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青岛市新阳光正规

2018年12月14日 04:21:13
来源:四川新闻网
美丽资讯

If it seems you are permanently single while everyone else around you is in a relationship, blame your DNA。如果你发现身边的人都成双成对而就你是长时间的单身,那么都是你的DNA惹的祸。Scientists have identified a ‘singleton gene’, and found that those who have it are 20 per cent more likely to be single than others。科学家们发现了一种“单身基因”并发现,带有这种基因的人比其他人单身的几率高20%。It is thought that by lowering levels of the feel-good brain chemical serotonin, the gene makes people less comfortable in close relationships。研究发现基因控制大脑中使人感觉良好的血清素分泌下降,使得人们在亲密的关系中变得拘谨。This could make it harder to form them in the first place - or lead to break-up after break-up。这使得他们最初就不太容易开始一段感情——或者在分手之后再经历分手。The scientists from Peking University in Beijing tested hair samples from almost 600 Chinese university students to analyse a gene called 5-HTA1, which comes in two different versions。北京大学[微]的科学家从600名中国大学生的头发样本中分析了这种名为5-HTA1的基因,发现基因有两种不同的版本。Those with the ‘G’ version were much more likely to be single than those with the ‘C’ version。“G”基因的人比“C”基因的人更容易独身。Some 60 per cent were not in a relationship - compared to 50 per cent of those in the c group。C基因组里只有50%的人单身,但是G组里有60%。Importantly, the link couldn’t be explained by other factors that influence relationships, including appearance and wealth。重要的是,这种关联不能以其他影响人际关系的因素,比如外貌和财富来解释。The key to the findings seems to be the role of the 5-HTA1 gene in the brain。核心研究表明是大脑中的5-HTA1基因在作怪。Those with the ‘G’, or singleton, version make less serotonin, a brain chemical involved in mood and happiness。那些带有G基因,或者说独身基因版本的分泌的血清素较少,这种血清素是大脑中分泌的控制情绪和幸福感的化学物质。It was aly known that people with the ‘G’ allele, or version, find it more difficult to get close to others。研究已经表明了带有G等位基因的人更不容易和人亲近。Plus, they are more likely to be neurotic and to suffer from depression。而且,他们更有可能变成神经病患者而且患上抑郁症。Writing in the journal Scientific Reports, the researchers said: ‘As pessimism and neuroticism are detrimental to the formation, quality and stability of relationships, this connection between the G allele and psychological disorders might decrease carriers’ dating opportunities or lead to romantic relationship failure.’《科学报告》杂志提到,研究者们说:“因为悲观主义和神经质对于人际交往的构成、质量和稳定性有害,G等位基因和心理失调的联系可能会减少携带者约会的机率或者导致交往失败。”The researchers said that students may have more free time and freedom to form relationships than others。研究者们提到,学生比其他人更有时间和经历去搭建人际交往关系。And at other times of life, other factors, such as pressure from parents to marry, may be much more influential。而在人生中的其他阶段,其余的比如父母要求结婚的压力因素,则更有影响力一些。Despite this, they concluded that their study provides ‘evidence for genetic contribution to social relationships in certain contexts’。另外,他们总结道这项研究为“基因影响社交”提供了据。Other scientists said that while genes will inevitably influence relationships, their role in most cases will be small。而另一些科学家认为,虽然基因不可避免的对人际交往产生影响,他们的作用在大多数案例中发挥的几率很小。Dr Pam Spurr, a relationship expert, said that we don’t have to let our genes rule our lives。人际关系专家帕姆·斯尔士说道:我们不要让基因控制我们的生活。She said: ‘I know that our genetic heritage determines some of our behaviour but we always have choice。她说:“我知道我们的基因传统决定我们的一些生活习惯,但是我们总是有选择的。‘If someone’s difficulties with dating are flagged up to them, I believe they can learn to interact in a way that will make them more successful in meeting somebody。“如果有人将约会不顺归咎于此,我相信他们可以学着和人互动从而在交往上变得更顺利。‘I feel quite optimistic about that.’“我对此很乐观。”Professor Tim Spector, an expert in the role of genes from King’s College London, questioned how strong the research was。伦敦国王学院的基因教授蒂姆·斯佩克特对这项研究的可信度打了个问号。However, studies show that our odds of getting married and staying married and our number of sexual partners are all influenced by our DNA。然而,研究表明我们结婚的几率,维持婚姻的几率和拥有性伴侣的数量都受DNA影响。Despite this, genes are not the be all and end all. Simple evidence for this comes from looking at identical twins。虽说如此,基因也不是全部。简单的例子就是看看那些同卵双胞胎。They are usually attracted to the same type of person initially, but end up settling down with very different mates。他们一开始都会被同一类型的人吸引,但是最后都和截然不同的伴侣结了婚。 /201507/385616青岛市第七人民医院位置青岛开发区第一人民医院网上预约挂号As a child, Chris Cosentino loved using the simple wooden nutcrackers his grandfather made to separate nuts from their shells. And there were always plenty of bowls of nuts sitting around his grandparents’ homes.克里斯·科森蒂诺(Chris Cosentino)从小就喜欢用他祖父做的那个简单的木质胡桃夹子剥坚果。那时候,他祖父母的家中各处总有一碗碗的坚果。“Walnuts, hazelnuts and almonds in the shell,” he said. “It was a very Italian thing.”“那些带壳的核桃、榛子还有杏仁,”他说,“都是很有意大利味道的东西。”Mr. Cosentino, 42, is now a chef who has been a winner on the Bravo series “Top Chef Masters” and who has a new restaurant called Cockscomb opening in San Francisco in a few weeks. These days, he uses a marble mortar and pestle or a woodworking mallet when he needs to crack nuts. But he had a number of suggestions for those who prefer traditional nutcrackers.今年42岁的科森蒂诺已经成为了一名厨师,他曾经是Bravo系列节目“顶级大厨”(Top Chef Masters)中的赢家,而且再过几星期,他的新餐厅Cockscomb就将在旧金山开业了。现在,他在剥坚果的时候会使用一台大理石臼及一把捣杵,或是一把木质锤子。但是他有许多建议,可供那些喜欢用传统胡桃夹子的人参考。At Zinc Details, in the Lower Pacific Heights area of San Francisco, he found several appealing options, including an Andrea Branzi design for Alessi called Scoiattolo (or squirrel). It was heavy, which is a good thing in a nutcracker, he explained, because it means “the nut will give before the nutcracker itself will.”他在旧金山下太平洋高地(Lower Pacific Heights)的Zinc Details商店里,找到了几件很有吸引力的产品,其中包括安德烈亚·布兰奇(Andrea Branzi)为艾烈希(Alessi)设计的一款胡桃夹子,名为Scoiattolo(或“松鼠”)。这件产品非常沉,但对于胡桃夹子来说却是件好事,他解释道,因为这意味着“坚果在这样的夹子面前会自暴自弃。”It was also functional, he said (“It has two sections for different-size nuts”), and aesthetically pleasing. “You’ve got a squirrel sitting on what looks like a branch cracking a nut. It makes sense and it looks good enough to keep out on the counter.”而且这款产品也很好用,他说(“它有两个部分可以用来夹大小不同的坚果”),而且设计美观,令人愉悦。“就像一只松鼠正坐在树枝一类的地方,剥开一枚坚果。这件产品不但很实用,而且摆在台面上也很好看。”Looks are important to Mr. Cosentino, who has done a certain amount of designing: of clothing (Chef jeans and Meat Feat socks), sporting equipment (a limited-edition skateboard) and kitchenware (a line of knives). “If it’s something that sits out,” he said, “I want people to look at it and think it’s really beautiful.”科森蒂诺非常看重外观,他之前曾做过各种各样的设计:有装类的(Chef牛仔裤和Meat Feat袜),有运动器材类的(一款限量版的滑板),还有厨房用品类的(一系列的刀具)。“如果这件东西是要摆在外面的,”他说,“我希望人们看见它会觉得非常美丽。”The Nusskubus, which he found online from Connox, more than fit that criteria. “If you put it on your counter,” he said, “they’ll think it’s a sculpture.”他上网在Connox商店里找到的一款Nusskubus夹子,则更加符合这一标准。“如果把它放在台面上,”他说,“人们会以为这是一尊雕塑。”He also liked a mushroom-like wooden nutcracker from Stone Creek Trading, which he thought resembled a porcini. “You can hold the top or the bottom to twist it together,” he said. “That’s nice, elegant and simple.”他还喜欢Stone Creek Trading商店里的一款木质胡桃夹子。它的样子像个蘑菇,让他联想到牛肝菌。“你可以拿住顶部或底部,这样一起扭动,”他说,“那很漂亮,很优雅,而且很简单。”No one would describe the brightly colored Robot from SUCK UK as elegant or simple, but Mr. Cosentini was equally enthusiastic about it.大概没人会用优雅或简单来形容SUCK UK商店里的那款色艳丽的Robot夹子吧,但科森蒂诺对这件物品同样推崇。“I love this,” he said. “It looks like he’s digesting the nut in his belly. You turn the crank until the shell breaks and it spews out all the parts. How cool is that?” RIMA SUQI“我喜欢这款产品,”他说,“看起来就好像,他正在消化腹中的这枚坚果。你可以转动这个曲柄,直到果壳破开,然后它就会把所有东西都吐出来了。这样很酷吧?” /201501/352635To say that the photographer Mario Testino, 60, is a frequent traveler is something of an understatement. London is his home, but he is on a plane every third day for his jobs around the world to shoot campaigns for fashion houses like Chanel and portraits such as the official engagement picture of the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge.60岁的摄影师马里奥·特斯蒂诺(Mario Testino)经常旅行——这么说有点轻描淡写。他家在伦敦,但是为了工作,他每隔三天就要飞往世界各地为香奈儿(Chanel)等装公司拍摄广告照片,或者承接剑桥公爵和公爵夫人的正式订婚照等人像摄影工作。His latest project is the fifth annual Macallan Masters of Photography, an initiative from the whisky producer based in Craigellachie, Scotland, in which well-known photographers like Annie Leibovitz and Albert Watson shoot pictures intended to showcase the brand. The assignment took Mr. Testino to Beijing. He spent three days at the China Club hotel, a former 17th-century palace, photographing his version of a black-tie party inside a whisky club. The Macallan is selling a limited number of prints of four photographs taken by Mr. Testino along with a bottle of whisky that is a blend of a half-dozen single malts (available for ,500 at premium liquor stores).他的最新工作是第五届麦卡伦年度摄影大师项目(Macallan Masters of Photography),安妮·莱维茨(Annie Leibovitz)和艾伯特·沃森(Albert Watson)等知名摄影师都为它拍过照片,该项目是苏格兰克莱拉奇的威士忌制造商麦卡伦发起的,目的是展示这个品牌。这个项目把特斯蒂诺带到了北京。他住在中国会酒店,17世纪,这里曾是一座王府。他在这里呆了三天,拍摄一个威士忌酒吧里的半正式派对。麦卡伦公司正在销售一款限量版组合,内容包括特斯蒂诺拍摄的四张照片和一瓶威士忌,这瓶威士忌是用六桶不同风味的单一麦芽威士忌混合调制的(高档酒类专卖店有售,3500美元)。Mr. Testino recently visited New York to promote the project and spoke on the rooftop of the Gramercy Park Hotel about how a destination informs his work and his tips for taking the ideal vacation pictures. Following are edited excerpts.最近,特斯蒂诺到纽约推广这个项目,在格拉梅西公园酒店的屋顶谈论旅行地点对作品的影响,以及拍摄完美度假照片的小贴士。下面的谈话经过节选。Q. The final images the Macallan is releasing from your time in Beijing are of people. Was conveying a sense of place — that you’re in China — important to you?问:关于你在北京拍摄的那些照片,麦卡伦最后发布了一组人物照片。传达地域感——表明你是在中国——这一点对你来说重要吗?A. I started off with the intention of showing the surroundings of the China Club, but when I saw all the people together, it felt more exciting for me that it wasn’t so well defined where they were. They could be anywhere, and I liked leaving that door open.答:最初我是想展示中国会酒店的环境,但当我看到所有这些人在一起时,我觉得不明确表现他们在哪儿更令我兴奋。他们可能是在任何地方,我喜欢留下一些想像空间。That being said, conveying a sense of place is important to me in my work. I love through my pictures to be able to travel through different continents and different social classes, but it’s not always necessary. In this particular case, the characters were so well defined that I felt that the place might be one element too many so I ended up not showing the environment so much.话虽如此,但传达地域感对我的作品很重要。我喜欢人们能够通过我的照片游历不同的大陆和社会阶层,但它并不总是必要的。在这个项目中,这些人物已经有清晰界定了,我觉得再加上地点这个元素就太多了,所以我最终决定不展示那么多环境。I have worked in Beijing several times before and love the energy of the city and the blend of historical and modern.我之前去北京工作过几次,我很喜欢那座城市的活力以及它对历史和现代的融合。Since you’re not a landscape photographer, how much does the destination really influence your work?问:你不是风光摄影师,所以地点对你的作品真的有很大影响吗?Interestingly enough, sometimes people will say to me that I don’t need to travel for some of my projects because the destination isn’t relevant, but I’m so excited by different places that traveling just triggers my imagination. It’s almost an obsession to be in the right place for the right image.答:有趣的是,有时人们对我说,我的某些项目不需要旅行,因为地点无关紧要,但不同的地点会让我兴奋,旅行能激发我的想像力。在合适的地方拍摄合适的影像几乎是我的强迫症。Do you have a favorite city to work in?问:有没有哪座城市是你特别喜欢在那里工作的?I love Rio, Berlin and Naples, but London, New York City and Los Angeles are the places I go the most, and they are easy because they are geared for my sort of work. Like in L.A., for example, because it’s the heart of the film world, anything you want for a shoot is there whether it’s a Spanish villa or certain kinds of clothes. Not all places are so easy. They might not have location vans for hair and makeup, which are important in shoots, and you have to make do with the choices for wardrobe.答:里约热内卢、柏林和那不勒斯,但是伦敦、纽约和洛杉矶是我去得最多的城市,在这几个城市拍摄很方便,因为它们很适合我这种工作。比如洛杉矶,它是电影中心,那儿有摄影需要的任何东西,不管是西班牙别墅还是某种装。不是所有的地方都这么方便。有的地方可能没有可以用来放假发和化妆品的外景车,这些东西在拍摄时很重要,那样你就只能用衣橱里的东西将就。What advice do you have for travelers who want to make sure they get the best pictures from their trip? Are good shots about having the right camera?问:对于那些想在旅行中拍到最好照片的旅行者,你有什么建议?拍好照片跟相机有关吗?You don’t need a fancy camera to be able to capture anything. The one on your phone is good enough; that’s what I use when I’m not working. Getting the right pictures is about opening your eyes to see what’s magical about a place. I just photographed the city from a window on this floor and saw all these buildings lit in a beautiful way, which is so New York. But the magic is different depending on where you are. It could be the people, the landscape, the animals or even the candle in the room. You just have to be curious, and you’ll find it.答:不管拍什么,你都不需要好相机。你的手机相机就够好了,我不工作时也是用它拍照。拍到好照片最重要的是睁开眼睛发现一个地方的神奇之处。我就透过这层楼的一个窗户拍摄这座城市,看着这些建筑如此优美地排列,觉得它们非常具有纽约特色。不过你所在的地方不同,它的神奇之处也不同。可能是人、风景或动物,甚至是房间的蜡烛。只要你充满好奇心,就会发现它。When you’re not traveling professionally, where do you vacation, and how often are you taking pictures?问:你不出差时去哪儿度假?度假时经常拍照吗?I go on holiday about twice a year and generally to Brazil or to home in Peru. I take very few photographs.答:我一年度假两次,通常是去巴西或者回秘鲁老家。我几乎不拍照。What are your travel essentials?问:哪些东西是你的旅行必需品?If it’s a personal trip, I don’t really have any. I’m pretty low-maintenance. When I’m going for work, it’s my assistants — I have a half dozen who travel with me. If I do a shoot, I have to edit the job on the plane right after, and when I land, I have to start doing the retouching. Today we work digitally so everything is raw, and you have to determine if you want the picture blue, green, red, contrasting or not, dark or light. There’s a lot to do, and I’m always surrounded by people who are helping me.答:如果是私人旅行,我几乎没有必需品。我很好养活。我去工作时,必须带助手,有六个助手跟我一起旅行。如果拍摄的话,我必须在结束后到飞机上马上剪辑,落地后就开始润色。现在我们都用数码相机拍照,所以一切都是未加工的,你必须在拍摄后才决定照片要什么色调——蓝色、绿色或红色——是否要增加对比色,是要暗色还是亮色。这要做很多工作,我周围总是有人在帮我。Is jet lag an issue for you?问:时差对你来说是个问题吗?I am very lucky it isn’t. I can sleep at anytime and anywhere, but I do need my eight hours.答:我很幸运,时差对我来说不是问题。我随时随地都能睡,不过我的确需要睡够八小时。 /201412/351178青岛第六医院总部

青岛切除子宫肌瘤要多少钱青岛三甲妇科医院排名When most fathers discover their daughter is getting married, they set to work planning a witty speech.大多数父亲在得知女儿要结婚的时候,都会精心准备一份婚礼致辞。But when John Butcher#39;s little girl tied the knot, he wanted to go one better than that.但是约翰·布彻的小女儿结婚的时候,他给出的惊喜显然要比致辞好得多。So the 50-year-old from Allington, Kent, spent 200 hours learning to sing so that he could surprise his daughter, Natalie, by serenading her on her wedding day.这位来自英国肯特郡的父亲今年50岁,他花了200多个小时学习唱歌,为的是在女儿娜塔莉的婚礼上为她献唱一首小夜曲,给她个惊喜。John had secret singing lessons for more than six months and practised for 180 hours at home so he could be pitch perfect when he performed in front of 100 people on the big day.约翰瞒着大家,共用了6个多月学习唱歌、180个小时在家练习,目的就是希望在女儿生日那天自己能够在100多人的面前有个完美的表现。The father-of-two then belted out a version of the Elvis classic #39;Always On My Mind#39; to his shocked daughter during her wedding reception at The Orangery at Turkey Mill, Maidstone, in October.十月份,在女儿的婚礼现场上,约翰深情演唱了埃尔维斯的经典曲目《永远在我心中》,让女儿惊喜不已。Natalie, 26, who married software developer Ian Wright, 29, said her father#39;s song was the icing on the cake of their special day.26岁的娜塔莉嫁给了29岁的软件工程师伊恩·怀特,她说父亲的演唱给她的婚礼锦上添花。She said: We had the most amazing day which was finished off perfectly with the surprise of my dad singing after the speech. I was in shock but touched by the choice of song and the amount of effort that had gone into the preparation. Everyone seemed to be as blown away as I was and it is something I will never forget.#39;“那天真的是美妙无比的一天,婚礼进行得很顺利,而爸爸在致辞后的演唱又给了我们一个大大的惊喜。爸爸选的那首歌曲,以及他这么长时间的准备,都令我非常吃惊和感动。大家看起来也都和我一样,这天令我终身难忘。”娜塔莉说。John#39;s wife, Mel, 47, was equally as shocked and touched by her husband bursting into song.约翰的妻子47岁的梅尔,也被丈夫的突然献唱感动了。John said: #39;My wife Mel was in tears as she knew nothing about the performance and my daughter told me afterwards that it was the closest she came to crying throughout the whole ceremony.#39;约翰说:“梅尔热泪盈眶,因为她事先也不知道我的表演。后来女儿跟我说那个时刻是她整个婚礼中最想哭的时刻。”The father-of-the-bride said he came up with the idea to sing at the reception in April but as he confessed he wasn#39;t previously able to carry a tune, he signed up for lessons to help him impress the wedding guests.约翰说他是在4月份想到要在婚礼上唱歌的主意的,但他承认在此之前他唱歌是会走调的,所以他专门报了唱歌学习班以帮助他能在婚礼上好好表现。He said: #39;I really can#39;t sing and don#39;t pretend to. I spoke to Darren in April about the idea and started lessons in May.他说:“我真的不会唱歌也不想隐瞒这点。4月份的时候我告诉达伦老师我的想法,然后在5月的时候开始了学习。”#39;I#39;ve had a lesson every other week and have practised the song for an hour a day since then.#39;“我每隔一周去上一次课,然后每天都在家练习一个小时。”His hard work paid off and people clapped and cheered John#39;s performance - which was filmed in full by one of the guests and then uploaded to YouTube.约翰的努力得到了收获,大家都为他的表演欢呼鼓掌,其中一位宾客还将整个过程录了下来并上传到了YouTube上。John said: #39;Everyone thought the DJ had mucked up, but then I got up and started singing. People were laughing and crying and standing up waving their hands.约翰说:“当时大家都以为是DJ搞错了,但就在这时我起身开始演唱。大家哭着,笑着,并站起来挥舞着手臂。”Housewife Mel, said she was proud of her husband#39;s efforts to make their daughter#39;s day even more memorable.妻子梅尔说她为自己的丈夫感到骄傲,是丈夫的这一举动使女儿的婚礼更加具有纪念意义。She said: #39; I can#39;t believe he managed to keep it a secret for so long.梅尔说:“我没想到他会瞒着我们这么久。”#39;I was laughing and crying, I had my face in a serviette, it was very emotional and I was very proud of him especially as he#39;s not the kind of person to put himself at the centre of attention.#39;“我当时高兴和感动得都哭了,不停地用餐巾纸擦眼泪。这真是太感人了,我为约翰感到骄傲,尤其是他并不是那种擅长在众人面前表演的人。” /201411/343032青岛齐鲁医院青岛分院引产Companies are increasingly adding vitamins and minerals to juices, sports drinks and bottled water, responding to a growing consumer demand for these products. Even though the amounts of added nutrients in these drinks are typically small, some nutrition scientists are concerned that through their overall diets, many people may be ingesting levels of vitamins and other nutrients that are not only unnecessary, but potentially harmful.饮料公司在果汁、运动饮料和瓶装水中添加了愈来愈多的维生素和矿物质,以满足顾客对这些东西日益增长的要求。尽管这些饮料中添加的营养素大多比较少,但是有些营养科学家担心,从总体饮食来看,很多人额外摄入的维生素和其他营养素不仅没必要,而且可能有害。“You have vitamins and minerals that occur naturally in foods, and then you have people taking supplements, and then you have all these fortified foods,” said Mridul Datta, an assistant professor in the department of nutrition science at Purdue University. “It adds up to quite an excess. There’s the potential for people to get a lot more of these vitamins than they need.”“食物中本来就含有维生素和矿物质,还有人用补充剂,还有这些营养强化食品,”普渡大学营养科学系助理教授姆里杜尔·达塔(Mridul Datta)说,“所有这些加起来,就太多了。人们摄取的维生素可能比他们需要的多很多。”Today more than ever, studies show, the average person is exposed to unusually high levels of vitamins and minerals. Aly, more than half of all adults in the ed States take a multivitamin or dietary supplement. B, milk and other foods are often fortified with folic acid, niacin and vitamins A and D.很多研究表明,如今维生素和矿物质的人均摄入量明显高于以往任何时候。美国半数以上的成年人用多种维生素片或膳食补充剂。面包、牛奶和其他食物通常都添加叶酸、烟酸,以及维生素A和D。A study published in July found that many people are exceeding the safe limits of nutrient intakes established by the Institute of Medicine. And research shows that people who take dietary supplements are often the ones who need them the least.7月份发表的一项研究发现,很多人摄入的营养素超出美国医学研究所确定的安全限量。研究表明,用膳食补充剂的人往往是那些最不需要补充的人。Particularly concerning, experts say, is the explosion of beverages marketed specifically for their high levels of antioxidants, like Vitaminwater, POM Wonderful, Naked Juice and many others. The body requires antioxidants to neutralize free radicals that can damage cells and their DNA. But it also uses free radicals to fight off infections and cancer cells, experts say, and when antioxidants are present in excess, it can throw things out of balance.专家称,最令人忧虑的是,市场上出现了大量专门以高含量抗氧化剂为噱头的饮料,比如维他命水(Vitaminwater)、POM Wonderful石榴汁和裸汁果汁(Naked Juice)等。人体需要用抗氧化剂来中和自由基,因为自由基会破坏细胞和DNA。但是专家说,人体也用自由基来对抗传染病和癌细胞,如果抗氧化剂过多,会打破身体平衡。A study published this month analyzed 46 beverages — both with and without sugar — sold in supermarkets alongside bottled water. It found that many of these drinks contained vitamins B6, B12, niacin and vitamin C in quantities “well in excess” of the average daily requirements for young adults.本月发表的一项研究分析了在超市里和瓶装水一起售卖的46种(含糖或不含糖的)饮料。研究发现,其中很多饮料的维生素B6、B12、烟酸和维生素C含量“远远超过”年轻成年人的日均所需。Eighteen of these drinks contained more than triple the daily requirement for B6. Eleven had more than three times the requirement for B12. And a half dozen had more than three times the requirement for niacin or riboflavin. Some of these products promised improvements in energy and immune function, while others promoted “performance and emotional benefits related to nutrient formulations that go beyond conventional nutritional science,” the researchers said.其中18种饮料添加的B6含量超过日均所需的三倍。11种饮料的B12含量超过日均所需的三倍。六种饮料的烟酸或B2含量超过日均所需的三倍。研究人员说,有些产品承诺能提高活力和免疫力,还有些声称“其营养素配方超越传统饮食科学,能改善身体机能和情绪”。The most common nutrients added were vitamins that are aly plentiful in the average person’s diet, so their widesp inclusion in these drinks is almost completely unnecessary, said Valerie Tarasuk, the lead author of the study and a nutrition science professor in the faculty of medicine at the University of Toronto.这项研究的主要作者、多伦多大学营养科学教授瓦莱丽·塔拉苏克(Valerie Tarasuk)说,饮料中最常添加的营养素是人们日常饮食中大量存在的维生素,所以在饮料中普遍添加这些营养素几乎毫无必要。“It’s very hard to figure out the logic the manufacturers are using to do this fortification,” she said. “There’s no way that the things that are being added are things that anybody needs or stands to benefit from.”“很难理解生产厂家进行这种营养素强化的逻辑是什么,”她说,“这些添加剂不是所有人都需要的,也不能给所有人带来益处。”Sugary drinks were just as likely to be concentrated with vitamins as those that were sugar-free. Dr. Tarasuk said that as sugar has become the focus of public health concerns about beverage consumption, “this extreme micronutrient addition has fallen under the radar.”和无糖饮料一样,含糖饮料中也可能添加了很多维生素。塔拉苏克说,因为人们对饮料引发的公众健康忧虑集中在糖上,所以“这种添加微量营养素的极端行为没有引起人们的注意。”In nature, there are checks and balances that prevent overconsumption of vitamins and antioxidants, she said. It is hard to ingest too much niacin, for example, by eating whole foods like mushrooms, fish or avocados, which are natural sources of niacin that come bundled with fiber, protein and fat. But someone can easily exceed the daily recommendation for niacin with a single bottle of “formula 50” Vitaminwater, which contains 120 percent of the daily value for it (along with 120 percent of the values for vitamins C, B6, B12 and pantothenic acid).她说,大自然会相互制衡,防止人体过量摄入维生素和抗氧化剂。比如,食用蘑菇、鱼或鳄梨等天然食物,难以让人摄取过量烟酸,因为烟酸的这些天然来源中含有大量纤维、蛋白质和脂肪。但是,一瓶“50配方”维他命水就足以让你过量摄入,因为它的烟酸含量是每日推荐摄入量的120%(同时,它添加的维生素C、B6、B12和泛酸含量也是推荐摄入量的120%)。“You couldn’t possibly get that much from any natural foods,” Dr. Tarasuk said. “That’s concerning to me as a nutrition scientist because we don’t know what the effects of chronic exposure may be. With these products, we’ve embarked on a national experiment.”“你从任何天然食物中都不可能摄入那么多营养素,”塔拉苏克说,“作为一名营养科学家,这让我感到忧虑,因为我们不知道长期过量摄入营养素会带来哪些危害。这些产品让我们开始了一场全国性的实验。”A nationwide study carried out by the National Institutes of Health in 2012 found that Americans who take vitamins and supplements were aly getting large amounts of nutrients from their food, and on top of that they had the lowest prevalence of vitamin deficiencies to begin with. The study found that supplement use put these people at increased risk of potentially excessive consumption of folic acid, calcium, iron, zinc, magnesium and vitamins A, C and B6.2012年,美国国家健康研究所进行的一项全国性研究发现,用维生素和补充剂的美国人本来已经从食物中获得了大量营养素,而且他们本来就极少患有维生素缺乏症。这项研究发现,用补充剂增加了这些人过量摄入叶酸、钙、铁、锌、镁、维生素A、C和B6的风险。Added vitamins may clearly aid some people, including women who are pregnant or lactating, or those with specific nutritional deficiencies. But for much of the general population today, there is no scientific justification for a high intake of vitamins and minerals, said Mara Z. Vitolins, a registered dietitian and professor of epidemiology and prevention at Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center.添加维生素无疑可以帮助某些人,包括期或哺乳期妇女,以及那些的确缺乏营养的人。但是韦克福里斯特浸礼会医疗中心的注册营养师、传染病预防教授玛拉·Z·维托林(Mara Z. Vitolins)说,对如今的大部分普通人来说,没有科学依据明需要摄入这么多维生素和矿物质。When consumed in excess, some water-soluble vitamins like B and C are excreted in the urine. But fat soluble-vitamins – including A, D, E and K – accumulate in tissues, posing potential risks.过量摄入后,有些水溶性维生素,比如维生素B和C,会随尿液排出。但是脂溶性维生素,包括维生素A、D、E和K,会积聚在组织里,带来潜在风险。“These fat soluble vitamins are very stable,” she said. “They’re not released in the urine. If you are over-consuming them, you can raise your levels gradually over time and get into trouble with liver function. You have to be very careful with them.”“这些脂溶性维生素非常稳定,”她说,“它们不会随尿液排出。如果过量摄入,它们在体内的含量会越来越高,导致肝功能失常。你必须对它们格外小心。”Data from clinical trials have highlighted clear risks from excess. A large study published in JAMA in 2009, for example, looked at clinical trial data on more than 6,000 heart disease patients who were treated daily with either B vitamins or placebo over a seven year period. The study found that those who were given folic acid and B12 had higher mortality and cancer rates.临床试验数据突显出过量用的风险。例如,2009年发表在《美国医学会杂志》上的一项大型研究分析了6000多名心脏病患者的临床试验数据,这些病人在七年时间里每天用B族维生素或安慰剂。结果发现,用叶酸和B12的研究对象死亡率和患癌比率更高。In 2012, a review of 78 clinical trials involving 300,000 people that was published in the Cochrane Database found that antioxidant supplements like beta carotene, vitamin A and vitamin E actually increased mortality. A year later, the ed States Preventive Services Task Force concluded that there was “limited evidence” that taking vitamins and minerals could prevent cancer and cardiovascular disease.2012年发表在《科克伦数据库》(Cochrane Database)上的一项研究回顾了涉及30万人的78个临床试验。这项研究发现,β-胡萝卜素、维生素A和E等抗氧化补充剂实际上提高了死亡率。一年后,美国预防务工作组断定,用维生素和矿物质能预防癌症和心血管疾病的“据有限”。The task force noted that two clinical trials had found “small, borderline” reductions in cancer incidence in men who took multivitamins. But the group also said there was good evidence that high doses of antioxidants could cause harm.该工作组提到,两个临床试验发现,用多种维生素的人患癌几率的降低幅度“小而不明显”。但是这一组人也说,有明显迹象表明,高剂量抗氧化剂能造成伤害。The federal food fortification program in the ed States began in the early 1900s with the goal of addressing urgent and established nutrient deficiencies. Research showed, for example, that women in their childbearing years were not getting enough folic acid. Since b and cereal were staples of their diets, folic acid was added to these foods – and as a result the rate of neural tube defects in infants has fallen significantly.美国的联邦食物强化项目始于20世纪初,目标是解决紧急、明显的营养缺乏问题。比如,研究表明,当时的育龄妇女叶酸摄入不足。因为面包和谷物是她们的主食,所以在这些食物中添加了叶酸,结果,婴儿神经管缺陷的比率显著下降。Before 1920, iodine deficiencies were common in some parts of the country. A lack of iodine can lead to goiters, miscarriage, congenital abnormalities and severe learning disabilities. So the widesp fortification of salt with iodine was started in 1924. In the 1930s, vitamin D deficiency was linked to rickets. That discovery led in 1933 to the fortification of milk with vitamin D.1920年之前,美国有些地方普遍存在碘缺乏症。缺碘会导致甲状腺肿大、流产、先天性畸形和严重学习障碍。所以从1924年起开始普遍推广加碘盐。20世纪30年代,人们发现佝偻病与维生素D缺乏有关,所以从1933年起开始在牛奶中添加维生素D。Other foods were enriched with additional nutrients – niacin and iron were added to flour, for example – in the decades that followed.在之后的几十年里,其他食物也添加了营养素,比如在面粉中添加烟酸和铁。But in most if not all of these cases, there was a compelling scientific reason for doing so.但是,这些案例几乎都有确切的科学依据。“The reason behind the fortification program was to bring our nutrient intake to a reasonable place, and it targeted nutrients that we were lacking,” Dr. Vitolins said.“食物强化项目的目的是把营养素摄入提高到合理水平,针对的是人们当时缺乏的营养素,”维托林士说。Early on, fortification was limited to a few select foods, in part so the program would not create nutritional imbalances. In an attempt to prevent indiscriminate fortification, the Food and Drug Administration proposed restricting the number of foods that could be fortified to eight, and it specified which nutrients could be added.在早期,营养强化仅限于几种精选的食物,部分目的在于防止该项目造成营养失衡。为了防止任意强化,美国食品和药物提议将能强化营养的食物限制在八种以内,还具体指明可以添加哪些营养素。But that proposal was shot down in the 1970s, and over the years Congress went on to restrict the F.D.A.’s authority over fortification and dietary supplements. This helped open the door to the eventual explosion of vitamin enhanced beverages and sports drinks, which today account for sales of more than billion a year in the ed States alone.但是该提议在20世纪70年代被否决,这些年国会进一步限制食品和药物对营养强化和膳食补充剂的管辖权。这最终导致维了生素强化饮料和运动饮料的激增。如今,这些饮料单在美国的年销售额就达180多亿美元。 /201502/359382城阳那个医院有四维彩超

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