拍着胸脯说,我认为其中只有8%(上下波动范围不会超过1%)具有生物学功能。”那其他的92%呢?“似乎就没那么重要了,”他说。It’s no coincidence, researchers like Gregory argue, that bona fide creationists have used recent changes in the thinking about junk DNA to try to turn back the clock to the days before Darwin. (The recent studies on noncoding DNA “clearly demonstrate we are ‘fearfully and wonderfully made’ by our Creator God,” declared the Institute for Creation Research.) In a sense, this debate stretches back to Darwin himself, whose 1859 book, “On the Origin of Species,” set the course for our understanding natural selection as a natural “designer.” Later in his life, Darwin took pains to stress that there was more to evolution than natural selection. He was frustrated to see how many of his ers thought he was arguing that natural selection was the only force behind life’s diversity. “Great is the power of steady misrepresentation,” Darwin grumbled when he updated the book for its sixth edition in 1872. In fact, he wrote, he was quite open-minded about other forces that might drive evolution, like “variations that seem to us in our ignorance to arise spontaneously.”格雷戈里等研究人员认为,虔诚的创世论者不约而同地利用“垃圾DNA”观念中的最新变化,这绝非偶然,他们这是试图让时间倒退回达尔文时代之前。(创世论研究学会[Institute for Creation Research]称:近期关于非编码DNA的研究“清楚地表明我们是造物主‘创造的奇妙又可怕的作品’”。)从某种意义上说,这场辩论可以追溯到达尔文本人,他在1859年出版的著作《物种起源》(“On the Origin of Species”)中将我们对自然选择的理解定位为天然的“设计师”。晚年时期的达尔文也曾煞费苦心地强调,自然选择只是进化的一个方面。看到许多读者误以为他主张自然选择是产生生物多样性的唯一动力,令他十分沮丧。“接连不断的错误阐释的力量真大。”达尔文在1872年更新该书第六版时抱怨道。事实上,他对有可能推动进化的其他力量,比如“在我们毫不知情的情况下自发产生的变异”等持有相当开明的态度。Darwin was certainly ignorant about genomes, as scientists would continue to be for decades after his death. But Gregory argues that genomes embody the very mix of adaptation and arbitrariness that Darwin had in mind. Over millions of years, the human genome has spontaneously gotten bigger, swelling with useless copies of genes and new transposable elements. Our ancestors tolerated all that extra baggage because it wasn’t actually all that heavy. It didn’t make them inordinately sick. Copying all that extra DNA didn’t require them to draw off energy required for other tasks. They couldn’t add an infinite amount of junk to the genome, but they could accept an awful lot. To subtract junk, meanwhile, would require swarms of proteins to chop out every single dead gene or transposable element — without chopping out an essential gene. A genome evolving away its junk would lose the race to sloppier genomes, which left more resources for fighting diseases or having children.达尔文肯定对基因组一无所知,因为直到他去世几十年后,科学家们才开始孜孜不倦地研究这一课题。但格雷戈里认为,基因组恰好体现了达尔文的初衷:适应性和随意性的混合体。数百万年来,人类基因组自发增大了不少,其中充斥着无用的基因拷贝和新的转座因子。我们的祖先宽容地将所有这些额外的行李带在了身上,因为它们本来也不算多重的负担。这些额外的DNA既不会导致重病,复制所需的能量也很少,不会影响其他正常工作的完成。当然,基因组不可能无限制地接纳垃圾,但其垃圾容量确实相当巨大。另一方面,要清除垃圾则很麻烦,需要大批的蛋白质来删除每一个“死基因”或转座因子——同时还得保不会伤及必需基因。一个冗余的基因组可以保留更多的资源来进行繁殖或与疾病斗争,而丢失“垃圾DNA”的基因组则将沦为进化中的输家。The blood-drenched slides that pack Gregory’s lab with their giant genomes only make sense, he argues, if we give up thinking about life as always evolving to perfection. To him, junk DNA isn’t a sign of evolution’s failure. It is, instead, evidence of its slow and slovenly triumph.格雷戈里认为,只有当我们不再认为生命总是朝着更完善的方向发展,才能理解塞满他实验室的那些血淋淋的切片中展示的巨大基因组。在他看来,“垃圾DNA”并不是进化失败的标志,相反,它表明进化是个缓慢的过程,其成功往往是不经意间的妙手偶得。 /201504/368027长寿江津区看子宫小哪家医院最好的

重庆治输卵管粘连三甲医院Microsoft will stop supporting Internet Explorer 8, 9 and 10 on certain Windows computers on January 12.当地时间1月12日起,针对采用特定Windows操作系统的电脑,微软公司将停止持它们所装载的IE 8/9/10浏览器。Up to 20% of Internet browsers could be impacted, according to NetMarketShare.NetMarketShare网站的数据显示,近两成的上网用户或受影响。After next week, Microsoft (MSFT, Tech30) will push security updates and bug fixes to Internet Explorer 11 only, on machines running Windows 7, 8.1 and 10.下周之后,Windows 7/ 8.1 /10用户只能收到微软公司(MSFT,科技股30指数板块)针对IE11推送的安全更新程序及配套补丁。Anyone who continues to use an out-of-date browser could put themselves at risk for malware and cyber attacks.继续使用旧浏览器的用户可能会面临恶意软件威胁和网络攻击的风险。Microsoft ;encourages customers to upgrade; to Internet Explorer 11 ;for a faster, more secure browsing experience.;微软公司“鼓励用户升级”至IE11“以获得更快捷更安全的上网体验。”If you#39;re running Windows Vista, Microsoft says it will continue to support Internet Explorer 9. Microsoft will also keep supporting older versions of IE on several enterprise server operating systems.微软称,Windows Vista可继续持IE9。公司也仍会维护某些企业务器操作系统装载的旧版IE。The company first announced plans to end support for its older web browsers in 2014.微软于2014年首度透露暂停持旧版浏览器的计划。In 2015, with the launch of Windows 10, Microsoft gave customers a new default browser, Edge, which is a definite improvement over Internet Explorer.2015年时,随着Windows 10的面世,微软为用户提供了全新的默认浏览器——Edge,同IE浏览器相比,Edge有了明显的改进。Confusingly, though, the logo for Edge looks almost exactly like the logo for Internet Explorer.可Edge的图标竟与IE的图标别无二致,这样做有些令人难以理解。 /201601/421943 彭水苗族土家族自治县治疗不孕不育渝中大渡口区复通手术哪家医院好




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