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2018年12月12日 06:48:37


呼和浩特手术去除抬头纹内蒙古骨科医院修眉手术多少钱Nathan Rothschild was the richest man in the world when he died in 1836. A list compiled by Forbes magazine, ranks him as the second richest man who ever lived – ahead of John D#8201;Rockefeller, and way ahead of Mexican telecoms mogul Carlos Slim and Bill Gates of Microsoft. (The richest was a Roman general who was the power behind Julius Caesar’s throne.) The figures used by Forbes are, of course, adjusted for inflation.内森#8226;罗斯柴尔德(Nathan Rothschild)于1836年去世,当时他是世界首富。在《福布斯》(Forbes)杂志编撰的一份榜单上,他被评为有史以来第二富有的人——排在约翰#8226;D#8226;洛克菲勒(John D. Rockefeller)之前,远远领先于墨西哥电信巨头卡洛斯#8226;斯利姆(Carlos Slim)和微软(Microsoft)的比尔#8226;盖茨(Bill Gates)。(有史以来最富有的是一位罗马将军,是他把凯撒(Julius Caesar)推上皇位的。)当然,《福布斯》使用的数字经过了通胀调整。But what does “adjusted for inflation” mean? Rothschild died of septicaemia following an abscess, and in spite of buying the best medical attention available in Europe at the time. He had never been in a car, a train or an aircraft, nor visited the Taj Mahal, heard recorded music, seen a film, made a phone call or used electric light. Nor (despite the legends about the killing he made from inside information) could he have heard about the outcome of Waterloo until many hours after the battle was won. And he was dead at the age of 58 from an illness that could today be cured by an antibiotic costing a few pence.但“经过了通胀调整”是什么意思?尽管能够享受当时欧洲最好的医疗条件,罗斯柴尔德仍死于脓肿引发的败血症。他从没坐过汽车、火车、飞机,也没到过泰姬陵(Taj Mahal),没听过录制音乐,没看过电影,没打过电话,也没用过电灯。滑铁卢战役分出胜负几小时后,他才有可能得知结果(尽管有传闻称他利用内幕消息发了大财)。他在58岁那年病逝,若换到今天,那种病只消花上几便士买点抗生素便能治愈。Was Rothschild really the second richest man in history? Was he, in fact, richer than me? True, he could hire a fleet of carriages and eat off gold plate; but I would happily trade both for still being alive , and I suspect that Rothschild would have felt the same.罗斯柴尔德真的是历史上第二富有的人吗?那时的他,比现在的我富裕吗?没错,他雇得起一整马车队,用金盘子吃饭;但跟继续活下来相比,我宁愿不要这两者——我猜罗斯柴尔德也会这么想。The question is prompted by a considerably more mundane event. Inflation in the eurozone has fallen to 0.3 per cent, arousing concerns that there might actually be deflation in the months ahead – and that Eurostat, Europe’s statistics agency, will soon declare that prices in Europe are lower than a year earlier.我是由一件很普通的事情想到这个问题的。欧元区的通胀率已降至0.3%,令人担忧未来几个月可能真的发生通缩,而欧盟统计局(Eurostat)将在不久之后宣布,欧洲的物价低于一年前。That worry is premised on the existence of a qualitative difference between inflation – that is, prices rising, even if slowly; and deflation – prices falling, however swiftly. It is also premised on an assumption that deflation is undesirable and that the goal should be gently rising prices; and on the belief that we are able to tell which state we are in.人们之所以会产生这种担心,一个前提是通胀与通缩性质不同——前者指物价上涨,哪怕上涨缓慢;后者指物价下降,无论降得有多么快。另一个前提是关于通缩是不可取的、应该以物价温和上升为目标的观念,以及我们能够判断通胀形势的想法。Contemplation of the antibiotics not available in 1836 casts doubt on all these premises. It is generally accepted medical costs rise faster than general inflation – and in the US, where they represent more than 20 per cent of consumer spending, they have contributed significantly to that general inflation. But medicine has become better – quite a lot better, even if too late for Rothschild.考虑到1836年还没有抗生素,这就令人对上述所有假设产生了怀疑。大家普遍认为,医疗成本上涨快于总体通胀率。在美国,医疗费用对总体通胀率的贡献很大,因为它在消费者出中的占比高于20%。然而,医疗技术已经进步,比以往好很多,尽管这对罗斯柴尔德来说已太迟了。Price indices are compiled by measuring the changes in the cost of buying a fixed bundle of goods chosen to represent the consumption of an average household. But what the average household buys changes with the arrival of new goods; and with changes in relative prices; as well as with variations – good and bad – in quality. Antibiotics replace leeches, carriages become more expensive, computers become more powerful, and the service from a call-centre deteriorates. That is how modern economies evolve and grow.统计人员选取能代表普通家庭消费状况的一篮子物品,测算这些物品的价格变化,从而计算出物价指数。但普通家庭购买的物品组合会随着新商品的问世而变化;也随着相对价格的变化而变化;还随着商品质量(优与劣)的变化而变化。抗生素取代了蚂蟥,马车价格变得更贵,计算机变得更强大,而呼叫中心的务却恶化了。这就是现代经济演进与发展的方式。But price indices are ill equipped to cope with these changes. The bundle of goods Rothschild bought in his day might now be prohibitively expensive, even for him – the carriages, the plate – and is certainly very different from the bundle of goods Mr Gates would want to buy. The difference in consumption patterns of an average household is more dramatic still.但物价指标不能很好地适应这些变化。罗斯柴尔德当年买的一篮子物品,放在今天可能价格高不可攀,即便对他来说也是一样——那些马车、金盘子——当然跟盖茨今天想买的一篮子物品也有很大不同。普通家庭消费模式的变化更是大得惊人。There are techniques for measuring and incorporating quality improvements, which are used for many consumer goods – but in the case of medicine, it is the amount of attention received that has increased rather than the price of treatments.如今有一些技术可以衡量并计入质量改进因素,这些技术已使用到许多消费品上——但就医疗而言,上升的是病人得到的护理务总量,而非治疗的价格。Overall, there are probably more upward than downward biases in the way inflation is calculated. But to claim that we know that prices have risen by 0.3 per cent in the past year implies a degree of precision in our estimates to which we cannot lay claim nor realistically aspire.总体而言,在计算通胀率过程中,高估的倾向可能要大于低估的倾向。但是,声称我们知道物价在过去一年里上涨了0.3%,等于暗示我们的估算有一定精确度——其实我们不可能达到那样的精确度,那是不切实际的妄想。 /201411/341766呼和浩特市去眼角纹多少钱PARIS — In France, the country of Sartre and Molière, literary knowledge is considered a sign of savoir faire, and all the more so, perhaps, if you are the person presiding over the country’s culture budget.巴黎——在诞生了萨特(Sartre)和莫里哀(Molière)的法国,文学知识被认为是明智的标志,如果你是负责该国文化预算的那个人,或许更是如此。So an admission by the French culture minister, Fleur Pellerin, that she has not a book in two years has provoked horror among some members of the cultural elite here.因此,法国文化部长弗勒尔·佩尔兰(Fleur Pellerin)承认过去两年从未读过一本书的事,让这里的部分文化精英感到震惊。The awkward confession, in an interview over the weekend on the television channel Canal Plus, spawned a storm of criticism on social media and beyond, and even some demands for the resignation of a seemingly uncultured culture minister who had previously been lauded for her intellect and style.佩尔兰是周末在接受Canal Plus电视频道的采访(本文最初发表于2014年10月29日)时,尴尬地讲出此事的。这番爆料在社交媒体及以外的地方遭到口诛笔伐,部分人甚至要求这位看似没文化的文化部长辞职。而此前,这位文化部长曾凭借其才智和风度赢得赞誉。When asked to name her favorite book by Patrick Modiano, the French author who recently won the Nobel Prize in Literature, Ms. Pellerin laughed uncomfortably, unable to name any work by the celebrated writer.当让其说出最喜欢的法国作家帕特里克·莫迪亚诺(Patrick Modiano)的一本书时,佩尔兰不自在地笑了。她说不出这名前不久刚获得诺贝尔文学奖的著名作家的任何一部作品。Only weeks before, Ms. Pellerin had applauded Mr. Modiano for conveying France’s literary influence and vitality “in the eyes of the world.” And earlier in the interview, she had gushed that she had shared a wonderful lunch with Mr. Modiano, found him nice and laughed a lot.而就在几周前,佩尔兰还盛赞莫迪亚诺“向全世界”传递了法国的文学影响力和活力。而且在让其说出最喜欢的莫迪亚诺著作之前,她还在采访中大谈曾和莫迪亚诺共进午餐,觉得莫迪亚诺人很好,曾与他多次开怀大笑。Mr. Modiano, the 15th French writer to win the Nobel for literature, has published 30 works, including moody and concise fictional works set in Paris during World War II.莫迪亚诺是第15位获得诺贝尔文学奖的法国作家,他出版了30本书,其中包括背景设置在二战时期巴黎的一些沉郁而简练的小说。Making matters worse, to some cultural observers, Ms. Pellerin said she had no problem admitting that she had not had much time to a book for pleasure in two years.对于一些文化观察人士来说,更糟的是,佩尔兰在过去两年没有出于乐趣读过任何一本书,却不觉得承认这一点有什么问题。“I a lot of notes, a lot of legal texts, the news, A.F.P. stories, but I very little,” she said.她说,“我阅读了很多笔记,很多法律文本、新闻,以及法新社(AFP)的报道,但我很少读书。”The exchange was seen as an embarrassment among some members of the cultural cognoscenti, who have been basking in France’s cultural supremacy, with a flurry of new museum openings and the Nobel Prize, at a time when the economy and government are struggling.一些文化专家认为,这是一次令人尴尬的对话。目前,这里的文化专家们正沐浴着法国文化优势的光芒,在法国经济及政府苦苦挣扎的同时,新物馆却纷纷开门,法国作家也获得了诺贝尔文学奖。At the French site of The Huffington Post, Claude Askolovitch, a writer, said Ms. Pellerin’s oversight was no less than “barbaric” and called for her to resign, arguing that what he described as her crude indifference to France’s Nobel laureate made her unfit for the job.作家克劳德·阿斯克洛维奇(Claude Askolovitch)在《赫芬顿邮报》(The Huffington Post)法文版网站上发表文章称,佩尔兰的疏忽说“野蛮”也不过分,并要求她辞职,他辩称,佩尔兰不加掩饰地漠视法国的诺贝尔奖得主,因此不适合做文化部长这份工作。“Barbarism is here,” he said. “If one can be culture minister without ing, then we are mere technocrats and budgeters.” He chided her for prioritizing the ing of ministerial memos over the uplift provided by great literary works.“这是一种野蛮行为,”他说。“如果一个不读书的人能成为文化部长,那我们就只是些技术统治论者和预算编制者了。”他指责佩尔兰优先选择阅读部长级备忘录,而不是通过伟大文学作品提升素养。Others, however, were more forgiving and commended Ms. Pellerin for showing a candor all too rare among politicians.然而其他人的态度却更宽容,还称赞佩尔兰表现出了政治人物身上少有的坦诚。Defenders noted that until recently, Ms. Pellerin had been a junior minister in charge of promoting small and medium-size businesses, innovation and the digital economy, and that such savvy trumped literary knowledge at a time when the economy was sputtering and culture budgets were stretched thin.替佩尔兰辩护的人指出,她作为一个年轻的部长,过去一直负责扶持中小企业、创新和数字经济,当前经济乏力而且文化预算捉襟见肘,对经济的熟稔,当然比文学知识更重要。“One can salute her frankness, understanding that the life of a minister leaves little time for the calm required for ing, and even salute the spontaneity of Fleur Pellerin,” said an article in Le Point titled “Fleur Pellerin hasn’t Modiano! So what?”《观点》(Le Point)杂志上一篇题为“弗勒尔·佩尔兰没读过莫迪亚诺又怎样?”的文章写道,“我们应该向她的诚实致敬,要明白部长的生活留不出多少空闲时间,没有阅读所需的那种沉静。我们甚至应该称赞弗勒尔·佩尔兰的率性。”Even before, Ms. Pellerin, 41, had become an object of some fascination among the French. Born in South Korea, she was adopted by a French family when she was 6 months old. She graduated at the top of her class at the #201;cole Nationale d’Administration, the training ground for future French presidents and prime ministers. Colleagues say that before working 14-hour days as a minister, Ms. Pellerin was a prolific er of fiction and nonfiction, and that she is equally at ease admiring a Picasso painting as she is listening to a hip-hop track.现年41岁的佩尔兰,在此之前就曾让法国人惊叹过。她生于韩国,6岁时被一个法国家庭收养。她以班里第一名的成绩毕业于法国国家行政学院(#201;cole Nationale d’Administration),而那里是未来法国总统和总理的训练场。同事们表示,在成为部长每天工作14小时之前,佩尔兰热衷于阅读小说和非小说类书籍,而且她既能安然欣赏毕加索的油画,也喜欢听嘻哈音乐。On Twitter, the interview provoked equal expressions of humor, righteous indignation and bemusement at all the fuss. “Fleur Pellerin incapable of citing a book by Modiano, do you mean that she hadn’t Wikipedia that day, like three-quarters of Twitter?” wrote Matteu Maestracci, a journalist for the radio broadcaster France Info.这次采访也在Twitter上也引发了各种不同的反应,包括幽默、义愤,还有对这番大惊小怪的哑然失笑。“弗勒尔·佩尔兰连一本莫迪亚诺的书都说不上来?是说她那天没有像四分之三的Twitter网友一样,看看维基百科吗?”法国新闻广播电台(France Info)记者马修·马埃斯特拉奇(Matteu Maestracci)写道。One Twitter user, Henri Rouquier, for his part, tried to insert a sense of proportion. “France has finally confronted its biggest problem at this time of national crisis: Fleur Pellerin has not Modiano,” he wrote.一位Twitter网友昂立·卢奇埃(Henri Rouquier)想提醒我们不要小题大做。他写道,“在经历全国性危机的时候,法国终于遇到了最大的问题:弗勒尔·佩尔兰没有读过莫迪亚诺。”Outside France, Ms. Pellerin might receive even more sympathy. Although revered at home, Mr. Modiano, until recently, was largely unknown abroad. One of his novels, “Rue des Boutiques Obscures,” released as “Missing Person” in English, won the prestigious Prix Goncourt in 1978, but has sold just 2,425 copies in the ed States.在法国之外,佩尔兰或许还会得到更多同情。尽管莫迪亚诺在国内备受推崇,但直到最近,他在国外基本上都默默无闻。他的一本小说《暗店街》(Rue des Boutiques Obscures)在1978年赢得了赫赫有名的龚古尔奖(Prix Goncourt),但该书的英译本《失踪的人》(Missing Person)在美国却只卖出了2425本。 /201411/340998呼和浩特脸部抽脂价格

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