原标题: 重庆市封闭抗体治疗三甲医院乐视分享
Science and technology.科技。Flu research.流感研究。How to make bird flu fly, part one.让禽流感飞起来,第一部分。The first of two controversial research papers is published.充满争议的两篇研究论文的其中之一已发表。ON APRIL 27th, after much toing and froing, the Dutch government gave Ron Fouchier of the Erasmus Medical Centre in Rotterdam permission to submit his paper on bird flu to Science. Dr Fouchier is the head of one of two groups studying how bird flu might become transmissible between people. In December the authorities in America and the Netherlands prevented both his group and the other, led by Yoshihiro Kawaoka of the University of Wisconsin-Madison, from publishing their findings, lest they get into the wrong hands. This official fear stemmed from the deadly nature of bird flu. Of the 602 human cases reported since 2003, 355 have been fatal. The factor that has stopped the death toll being worse is that people have to catch the virus directly from a bird (usually a chicken). It rarely, if ever, passes from one person to another.经过了几番周折,荷兰政府终于在4月27日允许鹿特丹伊拉斯谟医学中心的罗恩?富希耶将其关于禽流感研究的文章投稿给《科学》杂志。现今有两个科研团队正致力于研究禽流感在人群中传播的可能性,富希耶是其中一个团队的领导者。在去年12月,美国和荷兰当局阻止富希耶团队和由威斯康星大学的河冈义裕所带领的另一团队发表有关的研究发现,以免这些信息流入不法之徒手中。官方的这种恐怖来源于禽流感的高致死性。自2003年来报告的602个禽流感病例中,死亡病例达355个。死亡数目之所以不再进一步恶化,是因为人只有与鸟类(通常是鸡)直接接触才会感染病毒。该病毒很少且几乎不会在人群中直接传播。Science has yet to publish Dr Fouchiers manuscript, but its rival Nature has gone ahead and published Dr Kawaokas. This paper got clearance from the American authorities on April 20th. So it is now possible to see what all the fuss was about.《科学》杂志还没有发表富希耶的文章,但其对手《自然》杂志已抢先一步发表了河冈义裕的文章。美国当局于4月20日批准了该文章的发表。因而现在我们就能知道人们为何大惊小怪了。Dr Kawaoka was interested in the role a protein called haemagglutinin (HA) plays in the transmission of avian influenza. HA is the viral equivalent of a grappling hook: it lets the virus latch onto a cell by binding to substances called sialic acids that are found in receptors on the cells surface. This done, the virus infects the cell with its DNA. But because the sialic acid found in birds is chemically different from that in mammals, and because bird flu has evolved to recognise only the avian variety, it cannot stick easily to mammalian cells, limiting its ability to infect people.河冈义裕对一种叫做血凝素(HA)的蛋白质在禽流感传播中所起的作用而感兴趣。血凝素是病毒中一种类似于爪钩的物质:它通过抓住一种位于细胞表面受体中称作唾液酸的物质而使病毒与细胞相黏附。一旦黏附过程完成,病毒就开始以其自身DNA感染细胞。但由于鸟类细胞中唾液酸的化学成分不同于哺乳动物,且演化的禽流感病毒只能识别鸟类细胞,因而禽流感病毒无法轻易地粘附于哺乳动物细胞上,使得其感染人类的能力大大受限。The researchers wanted to know what it would take to enhance that ability. They took the HA gene from avian influenza viruses found in Vietnam and made millions of mutant versions, each of which was spliced back into a copy of the original virus. They then screened 2.1m of these mutant viruses to see which bind to sialic acid of the mammalian variety. Just eight can do so, and just one of those has become, in effect, a mammalian specialist, because it can no longer bind to avian cells.研究者们希望知道如何能增强禽流感病毒的感染人类能力。他们提取出于越南发现的禽流感病毒中的血凝素基因,然后将其改造生成了数百万种突变类型,接着将每一种突变类型与复制的原始病毒相接合。他们筛选了210万种突变病毒以找到能与哺乳动物细胞的唾液酸相接的病毒。最终只有8种突变病毒可以做到,且事实上只有一种突变病毒变成了感染哺乳动物的专家,因为其不再黏附于鸟类细胞。Dr Kawaoka decided to concentrate his efforts on this specialist. Further tests revealed that two mutations in its HA gene, called N224K and Q226L, were responsible for its characteristics.河冈义裕决定致力于此种病毒的研究。进一步的试验揭示出,其血凝素基因中分别称为N224K 和Q226L的两个变异基因是引起此病毒特性的主要因素。It is here that things get complicated. Instead of looking at the doubly mutated gene in bird flu, the team transplanted it into the virus that caused the human-flu pandemic of . By doing so, they virtually guaranteed they would make a virus that could pass between mammals.然而事情就是在此时变得复杂起来。这团队并没有继续研究这种禽流感病毒中的双重变异基因,而是将其移植到引起年猪流感流行的病毒中。他们这种做事实上是明了他们能制造出一种在可在哺乳动物间传播的病毒。And so it proved. When they tested it on ferrets (often used as proxies for people in these sorts of studies), it passed through the air from one animal to another. Moreover, closer inspection showed that two other mutations, N158D and T318I, had spontaneously got tangled up in the mix.而他们确实也做到了。通过在雪貂(在此类实验中通常用来代替人类)身上的实验明,此病毒能通过空气在动物之间传播。此外,进一步观察表明,两种其他的变异基因—N158D和T318I也自发地产生并整合入已变异的病毒基因中。What all this means, then, is slightly obscure. Dr Kawaokas purpose was to study how the mammalian-transmission mutations worked. In this, he succeeded. He found that N224K, Q226L and N158D all control areas in the head of the HA protein-ie, the hook-and probably help it attach to the mammalian flavour of sialic acid. T318I controls part of HAs stem and may help to stabilise the protein as it injects viral DNA into cells.那么这一切的意义让人有些费解。河冈义裕的意图是研究这些变异的基因如何能在哺乳动物间传播。在这方面,他成功了。他发现N224K, Q226L和N158D这三种基因都能控制血凝素蛋白的头部—即爪部—且可能可以帮助血凝素与哺乳动物的唾液酸相连。T318I则控制血凝素的茎部,当病毒往细胞中注入病毒DNA时能稳定血凝素。By transferring the genes into a virus that was known to be good at moving between mammals, Dr Kawaoka has shown that the HA gene is not itself an obstacle to bird flu gaining that ability, though its other genes may be. Perhaps Dr Fouchiers paper will shed more light on the matter.通过将这些基因转移到易于在哺乳动物间传播的病毒中,河冈义裕明了血凝素基因本身并不是阻止禽流感在人群中传播的障碍,而其他基因可能才是。可能富希耶的文章能在这个问题上给我们更多的启示。 /201209/199134Science and Technology Materials science Cracking a problem科技 材料科学 通过裂纹解决问题Another use for a fashionable, new material一种流行新材料的新用途LIKE all other human activities, science is subject to fads.像其它人类活动一样,科学是一个时尚主题。One of the latest is for graphene.最新的话题是关于石墨烯的。This wonder material—a form of carbon that comes in films a single atomic layer thick—won Andre Geim and Konstantin Novoselov the Nobel prize for physics last year.作为碳的一种形式,这种源自胶带操作的奇妙材料只有单原子层厚度,发明者安德烈·杰姆和克斯特亚·诺沃塞洛夫为此获得了去年的诺贝尔物理学奖。Because of its unusual electrical properties it has been touted as a way of making everything from touch screens to solar cells.由于石墨烯非同寻常的电特性,它被吹嘘为制造一切产品的新途径--从触摸屏到太阳能电池。Now a humbler use is being proposed.如今石墨烯的一种低层次应用被提出来。Another of graphenes qualities is that it is strong. That, suggests Erica Corral of the University of Arizona, makes it ideal for reinforcing ceramics.它的另一特性是机械强度高,因而被亚利桑那大学的埃里卡·科拉尔视为加强陶瓷材料硬度的一种理想材料。Engineers like ceramics because they can be heated without melting. Unlike metals and plastics, though, they are brittle.工程师喜欢陶瓷材料,因为它们加热时不会融化,这点不像金属和塑料,尽管它们是脆的。Because they crack easily, using them in places that are exposed to a lot of physical punishment is difficult.因为陶瓷材料易碎,因此将其用于高物理强度的场合非常困难。But a paper just published in the American Chemical Societys journal, Nano, by Dr Corral and her colleagues, suggests a sprinkling of graphene may deal with that.但在美国化学协会杂志刚发表的一篇论文《纳米》中,科拉尔士和她的同事们认为,加入少许石墨烯也许就能解决这个问题。The ceramic they experimented with was silicon nitride, a material much admired in the aerospace industry.她们测试的陶瓷材料是氮化硅--一种在太空工业中饱受赞誉的材料。Components are made by sintering it in powder form in a mould, at 1,000oC, for several hours.这些部件是将氮化硅粉末置于模具中,处于1000摄氏度高温下烧制数小时而成。Unfortunately, graphene disintegrates above 600oC, so the team had to think of a clever way of mixing the two materials.不幸的是,温度高于600摄氏度,石墨烯就碎裂,因此研究团队必须想出一种巧妙办法将两种材料融合在一起。Their solution was to take advantage of graphenes electrical conductivity, by running a current through the mixture. This generated a temperature of 1,650oC—more than enough to sinter the silicon nitride.解决办法就是利用石墨烯的导电特性,将电流通过混合物,产生的1650摄氏度的高温足以烧结氮化硅,而石墨烯也没有碎裂。The graphene, however, did not break down.其原理尚未完全弄清楚。Why, is not entirely clear. But rapid electrical heating did not seem to affect it in the way that slower oven heating would.但与通过熔炉缓慢加热不同,快速电加热对石墨烯看起来没有什么影响。The result was a composite that was able to withstand twice as much pressure as unalloyed silicon nitride.和纯氮化硅相比,其合成物能经受的压力强度翻倍。When the team examined what they had done under a microscope, they found that the graphene had wrapped itself around the silicon-nitride grains, forming continuous walls.当研究团队在显微镜下观察合成物时,他们发现石墨烯包裹在氮化硅颗粒周围,形成了连续的;壁;。When they looked at samples that they had whacked hard enough to come close to cracking, they found that these walls were encouraging the cracks to sp in three dimensions—in contrast with the two-dimensional pattern usually seen in silicon nitride.当检查这些不断敲击而近乎开裂的样品时,他们发现这些;壁;有助于裂纹向三个维度上延伸,和通常在氮化硅上观察到的;二维裂解模式;形成了对比。Dr Corral suspects that extending cracking into the third dimension dissipates the energy faster and stops the fault sping.科拉尔士推测,那种裂纹扩展为三个维度使能量扩散的更快,同时制止了缺陷的扩展。A cracking idea, as it were.通过三维裂纹来增强陶瓷材料强度,真是一个绝妙的点子! /201212/214745

“THEY hang out in pockets,” says Richard Pan, a Sacramento paediatrician and member of California’s legislature. He is referring to parents who, invoking a “philosophical exemption”, opt not to give their children the state-recommended vaccinations. In some pockets, such as the rural foothills of California’s Sierra Nevada, they may belong to the conservative don’t-t-on-me crowd that distrusts all government recommendations simply because they come from the government. In others, such as the liberal organic-food-and-yoga belt along the coast, parents may forswear vaccines because they see the shots as dangerous, and the diseases they protect against as mild.“他们常出现在一些比较另类的小地方。”说这话的是理查德-潘,他是萨科拉门托的一名儿科医生,也是加州立法机构的成员。他说的“他们”是那些援引“哲学豁免”规定,不给自己孩子注射州推荐疫苗的父母们。有些地方,比如加州内华达山脉丘陵地区的乡村,那里可能有保守的、以“不要踩我”为信条的民众,他们不相信所有政府推荐的东西,仅仅因为那是政府推荐的。在其他地方,比如沿海的“有机食品和瑜加”地带,这里的人们包容开放,但父母可能也会不给孩子接种疫苗。他们认为注射疫苗很危险,只能预防一些头疼脑热的小病。These local concentrations of unvaccinated children pose a growing risk to public health. For the most common shots, vaccination rates for America overall, and even California, are still above 90%, at or near the levels considered necessary to provide “herd immunity” for a population. But in places the rates have been falling for almost a decade. In many counties, towns and nursery schools--within Washington state, Oregon, Vermont and California, especially—vaccination rates are now far below the herd-immunity level.未接种疫苗的孩子集中在一个地区给公共健康造成的风险越来越大。在美国,甚至加州,大多数普通疫苗的总体接种率仍高于90%,达到或接近公认的“群体免疫”所要求的水平。但在有些地方,差不多有10年,接种率一直在下降。现在,许多县、镇以及托儿所(特别是华盛顿、俄勒冈、佛蒙特、加利福尼亚等州),接种率远远低于群体免疫水平。This trend, predictably, is leading to the resurgence of diseases considered vanquished long ago. In 2010, for example, California had an outbreak of whooping cough, which at its height put 455 babies in hospital and killed ten of them. Elsewhere there have been outbreaks of measles.可以预见,任由这种情况发展下去,人们认为早被征了的一些疾病又会卷土重来。比如,2010年,加州百日咳爆发,最严重时,有455个孩子住进医院,10个孩子因此丧生。还有的地区爆发过麻疹。The case for vaccination is clear. First, it makes the vaccinated individual either immune or resistant to a disease. Second, and more important, it interferes with contagion and thus makes the entire community safer, including those members, like newborn babies or the very sick, who cannot be vaccinated for medical reasons. The vaccination rate for herd immunity varies by disease, but usually falls between 85% and 95%.持疫苗接种的理由比较清楚。首先,它使接种个体具有免疫力,增强抗病能力;第二,这一点也更重要,它阻止疾病传播,使整个社区更加安全,其中包括那些回医疗原因不能接种的新生儿和重病者。不同的疾病对群体免疫接种率的要求不同,但通常应在85%到95%之间。The case against vaccination, by contrast, is not clear. One view seems to be that the diseases in question merely give you a rash and are a nuisance, whereas the vaccines will make your child autistic. That particular myth, still peddled on the internet, originated with Andrew Wakefield, a British doctor, who published a paper in 1998 that suggested a link between the common MMR shot (against measles, mumps and rubella) and autism. The paper has since been entirely discredited, and Dr Wakefield censured.比较而言,反对疫苗接种的理由就没那么清楚。一种观点似乎是这样的:疫苗所能预防的不过是些皮疹之类的小毛病,而接种会使你的孩子变得孤僻。仍在网上流传的这个荒诞说法源自英国一位名叫安德鲁#8226;韦克菲尔德的医生,1998年他在一篇文章中提出,常见的MMR接种(预防麻疹、腮腺炎和风疹)和孤独症之间存在关联。从那以后,人们就没有相信过这篇文章的说法,韦克菲尔德士也受到了公开谴责。201205/181349

Sublimation升华现象Sublimation on this moment of science.今天我们的节目要讲的是:升华现象。Pop quiz, everybody put away your books, and keep your eyes on your own radio.各位,请放下你们手中的书本,专心听收音机,我们来做一个突击测验。You fill the ice tray up to the rim and put it in the freezer. The ice that results will be用水将冰格填得满满的,漫过冰格的边缘,然后再将冰格放到冰箱的制冷室里,最后结成的冰会:a. at the rim b. over the rim c. under the rim. Answer? It depends.a. 刚好齐边 b. 边缘以上 c. 边缘以下 是?要看情况而定。I know, you hate that. But it does depend —it depends on how long you wait before checking on the ice again. My guess would be that most folks chose answer b: over the rim. That is correct, if you checked on the ice trays after only a couple hours. Thats because water expands when it turns into ice, as you know if you ever put a soda bottle in the freezer and came back to find it exploded all over the fish sticks.我明白,你们不喜欢这样的。但是,实际情况确实如此——取决于你要过多长时间去查看。我猜,很多人都会选择b选项:边缘以上。如果你在放入制冷室仅两个小时之后去查看的话,这个就是正确的。这是因为水在变成冰的时候会膨胀。就像大家所知道的,如果将一瓶汽水放在制冷室中,回头去看的时候会发现,汽水已经炸开了,整个制冷室中到处都是汽水。But if you were to leave the ice tray untouched for a couple of months, you might find the ice to be under the rim, or lower than the water was.但是,如果你将冰格放在制冷室中,好几个月都不动它的话,你会发现,冰在边缘以下,或是低于你之前装的水的高度。Huh? Didnt we just say water expands when it freezes? Initially, yes. But frozen water can do something else as well: it can sublimate. To sublimate is to go from one state to another without passing through the usual intermediary state.哈?我们刚刚不是才说了水在变成冰的时候会膨胀吗?最开始的时候,会。但是冷冻之后的水也会有其他的变化:升华。升华也就是物质不经中间状态直接从一个状态转变成另一个状态。By adding heat, ice can be melted into liquid water, which can be evaporated. Thats three states: solid, liquid, gas. But given enough time, ice can also turn into a gas without melting first! When your ice cubes seem to have shrunk, its because they are sublimating: the frozen water is slowly evaporating off the cubes, without ever actually melting.通过加热,冰可以化成液态水,液态水可以被蒸发为水蒸气。这是三个状态:固态,液态,气态。但是,如果时间足够的话,冰可以在不被融化的情况下转变为气态。如果你的冰“缩水”了,那是因为被升华了:在没有被融化的情况下,固态水以非常缓慢的速度在蒸发着。Will this work in any freezer? Next time.这种现象在任何的制冷器中都会出现吗?下次再谈。 /201208/194828

If you like curry then you must be delighted to learn that scientists in Ireland have found a certain type of curry spice can kill off cancer cells. The chemical—curcumin—can be found in the bright yellow curry spice turmeric. Its long thought to have healing powers.如果你喜欢咖喱,有个消息肯定会让你高兴:爱尔兰科学家发现了一种能杀死癌细胞的咖喱香料。这种化学物质——姜黄色素——能够在亮黄色的咖喱香料姜黄中找到。姜黄一直被认为是具有治疗功效。Tests by a team at the Cork Cancer Research Centre show it can destroy gullet cancer cells in the lab. The cancer cells began to digest themselves after the curcumin triggered lethal cell death signals. And this process started within 24 hours.科克癌症研究中心小组经实验明它能破坏食道癌细胞。姜黄素触发致命的细胞死亡信号之后,癌细胞就开始自身消化。且这一过程在24小时之内发生。Dr Lesley Walker, director of cancer information at Cancer Research UK, said: “This is an interesting research which opens up the possibility that natural chemicals found in turmeric could be developed into new treatments for oesophageal cancer.”英国癌症研究院癌症信息主任莱斯利·沃克医生说道:“这是项有趣的研究,它开启了在姜黄中发现的天然化合物能研发出治疗食道癌新方法的可能性。”Cancers of the oesophagus kill more than 500,000 people across the world each year. Its the sixth most common cause of cancer death in the UK. The tumours are especially deadly, with five-year survival rates of just 12 to 31 percent.全世界每年有五十多万人死于食道癌。食道癌是英国第六大常见的致死癌症。这种癌症尤为致命,患者存活5年的概率只有12%到31%。However Dr Sharon McKenna, lead researcher on the study says turmeric is broken down in the blood once ingested. A way is needed to be found to ensure it stayed in the circulatory system for longer to give it time to kill cancer cells. Asked if people with oesophageal cancer should now start eating lots of curries, she said turmeric was just one spice that was found in curry.然而,该项研究的首席研究员麦肯纳士说,姜黄一旦注入到血液,就会立刻分解。因此需要研究出一种的方法使姜黄在循环系统中更持久,这样就有时间杀死癌症细胞。被问及食道癌患者是否应该开始吃许多咖喱,她回答道姜黄只是在咖喱里发现的其中一种香料。“A curry contains a lot of other heavy spices that would not necessarily be good for you at all,” she said:“When you eat it, you are not applying it directly to the cancer cells as we were in the laboratory.” So theres no excuse to binge on curry meals after youve this. Maintaining a balanced diet remains our best option to a healthy lifestyle.“咖喱里含有许多其它重味香料,且它们不一定对你的身体有好处,”她说:“并且吃咖喱的时候,姜黄并没有直接作用于癌细胞,正如我们在实验中发现的那样”。因此读完这篇文章,你没有理由在吃饭时大吃特嚼咖喱。保持饮食平衡仍是最健康的生活方式。原文译文属!201301/222798Business Transport in Japan Bullet v budget商业 日本的交通 票战vs站票Can low-cost airlines beat bullet trains?低成本航空公司能击败子弹头列车吗?THE worlds busiest train route, and one of the busiest air routes, is between Tokyo and Osaka, Japans two biggest metropolitan areas.世界上最繁忙的铁路线和最繁忙的航线之一连接着日本最大的两个大都市区——东京和大阪。 (On that corridor, the shinkansen, as Japans bullet trains are known, were born in 1964.就是)这样一条通道在1964年见了如日本子弹头列车一样出名的新干线系统的诞生。They whizz 120,000 passengers a day smoothly from one place to another, on trains that leave every ten minutes.每10分钟一班,该系统一天之内可以快速且流畅得将120,000名乘客送抵各自的目的地。Although humans, not robots, are at the controls, the average delay is a miraculous 36 seconds.虽然该系统由人而非机器控制,却可以将平均延迟时间控制在令人不可思议的36秒内。To take all those passengers by air would require 667 aircraft, each with 180 seats, or five times Japans fleet of Boeing 737s, estimates Macquarie, an investment bank.据一家叫做麦格理的投资估算,如果上述乘客改乘飞机,则需动用667架180座的客机,5倍于整个日本的波音737保有量。Undeterred, between March and August three low-cost airlines will have started operations in Japan.即便如此,这仍未吓倒将于3月到8月份在日投入运营的三家低成本航空公司。It would be a miracle if they could help hammer down train and plane fares in Japan, which are excruciating.若其能冲击到日本高的离谱的火车和飞机票价的话,那(无疑)将会是个奇迹。For example, a one-way shinkansen ticket from Tokyo to Osaka costs ¥14,000 (0), and there are no discounts for return fares or for booking early.例如,一张东京到大阪的新干线单程票价为14,000日元(0),并且往返票和提起订票均不打折。But compared with Europe and other parts of Asia, where budget airlines have quickly gained market share, in Japan the low-cost model is expected to take time to take off.但与被低成本航空公司迅速抢占市场份额的欧洲和其他亚洲国家相比,日本廉价运输模式的施行还需时日。There are three main reasons for that, analysts say.First, all three newcomers have established parents. 分析师们认为主要原因有三: 一,即将投入运营的三家航空公司均有各自的母公司。Peach, which started flying in March, and Air Asia Japan, which starts in August, are part-owned by ANA, one of Japans two main carriers.分别于3月份和8月份营业的Peach和Air Asia Japan 的股东中均有ANA(日本最大的两家运输公司之一)的影子。Jetstar Japan, which launches operations in July, is one-third owned by Japan Airlines (JAL).Japan Airlines (JAL)持有Jetstar Japan(将于7月份投入运营)三分之一的股份。Such ties have usually hobbled low-cost airlines elsewhere: incumbents hate to cannibalise their own business. (Australia, where Qantas owns Jetstar, is an exception.) Analysts say the upstarts will thrive only if ANA and JAL step out of their way, letting them shake up the domestic tourist market.像这种关系通常会阻碍其他地方低成本航空公司的的发展:虎毒不食子。 (作为澳洲Jetstar母公司的Qantas除外) 分析师们还认为,除非ANA 和 JAL让出场子,即将登台的新贵们才有可能在国内旅游市场的舞台上大显身手。The big boys could then concentrate on long-haul and business travel.也好让诸位前辈(更好地)专注于长途和商务旅行上面。Second, the budget airlines may struggle to make similar profits to their lucrative low-cost counterparts in other countries because, despite deregulation, airport costs and fuel taxes in Japan remain among the highest in the world.其次,与其他国家的同行相比,尽管日本的低成本航空公司不受政府直接管制,但高居世界前列的机场建设费和燃油税却使他们难以企及其他国家同行们的高盈利能力。That could limit expansion, though Jetstar Japan is boldly aiming for 100 aircraft by the end of the decade, up from three at its launch.即使从3架飞机起家的Jetstar Japan将目标大胆得订为10年内实现100架飞机保有量,但依然改变不了上述困境限制航空公司扩张的事实。Third, it will be hard to convince finicky Japanese passengers that low fares make up for the lack of comfort and convenience they are used to.第三,推行低廉票价难免降低早已被日本民众所习惯的乘坐舒适和便利程度,然而说这些挑剔的乘客接受这一点却并不容易。Jetstar and Air Asia are using Narita airport as their hub, which is expensive and time-consuming to get to from Tokyo.兼做Jetstar和Air Asia航空港的成田机场不仅租金昂贵,而且与东京之间的交通不便。The main carriers use Haneda, which is closer to the capital and cheaper. The shinkansen zoom out of the city centre, with no reservations needed.主要运输公司以Haneda作为航空港,该港不仅离首都更近而且租金更便宜, 毕竟时时都有新干线列车从Haneda市中心风驰而出。Miyuki Suzuki, the boss of Jetstar Japan, says her companys strategy is to use low fares to persuade people to make trips they would otherwise not have made at all.Jetstar Japan的老总Miyuki Suzuki说依她执掌的公司战略来看,如果票价降低,人们就可能做一些他们以前压根就不会做的旅行。More tourists, she hopes, will start visiting Japans most far-flung islands. She says she will not go head-to-head with the shinkansen (though her airline will fly between Tokyo and Osaka).她希望有更多的游客光顾偏远的日本岛屿, 并且表示将不会与新干线正面交锋(虽然该公司也运营东京到大阪的航线)。Peach and Air Asia Japan have their sights not only on domestic flights but also on the route between Tokyo and Seoul, the nearest foreign capital.Peach 和Air Asia Japan的业务不仅涉及日本国内航空,还包括一条东京到首尔(离东京最近的外国首都)的航线。They may be eyeing the East Asian market, where low-cost penetration lags behind the rest of Asia.并且因为东亚低成本航空业务不及亚洲其他地区,因此他们可能会进军该市场。Alas, none of Japans new budget carriers is expected to be as cut-throat as low-cost carriers elsewhere.不幸的是,日本没有一家新的特价航空公司像其他地区的同行一样极具竞争力。Ms Suzuki says Jetstar Japan will allow its passengers to book through travel agents, which are still ubiquitous, as well as online.Suzuki女士说Jetstar Japan的乘客既可以从无处不在的售票中介那里购票,也可以选择网购。;This is Japan,; she says, with a sympathetic air unusual for a budget-airline boss, ;its not all going to be self-service.;她以一种同行老总很少表露的同情的语气说道:;这是在日本,不是所有的机票都会实自助售卖。; /201212/212975

Science and technology科学与技术The fight against AIDS对抗艾滋病HIVs slow retreat艾滋病的缓慢退却One of the worlds worst plagues is giving ground抗击艾滋病:显现曙光THE timing of the popes much-discussed change of position on the use of condoms to prevent the sp of HIV was surely no coincidence.近期罗马教皇改变了其对于使用避套以防止艾滋病传播的立场,引来一片议论。这个时间绝非巧合。He made it on November 21st—ten days before World AIDS Day and two before UNAIDS, the ed Nations body charged with combating the epidemic, released its latest report on the state of the battle.他是本月21日向外界宣布的—恰逢世界艾滋病日前十天,也是在两天后,负责抗击艾滋病的联合国机构—联合国艾滋病规划署发布了其最新的艾滋病防治工作报告。That report carries good news.这份报告带来了好消息。Though some 33m people are infected, the rate of new infections is falling—down from 3.1m a year a decade ago to 2.6m in .纵使艾滋病毒感染人数已达3300万,但新增感染者的速度正在放慢—从十年前的每年感染310万人降至年的260万人。Moreover, as the map shows, the figure is falling fastest in many of the most heavily infected countries, especially those of sub-Saharan Africa and South and South-East Asia.此外,从这张地图上可以看出,正是那些感染最严重的国家新增感染者的速度下降最快,尤其是撒哈拉以南的非洲国家以及南亚、东南亚国家。The reason is a combination of behavioural change, a big reduction in mother-to-child transmission at birth and during breast-feeding, and the roll-out of drug treatment for those aly infected.此中原因是多方面的:包括性行为方式的改变,母婴分娩传播与哺乳传播的大幅减少,以及已感染者对毒品的戒除。Besides prolonging life, anti-HIV drugs make those taking them less likely to pass the virus on.抗艾滋药物除了可以延长生命,还可降低用者将病毒向他人传播的几率。More than 5m people in poor and middle-income countries are now on such drugs, though Michel Sidibe, the head of UNAIDS, says another 10m could benefit.超过500万来自贫困或中等收入国家的艾滋病患者正在用这种药物,即使这样,据联合国艾滋病规划署的负责人Michel?Sidibe说,仍有超过1000万人需要这种药物。The problem, as always, is money.资金不足始终是个问题。Dr Sidibe reckons the fight needs about billion a year to be fully effective.Sidibe士认为,抗击艾滋病每年大约需250亿美元方可全力维持。At the moment, the sum spent is around billion.但现在最高的年出只有约170亿美元。Not a bad fraction of the desideratum, but one that will be hard to sustain in the face of the worlds economic difficulties.与总需求相比这还不算太糟,但在全球经济面临困境的当下,想维持这一水平却又是个难题。 点击此处下载本期经济学人讲解PDF与音频字幕 /201302/227679In his book Cosmos, the late scientist Carl Sagan talks about the way in which the earth is regularly struck by material from outer space. These collisions with space debris can be minor–as in a shooting star on a summer night–or amazingly destructive, as in the collision that probably killed off the dinosaurs. Thankfully, the biggies are extremely rare.已故科学家卡尔·萨根在著作《宇宙》中叙述了外太空物体如何有规律和地球发生碰撞。太空垃圾和地球碰撞的机率很小,就像夏夜划过流星,破\坏性却很大,这种碰撞可以令恐龙灭绝。值得庆幸的是,这种机率太渺茫了。Sagan makes the point that the most dangerous collision facing us now, however, is one that might be mistaken for something else: a nuclear attack. He warned that thinking an asteroid is actually an ICBM could result in the worst possible destruction–an unintended war.萨根阐述的观点是目前我们面临的最危险的是碰撞而非人们误解的核战。他提醒人们,事实上,行星就像洲际弹道导弹,可能产生意料外破坏性极大的战争后果。Was this just paranoid thinking? Unfortunately, no. Carl Sagan is no longer with us, but in testimony before congress just last year, a ed States Air Force brigadier general warned that just such a thing almost happened in June of two thousand and two. That’s when a meteoroid entered the earth’s atmosphere over the Mediterranean and was picked up by U.S. early-warning satellites on the lookout for high-altitude explosions and incoming missiles.这仅仅是偏执思维吗?不幸地是,无独有偶。去年(本文发表于2003年),一位美过空军准将在国会的一份词中称类似的事情发生在2002年6月。美国预警卫星在监测高空爆炸物和来袭导弹时发现一颗流星穿破地球大气层,降落在地中海地区。The alarming object falling from the sky was recognized for what it was, this time. The generals’ point, though, was that we never know where space junk will fall. Turn the globe by just a few hours earlier on that day in June and the meteoroid would have been over the border of Pakistan and India–exactly where everyone was fearing a nuclear attack.而这次人们确认从天而降令人惶恐的物体究竟是什么。准将指出我们无法确定太空垃圾降落在什么地方。如果六月的这天,地球转动退回到几小时前,流星降落的地方就正好是巴基斯坦和印度的交界处,世人唯恐发生核战的交界地。We’ve been lucky so far. But Carl Sagan’s warning came perilously close to becoming a prophecy and a harmless natural event in the sky, to triggering a terrible event here on earth.迄今为止,我们都还很幸运。但是,卡尔·萨根的提醒很可能是可怕的预言,本来平常的天空自然事件很可能引发地球灾难。 /201304/232914

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