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2018年12月18日 19:17:52|来源:国际在线|编辑:美丽典范
Banana Island, this is Boardwalk in the U.S. edition, Mayfair in the U.K. version. This is the most expensive piece of real estate in Lagos and in Monopoly: multi-million-dollar mansions, manicured lawns and swimming pools.香蕉岛,在美国版游戏中被称为Boardwalk,而在英国版是Mayfair。这是大富翁拉各斯最昂贵的一处房产,数百万美元的豪宅,拥有修剪整齐的草地和游泳池。Right here is Makoko, the Venice of Lagos, the cheapest piece of real estate on the board game. Now What I found quite interesting is that there are sponsored spots. All right, First Bank. You can see here for Banana Island. But on Makoko I guess nobody wants to sponsor the poorest and cheapest piece of real estate on this Monopoly board game. Monopoly was launched in 1935 in the ed States at the height of the Great Depression. The game was a way for most people who were earning just a couple of dollars a day to experience the life as a real estate noble, earning millions of dollars a year.然而,马科科,拉各斯的,最这一棋盘游戏中最便宜的房产。香蕉岛上有许多由第一赞助的景点。但是,有趣的是,在马科科,我猜没人愿意在大富翁棋盘游戏中的最便宜、最贫穷的地产上赞助任何项目。大富翁游戏发行之际,正值美国1935年经济大萧条最严重之时。对于每天只能挣得几美元的大多数人来说,这一游戏成为他们体验那种拥有豪华房产,每年轻松赚得上百万美元的生活的一种方式。Lagos State Government was heavily involved in bringing this game to Nigeria. Part of the reason was to promote the city, but also to encourage people to follow traffic regulations. Youve seen images of Lagos. You know that the city is clogged with traffic, so here one of the cards for the chance cards, for using the overheads pedestrian bridge, move forward three spaces. Many people try to run across highways, and many are killed every year. There are Pedestrian bridges above that traffic, and this is to encourage usage of those bridges. The game is still sold relatively cheaply in the ed States and U.K. On amazon.com, you can buy about 18 dollars, and in the U.K. you can buy 9 pounds 70. But here in Nigeria, the price is close to 40 dollars, putting it out of reach for most ordinary Nigerians, who earn less than 2 dollars a day.拉各斯州政府亲自大力持这一游戏进入尼日利亚市场。部分原因在于推动该市发展,同时鼓励人们遵守交通法规。你可能想象过拉各斯的情况。这一城市交通堵塞情况十分严重,因此,应该采用过街人行天桥。但是,许多人都企图穿越高速公路,每年有很多人因此丧生。拉各斯是过街人行天桥的,企图通过这一游戏使用这些天桥。目前,这一游戏在美国和英国卖得仍然相当便宜。通过On amazon.com网站,你仅花大约18美元就可以买上,而在英国是9.7英磅。但是,在尼日利亚,价格高达近40美元,远远超出了一般的尼日利亚人的消费能力,他们每天的收入不到2美元。Lagos, the first African city to be featured in the world famous board game Monopoly. Lets go explore some of the sites and Landmarks.拉各斯是出现在世界闻名的大富翁棋盘游戏中的第一座非洲城市。让我们来探索这里的一些地址和地标吧。 201212/217895He developed a process that could be used in producing an artificial fertilizer with the help of which millions could be fed and he was a hero.他制订了一个过程,可用于生产人造化肥,喂饱了数百万人,这使他成了一个英雄。Haber and his family host Einstein’s wife Mileva Maric while she looks for an apartment for herself,当米列娃·马里奇为自己寻找公寓时,哈勃和他的家庭邀请爱因斯坦的这位妻子。 Albert and their two children,艾伯特和他们的两个孩子,Haber observes that resettling in Berlin seems to be unsettling relations between Einstein and his wife.哈勃注意到定居在柏林似乎令爱因斯坦和他的妻子感到有些不安。Mileva always was a brooding and somewhat despondent woman.米列娃是个有点沮丧且沉思的女人。And in Berlin, it gets much worse.在柏林,情况变得更加糟糕。He’s dallying with his cousin Elsa. 他与他的表埃尔莎虚度时光。Einstein is a very brutally honest guy,爱因斯坦是一个诚实守信的人,so every now and then he apparently would tell Mileva about Elsa,所以他不时地会告诉米列娃关于埃尔莎的事情,then they start fighting with each other,然后他们就开始吵架,not surprisingly the man who approached the universe in a unique way has a rather unconventional approach to married life.毫不奇怪这个接近宇宙的人正以一种独特的非常规方法对待婚后的生活。注:听力文本来源于普特201204/178411

Books and Arts; Book Review;Capital punishment in America;文艺;书评;美国的死刑;Justice, delayed and denied正义, 姗姗来迟甚至无处可伸?Anatomy of Injustice: A Murder Case Gone Wrong. By Raymond Bonner.《不公正的剖析:一种谋杀案出的差错》,Raymond Bonner著。What sort of town was Greenwood, South Carolina in the early 1980s? It was the kind of place where a prominent white man could get away with shooting and killing a black man who walked across his property at night. When the local chief prosecutor, William T. Jones, brought the case before a grand jury, he was not looking for an indictment. Surely anyone would have behaved the same way under the circumstances, he argued. Surely, he told the jurors, they too would have picked up a shotgun. The grand jury did not indict.上世纪80年代早期,美国南卡罗来纳州的格林伍德是怎样的一个城镇呢?这是这样的一个地方,一个身份显赫的白人在射击杀死一个晚上穿过他私人土地的黑人后并没有受到什么惩罚。在当地首席检察官William T. Jones将这个案件拿到大陪审团面前时,他并不是在寻求一种控诉。他认为,在同样的情况下每个人肯定都会采取同样的行动。他很坚定地告诉陪审团,他们也会拿起一把猎。陪审团没有起诉。A few months later Jones persuaded the same grand jury to indict Edward Lee Elmore, a 23-year-old black man, for the murder of Dorothy Edwards, a 75-year-old white woman. She was found inside her bedroom closet, bruised and repeatedly stabbed. Mr Elmore was sentenced to death less than 90 days later. This grim case is the subject of “Anatomy of Injustice”, a gripping and enraging book from Raymond Bonner, a veteran investigative journalist at the New York Times.Mr Elmore would spend 27 years on death row, despite strong circumstantial evidence suggesting that he did not commit the crime. His capital sentence was ultimately overturned thanks to the tireless efforts of Diana Holt, his lawyer and the books hero, who spent more than a decade seeking justice on his behalf.几个月之后Jones说这相同的大陪审团起诉 Edward Lee Elmore,一个23岁的黑人谋杀一位75岁的白人妇女Dorothy Edwards。她是在自己的卧室衣橱被发现的,身上青肿并被刺了很多刀。Elmore先生在90天内就被判处死刑。这个残酷的例子就是《不公正的剖析》这本书的主题,这本吸引人的书是一位纽约时报资深调查新闻记者雷蒙德·邦纳(Raymond Bonner)写的。尽管大量的间接推测都表明Elmore先生并没有犯罪,但他也将在死刑房耗尽27年。他死刑的罪状最终在戴安娜·霍尔特(Diana Holt)的不懈努力下推翻了,戴安娜·霍尔特(Diana Holt)是他的律师也是这本书的主人翁,他花费了10多年的时间为Elmore声张正义。Mentally disabled and barely literate, Mr Elmore was 14 years old when he dropped out of school. He could add and subtract using his fingers, but he could not tell the time, he did not know the seasons and he could not understand directions. He became a neighbourhood handyman, and he cleaned Edwardss gutters and washed her windows two weeks before she was killed. He was arrested because his fingerprint was found at her house.智力上的缺陷以及知识的匮乏,Elmore在他14岁的时候就辍学了。他可以用手指进行加减但是他不能识别时间,不知道一年四季,没有方向感。他成了邻居街坊里的勤杂工,就在Dorothy Edwards被杀的前两周,他还在清洗她家的水沟,擦洗他的窗户。由于在Edwards家发现了他的指纹就被逮捕了。At his trial, Mr Elmore was given two lawyers. One was known as the “bourbon cowboy”. He was twice arrested for drunk driving, and his breath smelled of alcohol in court. The other lawyer referred to his client as a “redheaded nigger”. They had Mr Elmore testify, a rarity in murder trials, and they called no other witnesses. The judge dismissed four potential jurors because of their opposition to capital punishment. (This judge later served on South Carolinas Supreme Court, and landed in some hot water by professing to find racist jokes inoffensive and funny.) It took the jury less than three hours to convict Mr Elmore, and an additional 50 minutes to sentence him to death.在审讯过程中,Elmore有两位律师。一位被称作“波旁牛仔”(“bourbon cowboy”)。这位律师曾两次酒后驾驶被拘留,同时在法庭上他呼吸里有浓重的酒味。另一位提到的律师对于他的客户来说就是“红发黑人”。他们让Elmore自己作,这是在谋杀案件中少有的事,他们称没有其他人了。法官解散了四个潜在的陪审团,正由于他们对死刑裁决的反对。(这位法官后来务于南卡罗来州的最高法院,……自认发现有关种族主义的没有恶意且又有趣的笑话)这就使得陪审团在不到3个小时就判Elmore有罪,并在额外的50分钟内就对他判了死刑。But Mr Elmore did not die in jail. After the Supreme Court ruled in 2005 that states could not execute the mentally disabled, his sentence was commuted to life in prison, where he still sits. Opponents of capital punishment may be familiar with arguments about its expense, unjust application and inefficacy as a deterrent. But it is another thing entirely to about patently biased judges, policemen who lie under oath (and may well have planted evidence) and bloodthirsty prosecutors.但是Elmore并没有死于监狱。在2005年最高法院裁决认为美国各州不能对精神障碍者进行处死之后,他的宣判减刑成终生监禁。死刑的反对者可能熟于争论其代价,即不公正的运用以及威慑性不强。但是这对于带有明显偏见的法官、可以在宣誓下撒谎的警察(很可能已经有了栽赃的据)、嗜血的检察官理解起来完全是另外的一回事。In telling Mr Elmores story, Mr Bonner deftly weaves in a brief history of American capital punishment and its discontents. Following a brief moratorium in 1972, when the Supreme Court ruled that the death penaltys application violated the Eighth Amendments ban on cruel and unusual punishment, it was reinstated in 38 states from 1976. By 2010, 1,226 more executions had taken place, 1,010 of them in the South. Most of these executed inmates have been black; a vast majority of the victims in capital cases were white. But Mr Bonners book is not a treatise against the death penalty. Rather, it is a dismal look at what happens in Americas justice system when justice is absent.在讲述Elmore的故事的时候,奥·邦纳(Mr Bonner)很快的就编织出了关于美国死刑刑罚的简洁历史,并表示不满。随后就是1972年的一个简洁的禁令在那时,这最高法院裁定这死刑刑法的运用违反了第八修正案禁止“残忍与异常的刑罚”条款,到了1976年在38个州才恢复使用。截止2010年,执行了1226多次死刑的裁决,其中南方占到1010例。大部分的死囚犯是黑人,而大多数的受害者是资本阶级白人。但是Bonner的书不是一本反对死刑的论述。然而,它是对美国的司法系统当公正不在时所发生的事的一点心痛的看法。 /201212/216552

Finance and Economics;Indias economy;The fightback;财经;印度经济;反攻;Undercurrents of optimism about reform, and some fighting talk, in India;在印度经济改革势头良好、但仍存靡靡质疑之声的背后;After a storm-tossed six months for the economy, Indias authorities are trying to get things back on an even keel. On June 25th the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) announced measures to try to stabilise the rupee. It has lost a fifth of its value against the dollar in the past year (see chart), reflecting global woes but also a slowdown in India and a drying up of capital inflows. Its decline is widely seen in India as a bad thing, stoking inflation and hurting firms with foreign-currency debt.在国内经济度过了近六个月的风雨飘摇之后,印度政府开始着力如何将经济局势趋于稳定。6月25日,印度储备宣布了一系列措施,意图稳定卢比汇率。在过去的一年中,卢比对美元的汇率下挫近百分之二十(见下图),不仅反映出了全球经济之殇,还体现了印度本国经济增速放缓,进口资金枯竭的问题。这种下滑对印度来说普遍被视为不利因素,不仅通胀率随之节节攀升,对于举有外债的公司来说负担也更为沉重。India has long shied away from letting fickle foreigners buy government bonds, but the RBI this week loosened the rules to tempt in sovereign-wealth funds and other long-term investors. It also slightly eased restrictions on Indian manufacturing and infrastructure firms seeking funds abroad.印度向来都对一些不靠谱的外资对国债的收购请求采取规避的态度,但印度央行此次则对政策实施宽松,希望能够吸引到更多大笔的资金和长期投资意向人。一些从事制造业和基建工程的印度公司也在寻求外资助力的限制上得到了适度的放宽。IKEA, a Swedish furniture chain, boosted morale by saying it would invest up to 1.5 billion EURO(1.9 billion Dollar) in India—although on closer inspection that sum was sp over many years. Coca-Cola followed suit with the announcement of an additional 3 billion Dollar in investment, taking the total earmarked for India by 2020 to 5 billion Dollar. A ratings agency proved oddly helpful, too: on June 25th Moodys signalled it would not follow Standard and Poors and Fitch, which have both warned of a possible downgrade of India to junk status. Its rating, which hovers just within investment grade, remains stable, the agency said.瑞典家居连锁巨头宜家公司宣布决定在印度投入15亿欧元(约19亿美元)资金——尽管这笔巨额投资被安排在数年时间里逐批投放,但也为当地经济的提振带来了利好消息。可口可乐公司也紧随其后,宣布将会追加30亿美元拨入印度市场,到2020年时印度将接受总额达50亿美元的投资。一家评级机构也出乎意料地帮了个忙:本月25日,穆迪宣布其不会跟随标普和惠誉之后,警告会将印度的信用评级降至垃圾级。穆迪确认,印度目前所拥有的投资级依然稳定。The impact of all this? Not much. The rupee is still near record lows. Yet there is a feeling that a bleak picture may be improving slightly, mainly thanks to a government reshuffle. Pranab Mukherjee, the finance minister, left his position on June 26th to contest the largely ceremonial post of the presidency. Mr Mukherjee, who presented his first budget in 1982, has had a disastrous stint as finance minister this time round, pursuing controversial tax claims against foreigners, including Vodafone; failing to tame the budget deficit; and chairing troubleshooting committees that often fired ordnance at Indias own feet.上述的这些到底能派上多大的用场呢?只能说收效甚微。卢比汇率目前仍在其历史最低点附近徘徊,但随着政府部门及领导人的重新洗牌,也有预感认为惨淡的国内经济形式也许可以得到些许好转。印度财政部长普拉纳布·穆克吉在26日辞去了职务,并宣布将会参与下一届总统竞选的角逐。穆克吉部长在1982年初上任的时候第一次公布了他的财政预算,但就目前的经济状况来看,他任职期间的所作所为早已过分拮据不合时宜。比如针对如沃达丰这样的外资企业征税、缩减预算赤字失败、以及其领导的修正委员,最后往往被明是搬起石头砸自己的脚。Responsibility for the finance ministry, for a time at least, has passed to Manmohan Singh, the prime minister. Although even less of a spring chicken—at 79, compared with Mr Mukherjees 76—he has credentials as a reformer, having served as finance minister when India unveiled its liberalisation in 1991.有关执掌国家财政大权的事宜,已经在近几年移交给了曼莫尼·辛格总理。与76岁的穆克吉相比,已79岁高龄的辛格更欠年龄上的优势,但他曾在1991年时任财政部长,那时的印度正在经历一系列的经济自由化改革,可以说辛格对于这场变革也是功不可没。At the end of his career, the hope is that Mr Singh makes a stand and rams through budget cuts and vital changes on tax and foreign investment. “It could make a difference,” says an official. “He has a lot of credibility. It is an area that is close to his heart and his reputation will be much more on the line… The situation is tough so there is a limit to what can be done, but it is a mood-lifter.” His party, Congress, which leads the ruling coalition and is run by Sonia Gandhi, its hereditary chief, is lukewarm about making tough decisions. But there are signs that it may have successfully wooed one or two smaller parties outside its present coalition, which may help it push tricky changes through parliament.而辛格也被许多人寄望,能够在执政末期再加把力,促成预算削减和有关税制与外资的改革上。“局面一定会有所改变,”一位官员预测到,“他在这些议题上已经积累了不少经验和功绩,这是他的心之所向,但他的名誉也将会经受更多考验,很有可能晚节不保。目前形式仍然严峻,因此真正能够落实的项目也十分有限。但不管怎么说,这是一种士气上的鼓舞。”而主导联合政府、接任亡夫之位的领袖索尼娅·甘地所领导的印度国大党及议会对做出这些艰难决定的态度不温不火,但也有迹象显示,一些小型联合执政外的在野党则被这些议题吸引过来,帮助一些具有争议的法案在议会中通过。The promise of a push on reforms has been made—and broken—consistently by the government for years. With a busy electoral timetable up to general elections in 2014, it may be harder to fulfil than ever. Still, others, stepping back from the hurly-burly, can see a silver lining in Indias great wobble, particularly the fall in the currency. T.C.A. Ranganathan, the chairman of Exim Bank of India, which finances trade, says: “The exchange rate has moved in our favour. Im fairly happy.” He reckons a weaker rupee will help spur a long-awaited boom in manufacturing. Kaushik Basu, the governments chief economic adviser, no slouch on the need for reform, agrees. A cheaper currency means India is “getting an advantage for our export sector”. Perhaps, in time, that may prove more important than todays firefighting.印度政府在过去几年中针对改革的承诺一直反口复舌,2014年的印度总统大选意味将会有更多的高层活动,届时部分工作和议题将会更难开展。但仍然有人渐渐淡出唇舌剑,在印度如今经济局势的剧烈震荡,尤其是货币持续贬值的趋势当中看到了希望。主管贸易注资的印度进出口主席T.C.A 阮甘那桑说:“我很高兴看到卢比汇率正在朝我们希望的方向发展。”他认为,卢比的持续疲软可以帮助完成一次久盼未临的制造业昌旺。一向对经济改革信誓旦旦的印度政府首席经济顾问巴素也认同这一观点。廉价货币对印度的出口业来说“可能是一种优势”。时间会明,这一切将会比现在的改革与保守派之争更为至关重要。 /201303/228660

As Irene travelled north to the Canadian border, she continued to inflict damage, leaving destruction in her wake. Heavy rains falling on aly sodden ground, led to widesp flooding and damage in the northeast. It will be a long time before these communities return to normal life.飓风艾琳北上越过加拿大边境时,灾难仍在持续。飓风扫过,满目疮痍。暴雨倾泻在满是积水的地上,在东海岸造成大面积洪灾。让这些社区恢复到原样还需很长时间。;Around the State, there has been very significant damage. I understand that more than 260 roads are closed. There are numerous bridges that have been knocked out. Theres one confirmed fatality and theres a search going on for four people in the southern part of the State.;“肆掠的飓风已经造成了重大灾害。目前了解到,有超过260条公路被迫关闭,大量桥梁轰然倒塌。确认已造成1人死亡,4人失踪,目前搜救队仍在西部地区紧张寻找失踪人口下落。”Up and down Americas east coast, people assess the damage. Irene has been a deadly storm, destroying property and infrastructure and leaving millions without power. But the predicted catastrophe never fully materialized. New York, one of those cities, that escaped the worst. Despite a total public transport shut-down and evacuations, an inconvenient Monday commute and the ongoing cleanup, now the real concerns as Americas most populous city recovers from a near miss.美国东海岸上上下下的居民都在评估灾难带来的损失。致命风暴艾琳摧毁了房屋,基础设施,造成断电,使上百万人口无电可用。然而灾祸是永远预测不了的。其中一个受灾城市——纽约躲过了这一劫。除了公共交通完全瘫痪,人口疏散,工作日上下班不方便和清理工作外,最关键的是美国这个最受欢迎的城市侥幸脱险。;Its going to take time to recover from a storm of this magnitude. The effects are still being felt across much of the country, including in New England and States like Vermont where theres been an enormous amount of flooding.;“从如此巨大的飓风中恢复还需一段时日。全国大对数地区,包括新英格兰州,佛蒙特州等遭遇到巨大洪灾的州仍然受到影响。”The damage caused by this storm will cost billions to put right. Irene may not have been as devastating as feared but her impact will be felt for some time to come.将灾区恢复正常将花费数十亿美元。飓风艾琳的毁灭性也许不那么令人胆寒,但未来一段时间会感受到她带来的压力。Hannah Thomas-Peter, Sky News, New York.汉娜·托马斯·彼得,天空新闻,纽约。201206/186818

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