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呼和浩特京美医疗整形美容医院做抽脂手术多少钱Cycling in London骑行在伦敦Wheel ambition车轮上的野心Gradually, the capital is becoming a better place for cyclists渐渐地,首都变成了一个更适宜骑行的地方TWO things are commonly seen atop the head of Boris Johnson, Londons mayor: a mop of unruly, peroxide-blond hair and a cycling helmet. Since coming to office in 2008 Mr Johnson has tried to make London a better city for two-wheeled transport. He has been only partly successful. But on February 4th Transport for London, the citys road and rail authority, signed off on two “cycle superhighways” that will be the mayors most visible legacy to his city.伦敦市长鲍里斯·约翰逊头上总顶着两样东西:染过的蓬乱金发和自行车头盔。自从2008年上任以来,约翰逊就试图让伦敦成为一个更适宜两轮交通的城市。他仅成功了一部分。但在2月4号,该市的道路铁路当局—伦敦交通局同意建设两条“自行车超级高速公路”,这将是市长为该市留下的最显而易见的馈赠。Cycling in London is less pleasant than in many European cities. Main roads teem with lorries; winding back streets are hard to navigate. The number of bicycle journeys has nonetheless doubled since 2000. Nationally, just 2% pedal to work. In Hackney, in Londons East End, fully 9% do. But the capitals cyclists mostly seem to resemble Mr Johnson. Only 2% of women cycle to work in London, compared with 5% of men. Blacks and other ethnic minorities are reluctant to do it, too.在伦敦骑行和许多欧洲城市相比,并没那么愉快。主要大道上挤满了卡车;里弄小巷又很难导航。尽管如此,骑自行车出行的次数自2000年以来还是翻倍了。就全国而言,仅有2%的人骑自行车上班。在伦敦东部的哈克尼区,有近9%的人这样做。但首都的自行车骑行者貌似大多数都和约翰逊相似。在伦敦仅2%的女性骑行上班,与之相比男性有5%。黑人和其他的少数族裔也不愿骑行。The mayor oversaw the introduction of a bike-hiring scheme, which was started by his predecessor but quickly became known as the “Boris bike”. He pushed for bright blue cycle paths on some busy roads. But the new cycle highways are far more ambitious and permanent. One will run east-west through the City and the West End. Another will run two miles from Elephant and Castle in the south to Farringdon in north London.Four existing routes will also be improved, while around 30 of the citys busiest junctions will be made a bit less perilous.市长监督着自行车租借计划的引进,这是由他的前任开启的,但后来很快就被称为了“鲍里斯自行车”。他积极推进在一些繁忙道路上建设宝蓝色的自行车通道。但新的自行车高速公路要更具有野心也更持久。一条将东西横穿整个城市和伦敦西区。另一条从南边的象堡到北伦敦的法灵顿,延伸两英里。四条已存的道路也将升级,与此同时该市约30个最繁忙的交叉路口将被整顿,变得没那么危险。The new superhighways ought to be much safer than Londons existing cycle lanes. A raised pavement will keep cyclists away from cars and lorries. Junctions will be redesigned and some parking bays—including a few for the disabled—will be removed. Cars will be prevented from turning down certain streets. Similar schemes exist elsewhere: since 2007 around 30 miles of protected cycle lanes have been created in New York. In Amsterdam, where lanes have existed for decades, old people and women are far more inclined to cycle.新的超级高速公路应该比伦敦现存的自行车道更安全。高于一般路面的自行车道将使骑行者与汽车和卡车保持距离。交叉路口将会被重新设计,一部分包括少量残障人士专用的停车位将被移除。在某些特定街道汽车不允许掉头。类似的计划在其他地方也可以看到:自2007年,纽约建造了约30英里的受到保护的自行车道。在阿姆斯特丹,自行车道已存在了数十年,老人和女性尤其倾向于骑自行车出行。Greens have long lobbied for cycle paths on the grounds that moving people out of cars cuts air pollution. A series of highly publicised accidents, including one involving a newspaper journalist, and several deaths in the city have also put pressure on the mayor to make London safer.环保主义者基于人们不开汽车可以减少空气污染的观点,很早就在游说要建设自行车道。包括一名新闻记者以及几起死亡事故在内的一系列受到大众关注的交通事件也给市长施加了压力,要使伦敦变得更安全。And the social transformation of the capital has encouraged officials to smile on cyclists. The population of inner London is rebounding as affluent folk move in (see article). The new inhabitants want cleaner streets and fewer cars, which are viewed as suburban. Cycling was once a means of transport for the poor. But it has become an important marker of an affluent world city, argues Isabel Dedring, the deputy mayor for transport. “Theres more pressure on cities to be nice places to live,” she says.伦敦的社会变革也促使政府官员对骑行者展露笑颜。随着富人的搬入,伦敦中心的人口数正在回升。新的居民想要更干净的街道和更少的汽车,这看起来更像郊区。骑自行车曾是穷人的交通方式。但这已变成了富裕的国际都市的一个重要标志,交通部副部长伊莎贝尔·黛德林如是说。她表示:“城市面临的更大压力是如何变得更宜居。”译者:王颖 校对:胡雅琳译文属译生译世 /201502/360417呼和浩特玻尿酸填充脸颊哪家医院好 Leaders Satellites Space: the next startup frontier社论精粹 卫星 太空:下一个Where nanosats boldly go, new businesses will follow—unless they are smothered with excessive regulations微型卫星大胆地去哪儿,新的商业就会跟去哪儿—除非他们受到过度监管的阻碍AROUND 1,000 operational satellites are circling the Earth, some of them the size and weight of a large car. In the past year they have been joined by junior offspring: 100 or so small satellites, some of them made up of one or more 10cm (4-inch) cubes. They may be tiny, but each is vastly more capable than Sputnik, the first man-made satellite launched by Russia in 1957. And many more are coming.大约1000颗运转着的卫星正围绕着地球旋转,其中有些卫星的体积和重量和汽车差不多。去年,初级后代加入了他们的队伍:100颗左右的小卫星,他们中有些是由一个或多个10厘米(4英尺)的立方体组成。他们可能很小,但是他们每个都比1957年前苏联发射的首颗人造卫星Sputnik功能性强得多。而且还有更多这样的卫星即将面世。Space hardware used to cost so much that it was available only to generals, multinationals and the most privileged scientists. No more. Many of these nanosats, as small satellites weighing no more than a few kilograms are called, have been launched for small companies, startups and university departments, sometimes with finance raised on crowdfunding websites. Their construction costs can be down in the tens of thousands of dollars, which makes them thousands of times cheaper than todays big satellites. Admittedly, there is much they cannot do, but with that sort of price differential, and some ingenious use of the abilities they do have, they could be surprisingly competitive players on a number of fronts. In the next five years another 1,000 nanosats are expected to be launched.过去,太空硬件太贵了,只有将军,跨国公司和最享有特权的科学家才能有权使用。没有其他人有权使用。许多这种微型卫星——由于小卫星质量不超过几千克而得此名——已经提供给小公司、新创办的公司和大学一些系发射,有时在集体融资网站集资。他们的制造成本可以降低好几万美元,这使得他们比目前的大卫星便宜成千上万倍。不可否认的,这些卫星有许多办不了的事儿,但是在那种价格差下,加以巧妙使用他们已有的功能,他们可以在许多方面出乎意料地成为有竞争力的选手。在接下来的五年,还有1000颗微型卫星有望被发射出去。Two trends are setting up nanosats for further success. Like people working on everything from robots to 3D printers, nanosat builders are harvesting the benefits of ever better, ever cheaper components built for smartphones and other consumer electronics. Some nanosats even contain complete smartphones, making use of the clever operating systems, radios and cameras which phones now contain. For as long as phones go on getting cheaper and more capable, so will nanosats. The cheapest so far—a tiny chipsat—was assembled for just , though it has yet to be successfully launched.两个趋势为微型卫星进一步的成功奠定了基础。就像从研究机器人到3D打印的人们一样,微型卫星的制造者从智能手机和其他家用电子产品中获得了更廉价更好的元件。有些微型卫星甚至装有整个手机装置,利用手机目前现有的智能的操作系统、电台和照相机功能。只要手机在一直降价并且越来越智能化,微型卫星也会同样变便宜并且更智能。目前最便宜的——微型芯片卫星——只花了25美元进行配置,尽管它暂时还没有被成功发射出去。The launch systems too are getting much cheaper. SpaceX, the innovative rocket-maker founded by Elon Musk, has aly brought down the costs of getting into space; it and its competitors could reduce them a lot further. The biggest beneficiaries will at first be people who make big satellites. But more big satellites will mean more opportunities for small satellites to piggy-back on their launches. And some companies are looking at cheap little launch systems tailored specifically to the needs of the nanosatellite. One reason space engineers are notoriously conservative is that the costs of failure are high. As making and launching satellites gets cheaper, it will be ever easier for innovative, risk-taking nanosat-makers to orbit around the lumbering incumbents.发射系统也越来越便宜了。伊隆?马斯克创办的创新火箭制造公司太空探索技术公司已经降低了发射卫星到太空的成本了,该公司及其竞争对手可以进一步降低发射成本。最大的受益人首先就是制造大型卫星的人。但是越多大型卫星发射就意味着越多的机会给小卫星。一些公司在研究廉价小型发射系统专用于满足微型卫星的需求。太空工程师出了名的保守一个原因是失败的代价太高。随着制造和发射卫星越来越便宜,微型卫星制造者就越容易进行创新和冒险环绕XX运行。Size does impose limits. Nanosats cannot peer as closely at the Earth or carry out as many experiments as big satellites. But for some jobs that does not matter. The plans that companies aly have include using nanosats for monitoring crops, studying the sun and tracking ships and aircraft. Such a system might have been able to track Malaysian Airlines flight MH370, which went missing in March.体积确实会产生限制。微型卫星不能像大型卫星一样把地球看得那么仔细,也不能像大型卫星一样进行那么多实验。但是对有些工作来说,体积并不重要。公司现有的计划包括用微型卫星监控农作物,研究太阳和追踪船只和飞机。这种系统可能可以追踪三月份失踪的马航MH370。Nano can do微型卫星可以做到Yet not everyone is thrilled. One worry is that constellations of nanosats will mean a big increase in space junk; but, operating in low-Earth orbit, they burn up on re-entry after a year or so. And being cheap, they can soon be replaced with newer models. A more serious concern is that they are a “dual-use” technology: they could be used for military purposes. In America this has led to onerous restrictions.但是没有人很兴奋。其中一个担忧是一群微型卫星就意味着太空垃圾大量增加,但是,如果在近地轨道运行,这些卫星就会烧掉或者一年后重新进入轨道。因为便宜,这些卫星可以很快被更新的型号取代。更应该关注的是他们是“军民两用”的技术:这些卫星也可以用于军事用途。在美国,这个引发了麻烦的限制。Barack Obamas administration has sensibly repealed a law of 1999 that required all satellites to be licensed by the State Department as munitions under the International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR). This could mean that most commercial satellites will be removed from ITAR by the end of the year and their export administered by the Commerce Department. But some satellite systems and spacecraft—including anything that can carry people into space—will remain under ITAR.巴拉克?奥巴马的政府明智地撤销了1999年的一项法规,这项法规规定所有的卫星都要遵循《国际武器贸易条例》,作为军需品通过国务院授权。这可能意味着嘴商业化的卫星将于今年年底从国际武器贸易条例中去除,并且他们的出口受商务部管理。但是一些卫星系统和飞机——包括一切可以载人进入太空的东西—还是要遵循《国际武器贸易条例》。Care needs to be taken with military kit, but Americas regulations still seem excessive. A regular review to distinguish between systems that pose a real threat and ones that dont would be a help, as would better intelligence. Tight restrictions on new technologies will not work, and will damage Americas interests: exciting new ventures like nanosats will simply move to countries from which they can be launched with greater ease.军用装备需要小心,但是美国的条例看起来还是过分了。定期检查区分形成真正威胁的系统和没有形成威胁的系统会有效,还会更明智。对新技术的严格限制不会有用,还会损害美国的利益:像微型卫星那样令人兴奋的新冒险只会转移到发射更容易的国家去。译者:王丹培 译文属译生译世 /201506/379880新城区治疗粉刺多少钱

呼和浩特市中医医院打瘦腿针多少钱China亚洲中国Housing房产Why grumble?为何怨声载道?silver lining to the housing cloud房产疑云的一线希望JUST how bad is Chinas housing bubble? One important measure—the most important for those trying to get a foot on the property ladder—is affordability. Many believe that Chinese housing prices have soared well beyond the reach of ordinary people. There is some truth to that. But a closer look at the data reveals a more complex picture. The Economist Intelligence , our sister company, created a city-level index to track the relation between housing prices and incomes across China. Two points stand out.中国房地产泡沫有多严重?要衡量这个问题,经济可承受性是一重要指标,它是人们试图在购买住宅的重中之重。许多人相信,中国的房屋价格飙升到了一个常人难以企及的地步。这大约是正确的。不过对数据的进一步观察揭示了一个更为复杂的局面。我们的兄弟公司,经济学人智库开发了一个基于城市层面的指数,它可以追踪中国房价与收入的关系。有两点十分引人注目。First, the countrys biggest cities such as Beijing and Shanghai, with populations of more than 10m, are in a class of their own in terms of unaffordability (see chart; for full results go to our website). Homes are markedly cheaper in almost all slightly smaller cities, even though they have millions of residents. The price of a 100-square-metre house is on average 14-fold higher than annual household incomes in mega-cities. For cities with populations of less than 10m, the price to income ratio is eight. It thus makes sense for Chinas cities to tailor their housing policies to their own needs; some must focus on building more subsidised homes, while others need to attract new residents to occupy their many homes now standing empty.首先,中国诸如北京、上海此类的大城市拥有超过1千万的人口,他们处于无法负担房价的那个层次(如表所示;去我们的网站可以看到完整版)。几乎所有的较小城市中,即使拥有几百万人口,房价也要明显地便宜。在大城市里,一处100平方米的住宅价格平均超过了家庭年收入的14倍。那些人口少于1000万的城市,房价与收入的比率是8。因此,中国的城市为了迎合他们自身的需求而调整房屋政策是一件有意义的事情;一些城市必须注重经济适用房的建设,同时其他城市需要吸引新居民去消费大量空房。Second, regardless of city size, housing has become more affordable over the past four years throughout China. At the peak, in April 2010, house prices on average were nearly 12 times household incomes; that has dropped to less than nine times today. Prices are higher than in many developing countries, but they are not wildly divergent.第二,不考虑城市的规模的情况下,纵观全国,过去四年中人们更加能负担得起住宅费用。2010年4月达到最顶峰,此时住宅售价是家庭年收入近12倍;这个比率已经降到如今的不足9倍。发展中国家的房价比较高,但是中国的房价比之其他发展中国家也高不了多少。The apparent improvement in affordability does not tally with the perception of many Chinese. But the official price data used in constructing this index show that people are adjusting to high inner-city prices by buying homes that are ever farther from urban centres. That may not be especially painful: suburbs are increasingly well-connected by roads and railways.经济可承受性的明显改善与中国人的感知并不完全相符。但是,我们的指标用上了官方的数据,这些数据显示人们通过购买远离市中心的住房来适应高昂的中心城区房价。这也许不会特别痛苦,因为市郊正越来越多地与大路和铁路紧密相连。The bigger concern, especially in smaller cities, is that China suffers from an oversupply of housing. So many homes have been built that prices in such cities are now declining quickly relative to incomes. That is desirable. But a big, sudden rise in affordability could pose considerable risks to the financial system, which is heavily exposed to loans made to the property sector. So far, at least, China has yet to experience the pain of a property-market crash.另外有一个大问题,中国面临着住宅供大于求的糟糕局面,特别是在较小的城市中。这么多的住房竣工落成,而这些城市里的房价正相对于收入迅速下跌。这本让人高兴不已。但是经济可承受性短时间内大幅度的升高会对金融系统造成相当大的风险,特别是那些投放在房地产市场的贷款。到目前为止,至少还没有历经房地产崩溃的痛苦。译者:卢意 校对:伍豪 译文属译生译世 /201505/374029 呼和浩特做梨窝需要多少钱内蒙古医学院第一附属医院祛眼袋多少钱

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