时间:2019年05月21日 02:27:37

A busy brain can mean a hungry body. 大脑忙碌可能会导致身体饥饿。We often seek food after focused mental activity, like preparing for an exam or poring over spsheets. 我们经常在集中进行脑力活动后寻找食物,比如备考或阅读报表。Researchers speculate that heavy bouts of thinking drain energy from the brain, whose capacity to store fuel is very limited. 研究者猜测,高强度思考会耗尽脑部能量,而脑部存储养分的能力十分有限。So the brain, sensing that it may soon require more calories to keep going, apparently stimulates bodily hunger, and even though there has been little in the way of physical movement or caloric expenditure, we eat. 所以,大脑感觉自己可能很快就需要更多热量来维持运转,显然会因此刺激身体产生饥饿感。尽管几乎没有进行体力运动或出现热量消耗,我们还是会吃东西。This process may partly account for the weight gain so commonly seen in college students.这个过程可以部分解释大学生中常见的体重增加现象。Scientists at the University of Alabama at Birmingham and another institution recently experimented with exercise to counter such post--study food binges. 前不久,亚拉巴马大学伯明翰分校(University of Alabama at Birmingham)的科学家们和另一个研究机构试验通过运动对抗学习后的暴饮暴食。Gary Hunter, an exercise physiologist at U.A.B., oversaw the study, which was published this month in the journal Medicine amp; Science in Sports amp; Exercise. 这项研究由亚拉巴马大学伯明翰分校的运动生理学家加里#8226;亨特(Gary Hunter)主持,本月发表在《体育医学与科学》(Medicine amp; Science in Sports amp; Exercise)上。Hunter notes that strenuous activity both increases the amount of blood sugar and lactate — a byproduct of intense muscle contractions — circulating in the blood and augments blood flow to the head. 亨特指出,剧烈活动会增加在血液中循环的血糖和乳酸盐含量——这是肌肉剧烈收缩的副作用——增加脑部的血流量。Because the brain uses sugar and lactate as fuel, researchers wondered if the increased flow of fuel-rich blood during exercise could feed an exhausted brain and reduce the urge to overeat.大脑以糖和乳酸盐为养料,所以研究者们想知道,锻炼中增加的养料丰富的血流量是否能给疲惫的大脑提供养分,从而减轻过度进食的冲动。Thirty--eight healthy college students were invited to U.A.B.’s exercise lab to determine their fitness and metabolic rates — and to report what their favorite pizza was. 38名健康的大学生被邀请到亚拉巴马大学伯明翰分校的运动实验室,接受健康水平和代谢率检测,并报告自己最喜欢吃哪种披萨。Afterward, they sat quietly for 35 minutes before being given as much of their favorite pizza as they wanted, which established a baseline measure of self--indulgence. 之后,他们静坐35分钟,然后他们想吃多少披萨就供应多少,以确定自我放纵的基线。At a later date, the volunteers returned and spent 20 minutes tackling selections from college and graduate--school entrance exams. 在后来的一个日子里,志愿者们返回这里,花费20分钟时间做从大学和研究生入学考试中挑选的题目。Hunter says this work has been used in other studies to induce mental fatigue and hunger. 亨特说,这种方法已经在其他研究中被用于引发精神疲劳和饥饿感。Next, half the students sat quietly for 15 minutes, before being given pizza. 接下来,其中一半学生静坐15分钟,然后进食披萨。The rest of the volunteers spent those 15 minutes doing intervals on a tmill: two minutes of hard running followed by about one minute of walking, repeated five times. 剩下的志愿者用那15分钟时间在跑步机上做运动:快跑2分钟,然后走大约1分钟,重复5次。This is the sort of brief but intensive routine, Hunter says, that should prompt the release of sugar and lactate into the bloodstream. 亨特说,这种短暂而高强度的运动应该能促进糖和乳酸盐释放到血流中。These students were then allowed to gorge on pizza, too. 这些学生之后也被允许尽情食用披萨。But by and large, they did not overeat. 总体来说,他们没有过量进食。In fact, the researchers calculated that the exercisers consumed about 25 fewer calories than they did during their baseline session. 实际上,研究者们计算出,这些锻炼者摄入的热量比在基线测试阶段大约少25卡路里。The nonexercisers, however, consumed about 100 calories more. 但是,那些没有锻炼的人大约多摄入了100卡路里。When the researchers factored in the calories expended on running, they determined that those students actually consumed 200 fewer total calories after their brain workouts than the resting students.研究者们把跑步中耗费的热量计算在内后发现,那些学生实际上在脑力活动后比其他学生一共少摄入200卡路里。The study has limitations, of course. 这项研究当然具有局限性。We only looked at lunch, Hunter says; the researchers do not know if the runners consumed extra calories at dinner. 我们只研究了午餐,亨特说。研究者不知道跑步者在晚餐时是否摄入了更多热量。They also cannot tell whether other types of exercise would have the same effect as running, although Hunter says they suspect that if an activity causes someone to break into a sweat, it should also increase blood sugar and lactate, feeding the brain and weakening hunger’s call.他们也不知道其他哪些运动会收到和跑步一样的效果,不过亨特说,他们猜测,如果一项运动能让人出汗,那么它应该也能增加血糖和乳酸盐释放,给大脑提供养分,从而缓解饥饿感。 /201609/465857

An Islamist extremist accused of funding the 2009 Jakarta suicide bombings has been selling advertising space on his website to international brands including Citigroup, IBM and Microsoft using a service provided by Google.一名被控为2009年雅加达自杀式炸弹袭击提供资金的伊斯兰极端分子,利用由谷歌(Google)提供的一种务,一直在自己的网站上向包括花旗集团(Citigroup)、IBM和微软(Microsoft)在内的国际品牌出售广告位。Muhammad Jibril Abdul Rahman, known as Prince of Jihad, is designated as a terrorist on the sanctions lists of the US, the EU and the UN — and subject to an asset freeze, travel ban and arms embargo. He is a prominent member of Jemaah Islamiyah, a militant Islamist group based in Southeast Asia with ties to al-Qaeda.有“圣战王子”(Prince of Jihad)之称的穆罕默德#8226;贾布里勒#8226;阿卜杜勒#8226;拉赫曼(Muhammad Jibril Abdul Rahman,上图)被列在美国、欧盟和联合国的制裁名单上,性质是恐怖分子,受到资产冻结、旅行禁令并被禁止携带武器。他还是东南亚一个与基地组织(al-Qaeda)有关联的伊斯兰激进组织“伊斯兰祈祷团”(Jemah Islamiyah)的重要成员。But his Jihadi propaganda website, Arrahmah.com, has been making thousands of dollars by showing its visitors adverts from global companies.但是,他的圣战宣传网站Arrahmah.com一直在通过向访问者展示跨国公司的广告几千美元几千美元地赚钱。The ads were delivered to the website, which includes images of beheadings and hanged men, by intermediaries including Google’s AdSense, the world’s biggest online ad network, which take a cut of the revenues.这些广告被通过谷歌的AdSense等媒介投放到这个含有斩首和绞刑图片的网站上。AdSense是全球最大的在线广告网络,从广告收入中抽取分成。There is no suggestion that the advertisers or Google knowingly funded a designated terrorist, a criminal offence in the US that carries a penalty of up to 20 years in prison or a m fine.没有任何依据表明广告主或谷歌有意让一个恐怖分子获得资金,这在美国属于刑事犯罪,最高会被判处20年监禁或100万美元罚款。After being contacted by the Financial Times, Google cancelled Arrahmah.com’s account and the advertisers asked to be removed from the site. However, ads for big western brands continue to appear on the site through other intermediaries.在英国《金融时报》记者与他们联系后,谷歌删除了Arrahmah.com的账户,各广告主要求从该网站上移除广告。然而,西方大品牌的广告仍然通过其他媒介出现在该网站上。The ease with which Arrahmah.com tapped into the 0bn online ad market raises questions about whether advertisers and their intermediaries are properly scrutinising the websites with which they do business. These days the placement of online ads is highly automated and they often pass through a complex chain with little human oversight.Arrahmah.com可以轻易进入价值1600亿美元的在线广告市场,令人不由产生疑问:广告主及媒介是否对它们要投放广告的网站进行了恰当的审查?如今,在线广告的投放高度自动化,往往在几乎无人监督的情况下完成复杂的流程。This is not the first time that brands running ad campaigns across tens of thousands of different websites have found them appearing on undesirable sites. The UK police have in recent years cracked down on ad-supported sites that allow users to illegally download pirated films and music.在成千上万的不同网站上做广告的品牌发现自己出现在不良网站上的事情已经不是第一次发生了。英国警方近年就严厉打击允许用户非法下载盗版电影和音乐、依靠广告持的网站。Google said: “We take the quality of our network very seriously and invest significant time and resources to keeping bad actors out of our system. We also have strict policies and terms of use which govern the type of publishers we allow on AdSense.谷歌表示:“我们十分重视我们网络的质量,并投入大量时间和资源来将不良网站排除在我们的系统之外。我们也制定有严格的政策和使用条款,对我们允许登录AdSense的发行者类型进行规范。“This site violates our terms so we’ve taken action to terminate the account and reimburse affected advertisers.”“该网站违反了我们的条款,因此我们已经采取行动终止了该账户,并补偿受到影响的广告主。“The company did not disclose the amount of the reimbursement.谷歌并未透露具体的补偿金额。Arrahmah.com — whose slogan is “filter your mind, get the truth” — also illustrates the increasing sophistication of Islamist propaganda organisations and the expanding range of funding sources they have been able to tap. Large technology groups including Google, Twitter and Facebook have come in for criticism by security services in recent years for not doing enough to keep extremists off their platforms.Arrahmah.com的口号是“净化你的心灵,得到真相”(filter your mind, get the truth),从该网站可以看出,伊斯兰宣传组织日益复杂化,它们可以利用的资金来源不断扩大。近年来,包括谷歌、Twitter和Facebook在内的大型科技集团受到了安全部门的批评,理由是没有采取足够有力的措施阻止极端分子使用它们的平台。The website, which promotes extremist views in sections such as “Jihad Zone”, attracts about 600,000 visits a month, according to SimilarWeb, an internet data provider. Arrahmah.com discloses prominently that Mr Abdul Rahman is its chief executive.该网站在“圣战区”等栏目宣传极端主义观点。据互联网数据提供商SimilarWeb统计,该网站每月访问量约为60万次。Arrahmah.com明确公示阿卜杜勒#8226;拉赫曼是其首席执行官。“He is the most important online terrorist in Southeast Asia,” said Rohan Gunaratna, head of the International Centre for Political Violence and Terrorism Research at Nanyang Technological University in Singapore. “The purpose of his site is to polarise and radicalise people so that they become ripe for recruitment.”“他是东南亚地区最重要的网络恐怖分子,”新加坡南洋理工大学(Nanyang Technological University)政治暴力与恐怖主义研究国际中心的负责人罗汉#8226;古纳拉特纳(Rohan Gunaratna)称,“其网站的目的是让人们变得极端和激进,变得适合招募。”In 2010, Mr Abdul Rahman was sentenced to five years in an Indonesian jail for concealing information related to the terrorist attacks at the JW Marriott and Ritz-Carlton hotels in Jakarta, which killed seven people and injured about 50. He had arranged for ,000 in cash to be passed to the main bomber, according to the US government.2010年,阿卜杜勒#8226;拉赫曼因隐瞒与发生在雅加达JW万豪酒店(JW Marriott)和丽思卡尔顿酒店(Ritz-Carlton)的恐怖袭击相关的信息,被判处在印度尼西亚一所监狱刑5年。那次恐怖袭击造成了7人遇难,约50人受伤。根据美国政府的信息,他准备了1万美元现金要转交给炸弹袭击的主犯。Citigroup said: “We have a number of policies and procedures in place for our vendors designed to help prevent our advertising from appearing on inappropriate sites. In this case we have acted quickly to rectify the issue and have taken steps to ensure our ads will not appear on this site in the future.”花旗集团表示:“我们针对广告代理商有许多政策和流程,旨在防止我们的广告出现在不合适的网站上。在此次事件中,我们迅速采取行动纠正了问题,并且采取了措施以保未来我们的广告不会再出现在该网站上。”IBM said that it was “looking into the matter and will take all measures with its agency buying partners to prevent recurrence”.IBM称“正在调查此事,并将与媒体购买合作伙伴一道采取一切措施防止再次发生这种情况”。Microsoft said: “The advertisement was placed using a third-party automated online media buying process and has now been removed. We’re working with our media buying partners to identify additional safeguards to further reduce the potential for ad placement on inappropriate sites.”微软称:“该广告是利用第三方自动化在线媒体购买流程进行投放的,现在已经被移除。我们正在与媒体购买合作伙伴一起制定额外的防护措施,以进一步减少广告被投放在不合适网站的可能性。”An industry insider who has been gathering data about Arrahmah.com for the Financial Times estimated that the site was making thousands of dollars per month based on its ad traffic, and potentially more.一名为英国《金融时报》收集有关Arrahmah.com信息的业内人士估计,以其广告流量计算,该网站每个月获利数千美元,甚至可能更多。 /201605/444431

Christmas 圣诞节 It all began about 2,000 years ago. An angel appeared to a Jewish girl named Mary and gave her good news: You will have a son. His name will be Jesus, the Savior. When the baby was almost due, Mary and her fiance Joseph went to their hometown, Bethlehem, for a census. The only place they could find to stay was an animal stable. There the special baby was born.这一切大约是在两千年前开始的,一位天使向一位叫马利亚的犹太女孩显现,并且告诉她好消息:「你将怀生子,给他起名叫耶稣,就是救世主。」当马利亚的产期近了的时候,马利亚和的未婚夫约瑟因户口调查的缘故回到家乡伯利恒城。他们所找到唯一能够落脚的地方是一个动物住的地方。这位特别的婴孩就在那里出生。 Angels announced the joyful news to some shepherds. They left their sheep and hurried to see the baby. Some time later, wise men from the East saw an unusual star. They knew someone great had been born. The star led them to Bethlehem. When they found the child Jesus, they offered him gifts fit for a king. 天使对一些牧羊人报告这个大喜的讯息。他们便丢下自己的羊赶去看这位婴孩。不久之后,东方的士看见一颗很不寻常的星星,他们知道某位伟人诞生了。这颗星将他们引导到伯利恒,当他们找到了孩童耶稣时,他们献上了适合国王身份的礼物。 The celebration of this special birth came to be called Christmas. Through the ages, people developed many Christmas traditions. The custom of decorating Christmas trees began centuries ago. People in many ancient cultures decorated homes with trees and greenery in winter. In the Middle Ages, Christians in Europe added lights and religious symbols to evergreens to make Christmas trees. Santa Claus has become one of the most famous Christmas figures, particularly in America. His legend started with a kind bishop named St. Nicholas who lived around 300 A.D. and was known for his generosity. The practice of giving Christmas gifts comes from the gifts offered to the child Jesus by the wise men of the East. The star on top of the Christmas tree symbolizes the star that led the wise men to Jesus. 为这个特别诞生所做的庆祝被称为圣诞节。经过这些年,人们发展出了许多圣诞节的传统,装饰圣诞树的习俗在数百年前开始。在许多古老文化中,人们在冬天利用树和绿叶植物装饰自己的家。在中世纪,欧洲的基督徒在万年青上面加上灯光和宗教象征物成为圣诞树。圣诞老公公已经成了最有名的圣诞节人物之一,尤其是在美国。他的传说始自纪元前三百年左右,一个叫做圣尼古拉斯的仁慈主教,他以慷慨仁慈而出名。而在圣诞节送礼物的习惯则是始自那些由东方而来的士将礼物送给耶稣。圣诞树顶上的星星象征着那颗引导士找到耶稣的星星。 Sometimes Christmas can become just a ritual. Many Americans see Christmas as just a time for shopping for the perfect gift. Advertisers and businesses begin promoting Christmas earlier every year. Stores remind customers of how many shopping days are left until Christmas. It's almost a modern Christmas custom to spend too much money! Credit card debts often take months to pay off. Even children can become materialistic. They think only of what they will get from Santa Claus. 有时候,圣诞节变得非常形式化。许多美国人把圣诞节当成只是一个购买「最佳礼物」的时刻。广告公司和商人开始一年比一年提早为圣诞节打广告,商店也会提醒顾客在圣诞节之前还有几天可以购物,过量的花费几乎已成了现代的圣诞节习惯!用信用卡代付的金额通常要好几个月才能偿清。即使小孩也变得很物质主义,他们只想到自己会从圣诞老公公那里得到什么礼物。 Despite the hustle and bustle of the Christmas Rush, most Americans feel Christmas is the most wonderful time of the year. It's a time of excitement, a time of joy, a time to show love in special ways. Best of all, Christmas is not just for Americans. Christmas is for everybody in the world. Christmas is the celebration of God's gift to the world-Jesus. 除了这些因圣诞节而来的忙忙碌碌,大部份的美国人仍然认为圣诞节是一年之中最美好的时间。它是一个兴奋、喜乐并且用特别的方式来表达爱的时候。最好的是,圣诞节不只是为美国人预备的,圣诞节是为了世界上的每一个人预备的,它是为了庆祝上帝给世人的礼物──耶稣。 /200803/32740

怀也要挑“吉日”Season of conception tied to school performanceThe time of year a womanconceivesmay influence the future academic performance of her child, according to research reported this week at the Pediatric Academic Societies' annual meeting.When researchers linked standardized test scores of 1,667,391 Indiana students in grades 3 through 10 with the month in which each student had been conceived, they found that children conceived May through August scored significantly lower on math and language tests than children conceived during other months of the year.The correlation between test scores and conception season held regardless of race, gender, and grade level.Why might this be? According to Dr. Paul Winchester of Indiana University School of Medicine who led the study, the evidence points to environmental pesticides, used most often in the summer months, as a possible player.The lower test scores correlated with higher levels of pesticides and nitrates in the surface water (nearby streams and other bodies of water) during that same time period, he told Reuters Health."Exposure to pesticides and nitrates can alter the hormonal milieu of the pregnant mother and the developing fetal brain," Winchester explained in a statement. For example, past research has linked exposure to pesticides and nitrates to low thyroid hormone levels ("hypothyroidism") in pregnant women and hypothyroidism in pregnancy has been tied to lower intelligence test scores in offspring.While the current findings do not prove that pesticides and nitrates contribute to lower test scores, "they strongly support such a hypothesis," Winchester said."A priori there should be no reasons particularly why the month of conception should change your (test) scores," he added in an interview, "and yet from our chain of evidence our hypothesis was that if pesticides do alter the friendly environment of the developing fetus than that might be reflected in lower scores. And unfortunately that's what we found.""There is something going on" and it needs to be studied further, Winchester concluded.(CRI)在本周举行的"儿科学术协会年会"上,一项研究报告称,母亲怀的月份可能会影响孩子以后的学业成绩。研究人员对印地安那州1,667,391名3到10年级学生的统一考试成绩和他们的受月份进行了相关分析。结果发现,与其它月份受的孩子相比,5月至8月受的孩子的数学和语言成绩要低得多。考试成绩与受季节这一相互关系不受种族、性别和年级的影响。该如何解释这一结论?本研究的带头人、印第安纳大学医学院的保罗·温彻斯特士说,罪魁祸首有可能是空气中的杀虫剂,这些杀虫剂在夏季使用得比较多。他在接受路透社健康部的采访时说,考试低分与地表水(附近的小溪和其它水体)中含量过高的杀虫剂和硝酸盐有关。温彻斯特解释说,"接触杀虫剂和硝酸盐会使妇体内的荷尔蒙环境发生改变,从而影响胎儿的大脑发育。"比如,以往的研究发现,妇体内甲状腺激素含量低(甲状腺机能减退)与接触杀虫剂和硝酸盐有关,而怀期间甲状腺机能减退又与孩子智商低有关。尽管目前的研究不能明杀虫剂和硝酸盐导致考试低分,但是,温彻斯特说,"它们为这一假设提供了有力的持。"他在采访中补充道,"我们是这样推理的,既然没有特别的原因来解释受的月份影响考试成绩这件事,那么根据一系列的据,我们假设如果杀虫剂确实影响胎儿成长的良好环境,那么这种影响也许会导致考试低分。不幸的是,这正是我们通过研究发现的。"温彻斯特最后总结到,"这其中还有一些影响因素"有待进一步的研究。Vocabulary:conceive: To become pregnant(怀)hypothyroidism: 甲状腺机能减退 /200803/31405

文章编辑: 中国专家