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2019年04月23日 14:39:24 | 作者:搜医大全 | 来源:新华社
A decade ago, Joko Widodo’s life was an improbable, irrefutable success. Raised in a riverside shack in Solo, Indonesia, Widodo was the first in his family to go to college; he then founded the furniture export business that made him a millionaire.十年前,佐科威收获了听起来不大可胀?但无可辩驳的成功。佐科威在印尼梭罗市一个河边贫民窟长大,是家里的第一位大学生;他随后创办了一家家具出口企业,并由此成为百万富翁。But back then, Widodo was just getting started. In 2005, he became mayor of Solo—the very city whose slums he had grown up in—and did so good a job busting corruption and cleaning things up, that in 2012, he unseated incumbent Fauzi Bowo to become governor of Jakarta, the sprawling megacity. Then this March, he became his party’s nominee to become the President of Indonesia (that same month, FORTUNE ranked him No. 37 on its 2014 list of 50 World’s Greatest Leaders.) Tomorrow June 9 in Indonesia it all comes to a head. If Jokowi prevails in the neck-and-neck race against his opponent, former military general Prabowo Subianto, he’ll be leading the fourth largest nation on Earth.但当时,佐科威的辉煌人生路才刚刚起步005年,他成为梭罗市市长——没错,他就是在这座城市的贫民窟长大的——随即发起了一场大获成功的反贪风暴012年,凭借着这些斐然政绩,佐科威击败时任雅加达省长法乌兹,成为这座不断扩张的超大城市的新领袖。今月,他又被推举为所在政党的印尼总统候选人【也是在这个月,《财富》杂Fortune)发布014年全0位领导力榜样名单,佐科威位居7位】。印尼当地时日,印尼总统大选即将进入紧要关头。如果佐科威能够在这场难分伯仲的大选中战胜对手、前军事将领普拉沃,他就将成为世界第四大国的领导人。(最新消息:印尼总统大选已经结束,佐科威和普拉沃团队都宣布自己胜出,选举委员会预计将于两周后正式公布最终的选举结果。)“There are not many mayors who can make a leap to the presidency in the span of 24 months,Jeffrey Winters, a political scientist at Northwestern University told FORTUNE via an email interview. “Jokowi winning the presidency having only recently been the mayor of Solo is like Dennis Kucinich winning the presidency from Cleveland. The difference is Jokowi actually has a shot at victory.”“能够在24个月内跃升为总统的市长并不多见,”西北大Northwestern University)政治学家杰弗里o温特斯在接受《财富》电邮采访时说。“没多久之前还是梭罗市市长的佐科威赢得总统选举,就好比克利夫兰市长丹尼斯o库钦奇赢得美国总统宝座一样。区别在于,佐科威的确有望获胜。”With his rags-to-riches story and record for real change, Widodo, who campaigns in folksy red-and-blue checked shirts and is popularly known as “Jokowi,has energized an Indonesian populace hungry for a break from the status quo. The politician has drawn comparisons to Obama (circa 2008), inspired a hit song “Two-Finger Salute,won cred for his can-do competence and earned a slight (though perhaps not statistically significant) 3% edge in recent polls.凭借着白手起家的励志故事和推动切实变革的傲人记录,时常在竞选活动中身穿红蓝相间格子衬衫的佐科威已经极大地鼓舞了渴望摆脱现状的亿万印尼民众。这位因乐观进取、敢作敢为而赢得广泛赞誉的政治家让许多人联想起2008年左右的奥巴马。最近在印尼广为传唱的歌曲《双指礼Two-Finger Salute)也是受他启发创作而成。在近期的民调中,佐科威获得%的优势,但这点优势或许并不具备统计学上的意义。Yet, just months ago, a Jokowi victory appeared almost a sure thing—holding an almost 40% lead over Prabowo, a candidate not allowed in the U.S. for past human rights violations and who, as the former son-in-law of Suharto, the Indonesian dictator overthrown 16 years ago, is certainly among the nation’s entrenched powers.然而,就在几个月前,佐科威赢得大选似乎已成定局——他的持率领先普拉沃接近40个百分点。普拉沃是16年前被推翻的印尼独裁者苏哈托的前女婿,无疑具有根深蒂固的影响力。不过,由于过去侵犯人权的行为,他成了不受美国欢迎的人。What happened?究竟发生了什么事?“Jokowi’s campaign has been a fragmented mess,says Winters. “For undecided Indonesians, the weak campaign reinforced doubts about whether Jokowi was really y for prime time.”“佐科威的竞选活动显得离破碎,没有章法可言,”温特斯说。“这种软弱的竞选活动使得那些犹豫不决的印尼人更加怀疑佐科威是否真正做好了出任总统的准备。”Among the issues: the candidate over-scheduled public appearances, lacked a consistent message, and has been a technical and not particularly inspiring orator.问题在于:这位候选人过于频繁地公开露面,缺乏一个始终如一的讯息,发表演讲时虽然面面俱到,但不足。Michael Buehler, a lecturer at University of London’s School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS) says Jokowi is not the only one at fault in his lackluster campaign. The politician has been undermined by his own party’s machinery and is the victim of various smear campaigns that have—not unlike claims made about Obama—insinuated that he is not who he says he is. (The attacks maintain that Jokowi is secretly a Christian…or a Communist…or Chinese…or originally from Singapore…or all of the above.) Buehler adds that Prabowo’s slick, focused campaign has been aided by the work of a former George W. Bush political operative—a first in Indonesian politics.伦敦大学(University of London)东方及非洲研究学SOAS)讲师迈克尔o比埃勒表示,佐科威的竞选活动乏善可陈并不仅仅是他一个人的错。这位政治家一直深受党内机器运转不良的拖累,成为了各种抹黑活动的受害者——跟奥巴马曾经受到的指摘非常相似,四面八方的诽谤声音暗示,他其实并不是他自己所宣称的那种人。(这些攻击坚称,佐科威其实要么是一位隐秘的基督徒,要么是共产主义分子,要么是个中国人,要么自新加坡,要么上面这些全部都是。)比埃勒补充说,普拉沃的竞选活动则显得格外巧妙,重点突出,这得益于一位曾经担任小布什总统军师的政治操盘手的大力协助——在印尼政治中,这种事还是破天荒头一次。In recent months, Prabowo has effectively, if “ironically,positioned himself as an outsider and won support for his nationalistic and populist agendas. (The candidatesplatforms are not all that different, though Buehler says Jokowi has “better ideas.近几个月来,普拉沃颇为有效地把自己定位为一位局外人,同时还因为他的民族主义和民粹主义议程而赢得了持,这多少有点讽刺意味。(两位候选人的竞选政纲其实并没有多大不同,但比埃勒认为佐科威拥有“更好的想法”。)But, says Winters: “Prabowo has been preparing for the presidency for three decades and actively pursuing the office and building a party machine for over ten years. It is Jokowi’s candidacy that is surprising, not Prabowo’s.”但是,温特斯说:“为了坐上总统宝座,普拉沃已经准备了三十年。过去十几年来,他一直在积极谋求这个最高职位,还打造了一台运行顺畅的政党机器。佐科威成为候选人的确出人意料,但普拉沃获得候选人资格则一点也不令人意外。”Right now, both scholars say the election is too close to call—and in any case, is unlikely to bring about the profound change Indonesia needs. During the course of the campaign, Jokowi has drawn closer to some of the entrenched interests that he is, in theory, running against—showing that for now, perhaps, there are limits to just how high Indonesia’s self-made, corruption-busting leader from the slums can climb on his own.两位学者都认为,这次大选目前难分伯仲,但无论结果如何,这场竞选都不可能带来印尼亟需的深刻变革。在竞选过程中,佐科威跟既得利益的距离越来越近——按道理说,这些既得利益正是他此次竞选活动的讨伐目标。这种行为显示,目前看来,这位白手起家,来自贫民窟的反腐先锋仅凭一己之力所能攀登的高度非常有限 /201407/311413Saudi officials said a stampede Thursday outside the city of Mecca killed at least 310 people and injured 450 others as they took part in the annual Muslim hajj pilgrimage.沙特官员说,星期四在圣城麦加外面发生踩踏事件,参加年度麦加朝觐的人中至少10人死亡,还有450人受伤。The incident happened in Mina where pilgrims throw rocks at pillars representing the devil in the final hajj ritual before beginning the Eid al-Adha festival.踩踏事件发生在麦加以东几公里的米纳,朝觐者在那里参加“石击恶魔”仪式。这是麦加朝觐的最后一项活动,之后人们将庆祝古尔邦节。Saudi Arabias civil defense directorate gave the casualty figures on its Twitter account and posted pictures showing rescue workers attending to people on stretchers, including one who appears to be trying to resuscitate a man.沙特民防部门主管在推特上报告伤亡人数,并发布照片显示救援人员正在用担架将伤员抬上救护车,其中有一张图片显示有人正用人工呼吸抢救一位男子。Multiple deadly stampedes have taken place at the hajj during the past 25 years as huge numbers of people gathered for the five-day event required of all able-bodied Muslims once in their lifetime. This year, some 2 million people are participating.过去25年里,麦加朝觐期间发生过多起致命踩踏事件。每个身体健康的穆斯林一生中必须参加一次麦加朝觐,因此每年都有大批人前往沙特参加这个为期5天的活动。今年的朝觐者有大约200万之多。The worst disaster happened in 1990 when a stampede in a Mina tunnel killed more than 1,400 people. Stampedes in 1994, 2004 and 2006 each killed more than 200 pilgrims.1990年的踩踏事件最为严重,1400多人死亡994年004年和2006年的踩踏事件中,分别都有200多人丧生。Earlier this month, a construction crane collapsed at Meccas Grand Mosque, killing 109 people and injuring about 400 others at Islams holiest site.这个月早些时候,一座塔吊倒塌,砸向伊斯兰教最神圣的麦加大清真寺,导致109人丧生,00人受伤。来 /201509/400823

Many Federal Reserve policy makers want to see more evidence that the US economy is strengthening before pulling the trigger on rate rises, according to minutes of a meeting marked by concerns over the Greek stand-off and the potential for a Chinese slowdown.美联Fed)议息会议的会议记录显示,多名美联储政策制定者希望在启动加息前看到更多美国经济走强的据。这次议息会议以对希腊对峙局面和中国放缓可能性的担忧为特征。Minutes from the meeting from June 16-17 struck a broadly positive tone about developments in the US economy, highlighting stronger consumer spending, corporate hiring, housing market activity and signs of wage growth. The stabilisation of oil prices and the dollar would reduce downward pressure on inflation, the Federal Open Market Committee noted.这次议息会议6日到17日召开。在该会议记录中,人们对美国经济发展的语气普遍比较积极,其中重点提到了美国消费出增大、企业用工人数增加和楼市交易活动增强,还有多种迹象表明薪资水平也出现了增长。联邦公开市场委员Federal Open Market Committee)指出,油价和美元的趋稳,会减轻通胀率的下行压力。Still, the minutes revealed a committee that remained divided over when the conditions would be right to raise rates from their current near-zero levels, noting that while some thought the conditions for a rate rise had nearly been met, a number of members were cautioning against a “premature decision不过,据会议记录披露,对于何时把利率从目前接近零的水平提升上来,委员会依然存在分歧。该会议记录指出,虽然部分人认为加息条件已接近成熟,还有多名与会人员则提醒人们不要“过早做出决定”。Participants gave “a number of reasons to be cautious in assessing the outlook the minutes said, with some members citing the possibility that consumer spending stays sluggish, or that there could be persistent drags on the economy from the high dollar and weak oil prices.会议记录表明,与会者提出了“多个谨慎评估前景的理由”。一些委员会成员提到了消费者出保持低迷的可能性。还有人提到,美元高企和油价疲软可能会持续拖累美国经济。Janet Yellen, the Fed chair, stressed last month that rate rises would be “gradualas she insisted the first rise could come this year. Projections unveiled by the committee showed a shallower path of tightening in the coming years, as well as an FOMC that was divided over whether there should be one, two or, indeed, no rate moves this year.美联储主席珍妮特#8226;耶伦(Janet Yellen)上月强调,加息将是“渐进式”的,并坚称首次加息将在今年启动。委员会披露的预测表明,未来几年紧缩将以较小的幅度展开。而且,在今年到底应该开展一次、两次还是根本不开展利率调整的问题上,委员会还存在分歧。The Fed in June left its target range for the Fed funds rate at zero to 0.25 per cent, the historic low it has occupied since 2008.6月,美联储偏离了其对联邦基金利率设立的目标区间——零利率.25%。自2008年以来美联储一直将目标区间保持在这一历史最低水平。Internationally, a great deal has changed since the FOMC’s June meeting.在联邦公开市场委员月会议后,国际事务发生了很大的变化。The chaos in Greece worsened sharply as the country imposed capital controls and bank closures and held a referendum in which official creditorsbailout terms were rejected. In China, a stock market rout has prompted Beijing to take drastic actions aimed at steadying the market, including bans on share sales by big stakeholders and the use of central bank money to bolster the market.希腊的混乱局势急剧恶化,该国实施了资本管控,关闭了,并举行了公投。在这次公投中,希腊拒绝了官方债权人的纾困条款。在中国,一轮股市崩盘已促使北京方面采取强力措施稳定股市。这些举措包括禁止大股东卖出股票,以及动用央行资金提振股市。Greece was a concern for many of the Fed policy makers in the meeting, the minutes showed. There was a risk of disruptions to euro area financial markets if the sides failed to resolve their differences, with “possible spillover effects on the ed States会议记录显示,许多美联储政策制定者担忧希腊问题。一旦各方未能解决分歧,欧元区金融市场存在瓦解的风险,“可能会对美国产生溢出效应”。Not all FOMC members appear overly concerned, however. John Williams, the president of the San Francisco Fed, said in a speech on Wednesday that events in Greece were unlikely to overturn the “strong fundamentalsof the US economy, adding that a recent trip to China had made him less worried about that economy.不过,并非所有委员会成员都对此极为忧虑。旧金山联邦储备(San Francisco Fed)行长约翰#8226;威廉姆斯(John Williams)周三发表讲话说,希腊发生的事件不太可能扭转美国经济“强劲的基本面”。他还补充说,最近对中国的访问,令他减轻了对中国经济的忧虑。Some FOMC members said the conditions for raising rates had aly been met or would be met “shortly Labour market conditions had improved, with solid hiring levels, low unemployment insurance claims, and a shift of workers into more stable, higher skilled jobs. Several FOMC members said there were signs of improvement in the inflation outlook, especially after a stabilisation in the dollar and energy prices, which have been drags.一些委员会成员表示,加息的条件已经成熟,或者“很快”就会成熟。劳动力市场状况已经好转,用工人数稳步增长,领取失业救济的人数处于较低水平,就业者也已转向更稳定、更高技能的工作岗位。几名委员会成员表示,通胀前景也有改善迹象,尤其是一直是拖累因素的美元和能源价格趋于稳定。For most FOMC members, however, it was still too soon to advocate a rate move, even if conditions continued to improve steadily.然而,对于多数委员会成员来说,即使情况继续稳步改善,持利率调整仍然为时过早。来 /201507/385255

Rebels from the Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK) carried out a suicide attack Sunday at a military police post in eastern Turkey, killing two soldiers and wounding 24 others.库尔德工人党反政府武装星期天对土耳其东部的一个军事警察哨所发动自杀式炸弹袭击,炸死两名军人,炸4人。The local governors office said the attack in Agri province, near the Iranian border, involved an agricultural vehicle packed with two tons of explosives.当地的省长办公室说,袭击发生在阿格里省伊朗边界附近。袭击者引爆了一辆装有两吨炸药的农用车。Sundays attack is the latest in a pattern violence between Turkey and PKK, especially since Turkey began airstrikes on PKK targets in northern Iraq just over a week ago.土耳其政府和库尔德工人党的暴力冲突不断加剧, 特别是在土耳其政府一个多星期前开始对伊拉克北部库尔德人民党目标进行空袭以后。The president of Iraq’s Kurdistan region, Massud Barzani. is urging the PKK and the Turkish government to resume the peace process.伊拉克库尔德地区的总统巴尔扎尼敦促库尔德工人党和土耳其政府恢复和平进程。来 /201508/389846

A typical Uruguayan asado, or barbecue, is made up of vast racks of prime cuts of beef, pork or chicken roasted on a grill next to not on top of a wood burning fire.一个典型的乌拉圭烤肉,或者烧烤是这样构成的:烤架上大片上好切割的猪牛颈脊肉以及小鸡,熊熊燃烧燃烧的木头。At parilla restaurants across the capitol Monte, the asados are pretty epic; the fatty cuts sizzle and then get slapped onto your plate, oozing with juice.在遍布首都蒙得维的亚的parilla 饭店,烧烤相当火爆;肥肉发出嘶嘶声,拍打在你的盘子上,渗着汁液。But if you want to grab a salt shaker and add a bit of extra salt to your meal these days in the Uruguayan capital, you cant.然而这些天来在乌拉圭首都,如果你想摇摇盐罐给你的肉上撒点盐,那是不可能的;People are not allowed to put salt anymore on the table,; says Lucia Soria, the owner of Jacinto restaurant in Monte. The city government made it illegal to have salt shakers out in restaurants, she says. No mayonnaise either. Or ketchup. In fact, pretty much anything with a lot of sodium is banned. If you want it, you have to ask for it.首都蒙得维的亚的Jacinto 饭店主人Lucia Soria,;盐不许摆在餐桌上; ,市政府颁布命令,餐馆中放置盐罐是非法的,沙拉酱、番茄酱也不行。实际上任何含有大量钠离子的都是非法的。如果你确实需要,那么就必须额外要求加点。Unlike in the U.S. where New York Citys last government was unable to pass a law limiting the size of soft drinks other countries like Uruguay take a much more active role in what you can and cant eat, in the name of public health.和美国不同,上个任期的纽约市政府没有通过一项限制碳酸饮料的法令------而其他象乌拉圭一样的国家在以健康的名义上规定你可以或者不可以吃什么东西上更为积极。Soria says she doesnt like this interventionist approach.饭店老板娘Soria说她不喜欢这种极端做法;I think its the wrong way to do it, I think we have to try to teach people not to eat salt in quantities that are not safe,; she says.;我认为这是用错误的方法去做事,我认为我们应该教育人们盐的食用量及其危;。Public health officials in Uruguay argue education can only do so much.乌拉圭公共卫生官员却认为教育能做的事是有限的;The national consumption of sodium in Uruguay is about 9 grams per person, which is double what the World Health Organization recommends,; says Pablo Anzalone, the director of public health for Monte.蒙得维的亚公共卫生主任Pablo Anzalone ; 乌拉圭人均钠消费大约克,是世卫组织推荐值的两倍;According to the Uruguayan Ministry of Health, over 30 percent of the population suffers from hypertension. Uruguay also has the largest percentage of obese children in the region.根据乌拉圭卫生部,超过百分之30的人口患有高血压。乌拉圭还拥有该地区最高的肥胖儿童比例。And its not just about removing salt from the table.这项法令并不是简单地把盐从餐桌上撤下。The salt law also stipulates that there needs to be a warning on the about salt consumption, and restaurants need to have low-sodium alternatives available to customers. Nationally, bakers have also agreed to lower the sodium content in their products by 10 percent.盐法规定,菜单上必须有盐消费的警示,饭店必须给客户提供低钠替代品。在全国范围内,面包师行业同意降低产品中盐的食用0%。Anzalone says the government has a duty to protect its citizens from bad choices.公共卫生主任Pablo Anzalone说政府有责任保护其公民避开坏的选择;People make decisions based on conditioning and the advertising that large corporations unleash. This is now a serious problem of public health,; Anzalone says.Pablo Anzalone说:;公众的选择受到大公司的广告诱导以及现实条件的限制,这是个严重的公共卫生问题;Uruguays leftist leadership has a history of getting involved in what in many countries is viewed as a private issue. The new president, Tabaré Vázquez, is a former doctor who championed Uruguays tough anti-smoking laws in his first term of office. Recently, he has announced a war on alcohol consumption.乌拉圭左翼领导人习惯于干涉在许多国家视为个人私事的事务。新任总统,Tabaré Vázquez,曾经是医生,在他的第一任期持了强硬的反吸烟法。现在,又发起了一场对酒精消费的战争。Liber Bisciottano works in an exclusive asado restaurant in Monte. So far there are no figures that show if the law, which was enacted a few years ago, is actually making a difference. He says though there is circumstantial evidence that shows its changing peoples habits.Liber Bisciottano工作于蒙得维的亚一家独家烤肉店。他认为,到目前为止没有数据显示这条几年前颁布的法律带来什么实际的变化。尽管有据表明人们的习惯有所改变;Ive worked in the restaurant business for 11 years and at the beginning it was only 20 percent of people who didnt salt their food and now its about 20 percent who do,; he says.;我在饭店干了11年,开始的时候只0%的人不在食物上撒盐,现在只有20%的人撒盐;。He says he supports the law except for one thing.他说除了一件事外,他都持这项法律;It makes us have to work harder because we have to walk more going back and forth to the kitchen to get salt,; he says. ;I think its added an extra mile to my day.;;这增加了我们的工作,为了拿盐我们必须反复去厨房,我想这大碍要让我每天多走一英里;。来 /201506/382022

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