2018年10月20日 02:01:18|来源:国际在线|编辑:放心门户
Once he had gone, in the early hours of the morning of the 9th September, 1087,a shocking scene took place.1087年9月9日的清晨 就在威廉刚刚过世后 发生了一件令人震惊的事件His closest followers now paid their last respects to William by all deserting him,他最亲密的追随者们用遗弃 表达了他们最后的;敬意;racing to the four corners of the kingdom to secure their land,他们奔向王国各处去保卫他们自己的土地leaving the corpse to be looted by the servants,留下了被仆人们洗劫后的尸体naked, bloated and beginning to putrefy on the monastery floor.在修道院的地板上裸露着 肿胀着 慢慢开始腐烂So the man who spent his life taking whatever he could这个不择手段穷尽一生来抢夺一切的人by whatever means possible, was finally robbed of everything,even his dignity.最终被抢走了一切 甚至是尊严Perhaps the hand of God had decided that this was a fitting end.也许上帝认为这是一个合理的结局As for his old antagonist, Harold,he certainly didn#39;t stay buried on the shore facing the Channel,至于他的老对手 哈罗德 正如一些诺曼史学家所设想的那样as some Norman historians suggested.他肯定没有被埋在面朝海峡的海滨上Rumours had it that he#39;d escaped and was living as a hermit.传言他逃出升天 从此一直过着隐居的生活But another story is much more likely to be the truth 但另一似乎更为真实的说法是that once it was safe, the female survivors of the family took Harold#39;s remains and had them interred here at Waltham Abbey.等一切都安全了之后 家族中的女性幸存者 带走哈罗德遗骸 葬在了沃尔瑟姆的修道院According to William and the Pope,Harold was supposed to have been a despoiler of the Church,deserving of destruction.根据威廉和罗马教皇的说法 哈罗德曾是劫掠教堂的罪人 理应处死But the monks at Waltham didn#39;t seem to agree,但是沃尔瑟姆的修道士却不以为然for they secretly buried him and prayed for his soul.他们秘密地埋葬了他 并为他的灵魂祈祷Somewhere there, beneath the columns and arches of this Romanesque church, is the last Anglo-Saxon king,就在这座罗马式教堂的圆柱和拱门之下 埋葬着盎格鲁撒克逊人的最后一位国王literally part of the foundations of Norman England.也是诺曼王朝的奠基者之一 /201608/462773With the stranglehold of the monopolies over, Americans now realize that anything is possible as long as they work together.随着垄断制约的结束 美国人现在意识到 只要他们齐心协力 一切皆有可能The nation is more powerful than ever and that power will soon be needed.国家比以往任何时候都更强大 这种强大很快就派上了用场On a brisk spring morning, two years after the breakup of standard oil, John Rockefeller joins his old rival Andrew Carnegie to mourn the loss of one of their own.标准石油解体两年后 一个清冷春天的早晨 约翰·洛克菲勒跟着老对手安德鲁·卡内基 一起去哀悼一位同辈Less than a month from his seventy-sixth birthday, J.P. Morgan dies in his sleep.离七十六岁生日还有不到一个月的时间 J·P·根在睡梦中去世Morgan leaves such a mark on American finance that the New York Stock Exchange shuts down, an honor normally reserved for the passing of a president.根对美国金融的影响如此之大 以至于纽约券交易所都闭所致敬 这通常是总统才能享受的荣誉J.P. Morgan certainly was the foremost name in banking in terms of creating modern finance... and you can#39;t have a modern economy without a modern, effective functioning banking system.在建立现代金融方面 J·P·根肯定是界最重要的名字 现代化的经济绝对少不了一个现代化的有效运作的体系He was as influential as any of the Titans of that day.他和其他当时的巨人一样拥有巨大的影响力While the old rivals once saw each other as cutthroat competitors now, in their twilight years, the fathers of American business have found a mutual respect.虽然他们将对方看作你死我活的竞争对手 但是在晚年 这些美国商业元老却相互尊重起来 Article/201608/457577Hi. Welcome back to www.engvid.com. I#39;m Adam.大家好,欢迎回到engvid.com,我是Adam。Today#39;s lesson is going to be for those of you who are going to take the TOEFL or IELTS test.今天的课程是为你们中要考和雅思的人准备的。So just so you understand, I will be speaking at a more natural speed.所以希望你们知道,我会用一个更自然的语速讲话。It will be a little bit faster than some of you are used to, but listen anyway, and watch, it#39;s very good for listening practice, and it will be helpful regardless.会比你们习惯的语速要稍快一点,不过你们仔细听,认真看就是了,这是一个很好的练习听力的机会,而且不管怎样都会有帮助的。So today#39;s lesson is specifically about note-taking skills.今天的课程是针对做笔记的技巧的。I#39;m going to concentrate on the TOEFL, but it is also very useful for the people taking an IELTS test.我要集中讲的是,不过对要参加雅思考试的人来说,这也是很有用的。Now, if you#39;ve seen my time management class for IELTS, you will realize that in the listening section, it#39;s very important to know how to take notes.如果你们看过我的雅思考试时间规划课程的话,想必很清楚在听力部分知道怎么做笔记很重要。You don#39;t want to waste time concentrating on spelling and writing full words while the recording is playing because you have time at the end to transfer your answers.在播放录音期间,你们不会想把时间浪费在拼写完整单词上的,因为听力部分结束后会给你们时间誊写。That#39;s when you want to write correctly spelled answers and everything.那才是你们要正确拼写出的时候。You want to just make sure during the listening section that you write enough to know what the word is.你们只要确保自己在听力部分写下了足够的信息,能够辨认出这个单词是什么就行了。We#39;re going to get into that a little bit later.What I want to concentrate on mostly, though, is the TOEFL test, okay?我们稍后再详细讲一下。不过我想要主要关注的还是。Because in the TOEFL test, it is crucial that you know how to take notes.因为在中,知道如何做笔记至关重要。Why? You have a listening section; you have a speaking section; you have a writing section, all of which have a listening component.为什么?你们有听力部分、口语部分和写作部分,所有这些都与听有关。Remember, this is an integrated test, you#39;re going to have to listen in each one of these sections, okay?记住,这是一个综合测试,你们在每一个部分中都必须听。In the listening section, what many people don#39;t realize who haven#39;t taken a test yet: You don#39;t see anything. Okay?很多还没参加过的人没意识到的一件事是:在听力部分,你们什么都看不到。You don#39;t see the questions as you#39;re listening to the lectures or whatever you#39;re listening to.在听演讲或者任何内容时,你们都是看不到问题的。So it#39;s very, very important that you take notes as you#39;re listening so that when the questions do come, you have the information in front of you, you know how to answer it, okay?所以在听的过程中做好笔记非常非常重要,这样开始提问的时候,你们面前就有信息,就知道该如何回答问题了。In the speaking section, you may be given a short conversation to listen to and then be given a question, and you have to speak your answer.在口语部分,他们也许会让你们听一段简短的对话,然后给你们一个问题,你们必须把用英语讲出来。But if you don#39;t remember what they spoke about, then, you can#39;t answer the question properly.但是如果你们不记得对话中讲了什么,那你们也就没法儿好好回答问题了。In the writing section, you have... in Task 1, you have to compare a ing section with a listening section.在写作部分,你们要......第一题,你们要把一个阅读材料和一段听力材料做一个对比。And then, you have to write an answer comparing the two.然后,你们要写出一篇短文来比较这两个部分。So if you don#39;t take notes during the listening component of the Task 1, it#39;s very difficult to write your answer. Okay?所以如果你们在第一题的听力部分不做笔记的话,要写下非常困难。So the note-taking skills -- very important throughout the TOEFL test.所以做笔记技巧在整场中都很重要。So first of all, before we look at how to do it, let#39;s look at what you need to concentrate on as you#39;re listening. Okay?在学习如何做笔记之前,我们先来看看听的过程中你们需要关注些什么。Now, another thing to remember before I even start: this takes practice.在我开始之前你们还要记住:这需要多加练习。This is a skill that you have to sharpen, that you have to practice with every day before you go to take your tests. Okay.这是一个你们在参加考试之前必须不断磨砺、每天练习的技巧。Now, the first mistake people make is they think... they try to write down every word they hear.人们会犯的第一个错误是,他们会试着把听到的每个单词都写下来。Impossible, Okay? Unless you#39;re a stenographer, that#39;s a person who works in court and writes down every word that the people in the courtroom are saying,这是不可能的,知道吗?除非你们是速记员,也就是在法院工作的人,他们负责写下法庭上的人,lawyers, judges, defendants, etc., witnesses, you cannot write every word, don#39;t try.比如律师、法官、被告、人等等说的每一个字,你们没办法把每个单词都写下来的,不要白费力气了。You don#39;t need to write every word, you need to concentrate on the details that are important, on the information that is important.你们不需要写下每个单词,只要专心记下重要的细节、重要的信息就可以了。Now, what you need to focus on are the big, general ideas.你们需要关注的是大体的概念。You need to understand generally what is being spoken about, what is the topic, what is the subject, for example, is it science? Is it history? Is it arts?你们需要大致了解材料中讲了什么,话题是什么,主题是什么,比如是科学、历史还是艺术?You need to understand general ideas because they#39;re not going to ask you very, very specific questions, right?你们要理解大体概念,因为他们不会问你们非常非常具体的问题。And if they do, they#39;re going to give you some information, they#39;re going to give you something to listen to again, or they#39;re going to give you a very specific word.即便问了,他们也会给你们一些信息,会给你们一些东西再听一遍,或者告诉你们一个非常明确的单词。So, details. Do you need to concentrate on every little detail? No.You#39;ll be writing all the time, not listening.那么,细节,每一个小细节你们都要关注吗?不用。那样你们就一直都在写了,根本没时间好好听。Stick to the big ideas, but -- okay, sorry, having said that, technical words -- if they give you some scientific word or some technological word, do you need to know it? No.紧抓大概念,不过......不好意思,这一点已经说过了,那我们来讲术语吧,如果材料中出现了一些科学词汇或者一些术语,你们要懂它们的意思吗?不用。They will give it to you in the question.You will see it in the question, and you#39;ll remember, ;Oh, yeah. This is the technical word.;他们会把这些词放在问题里的。你们会在题目里看见它,然后想起来:“哦,对,就是这个术语。”There will be technical words that even native English speakers have no idea how to write or what they mean or what they are, you don#39;t need to either.有些术语甚至连母语是英语的人都不知道怎么写,或者不知道它们是什么意思,你们也不用知道。What you need to listen to is the explanation of what the technical word refers to or means because the word itself, they will give you in the questions.你们要听的是对这个术语意思的解释,因为这个词本身会在题目里给出来的。Headings, divisions, lists, these are the most important things you#39;re listening for.标题、分隔和清单才是你们要仔细听的最重要的内容。When...for example, you#39;re listening to a lecture in a university classroom, and the professor says, ;So today, we#39;re going to look at three reasons why fracking is bad.;比如你们在听大学教室里的一堂课,教授说:“今天,我们要来看看fracking(水力压裂法)不好的三个原因。”;Fracking;? you don#39;t need to know.You...from the general idea, you will have an idea what ;fracking; means.fracking是什么?你们不用知道。从整体概念中你们会知道fracking的意思的。But ;fracking; spelling? You don#39;t need to know.Specifically, the details of how fracking works, you don#39;t need to know.但你们不需要知道fracking怎么拼写。关于fracking的具体运作细节,你们也不用知道。What you do need to listen to are the three reasons, so he#39;s dividing the lecture into three topics.你们要听的是那三个原因,也就是说他会把这堂课分成三个话题。Make sure that you create a heading for each reason.So the first reason is pollution, write down ;pollution;.请确保你们给每个原因都想出了一个标题。比如第一个原因是污染,那就写下“污染”。And then you can take notes under it if you need to.The second reason is expense, write down ;expense; and whatever information comes after that.然后如果有需要的话,你们可以在这下面做笔记。第二个原因是费用,写下“费用”和接下来的无论什么信息。The third reason -- whatever, you get the gist, I think.By the way, I hope you know this word, ;gist;.第三个原因是......随便啦,我想你们已经知道我的意思了。顺便说一下,我希望你们知道;gist;这个单词。;Gist; is the general idea, that#39;s what you#39;re listening for.If they#39;re about to present a list, try to write down the list because this is probably important, okay?;gist;是大体概念的意思,这就是你们要听的内容。如果他们准备介绍一系列事项的话,请尽量把所有事项都写下来,因为这可能很重要。So in the listening section, don#39;t sit there with your eyes closed and try to remember everything you hear.所以在听力部分,不要干坐在那儿,紧闭双眼试图把听到的所有东西都记在脑子里。You cannot do it.There will be quite a few questions for each listening section.你们做不到的。听力部分的每一大题都会有好几个题目。You need to make sure that you have the information on a piece of paper in front of you.你们要确保在眼前的白纸上写下了信息。When you go to the TOEFL center, they will give you paper, they will give you a pencil.That#39;s what it is for: to take notes. Use it.参加的时候,他们会给你们纸和一铅笔。这是用来给你们做笔记的,用上它。Next, in the speaking section, much shorter listening sections, but very important.下一点,在口语部分,听力材料没有那么长,但是很重要。What are you listening for? You#39;re listening for dates and time.For example, ;Oh, yeah. Let#39;s meet next Tuesday.;你们要听什么?日期和时间。比如“哦,好,我们下星期二见吧。”The ;next Tuesday;, you have to be careful, it#39;s not ;this Tuesday;, for example.你们要小心,这里说的是“下星期二”,不是“这个星期二”。Times, a.m., p.m., you don#39;t need specifically 5:14, you need to understand afternoon, morning, evening, etc.上午、下午,你们不用听到确切的时间点,比如5:14,知道是下午、上午还是晚上就行了。If people are making plans, make sure you understand what the plans are.Meet here, do this with these people.如果人们正在做计划,请确保你们知道这些计划是什么。比如,和谁在哪里见面做什么。That#39;s the information you want to write down.If somebody agrees or disagrees with something, write that down.这是你们要写下来的信息。如果某人赞成或者不赞成某件事,请把它写下来。If somebody makes an excuse -- ;Do you want to come to my party next week?; ;No, I can#39;t. I have to take my mother shopping.;如果有人在找借口推脱,比如:“你下个星期要不要来参加我的派对?”“不,我去不了,我要带我妈妈去购物。”Write that down, ;mother, shopping;, you don#39;t have to write, ;He has to take his mother shopping.; no, don#39;t do that, ;Mother, shopping;, done.把它写下来,“妈妈,购物”,你们不用写一个完整的句子“他要带他妈妈去购物。”不用,不要这么写,“妈妈,购物”,就这样。Okay. Which goes with this? Accept, reject.Somebody makes an invitation, does the person accept or reject?这适用于哪种情况?接受,拒绝。某人发出了邀请,这个人接没接受邀请?He accepts and goes, if he rejects, make sure you know what the excuse is.Okay? Because they#39;ll ask you for that.如果他接受了,那他就去了,如果拒绝了,请一定要弄清楚借口是什么。知道了吗?因为他们会就此提问的。Purpose. There#39;s going to be a meeting, okay, meeting, not important.What is the meeting about? Write that down, that is important.还有目的。比如说要开一个会,会议并不重要。会议的内容才重要,把它写下来。Or the reason -- reason and excuses: similar, but a little bit different.Reason for doing something, excuse for not doing something. Okay?或者原因,原因和借口很相似,但是有点不同。原因是做某事的理由,借口是不做某事的理由。So this is only the listening and speaking, let#39;s look at the writing section, what do you need to do there?以上讲的都只是听力和口语部分的内容,接下来我们来讲写作部分,看看在这个部分你们需要做些什么。Okay. So now, let#39;s look at the writing section.现在,我们来看写作部分。What are you doing in the writing section, remember that you have a short ing passage, you#39;re given a little bit of time.在写作部分要做什么呢,记住,你们要看的是一篇较短的阅读材料,能用的时间也比较少。You could aly start taking your notes as you#39;re ing.But for some people, the ing takes some time, concentrate on the ing, get the idea.你们可以在阅读的时候就开始做笔记。但是那些阅读要花不少时间的人,你们就专心阅读吧,弄清楚文章大意。Are they...what are they supporting, what are they attacking, what is their argument, what examples are they using?比如他们在持什么?抨击什么?他们的论据是什么?在使用什么例子?Then, when you#39;re doing your listening, you#39;re listening for... first thing you#39;re listening for: Are they supporting or attacking the ing? Okay?然后在做听力的时候,你们要仔细听......你们要听的第一件事是:他们是在持还是在抨击这篇阅读材料?Because the question is going to ask you how are they supporting or attacking the ing.因为题目会问他们是如何持或者抨击这篇文章的。So this is what you have to pay attention for.If they are supporting, what points are they making?所以这一点你们必须注意。如果他们持这篇文章,那么他们阐明的观点是什么?If they are attacking, what are the points they#39;re making?Again, big points, major points as compared to the ing.如果他们抨击这篇文章,那他们的观点又是什么?再说一次,你们要注意的是与阅读材料进行对比的大观点,主要观点。Also, if the listening uses any names, like a company name or a person#39;s name as an example of supporting or attacking, try to write down that name.还有,如果听力材料中出现了任何名字作为持或者抨击的例子,比如一个公司的名字或者一个人的名字,尽量把那个名字写下来。This will get you a lot of points with the graders if they can see that you wrote down the name and used it in your short essay.如果评卷老师看见你们把这个名字写下来了,并用进了你们的小作文里,他会给你们很多分的。Examples. Any examples that they use to support or attack?注意例子,看看他们有没有使用任何案例来持或抨击这篇材料。Again, don#39;t give me all the details, but give me the general idea of the example, especially if the example was also used in the ing. Okay?同样的,不要记下所有的细节,只要写下案例的大体概念就行,特别是如果这个案例在阅读材料中也出现了的话。And then, use all of these in your little essay to show the differences.So now you know what you#39;re listening for.然后把所有这些写进你们的小作文里来表明差异。那么现在你们知道要听什么了。Now, the hard part is actually doing the note-taking, the writing things down.You#39;re going to be learning how to use codes.但最难的部分其实是做笔记,把内容写下来。你们要学习如何使用符号。Now, before I go over some of these, it#39;s very, very important that you understand that these are some examples I#39;m giving you.在我给你们讲这些符号之前,有一件非常非常重要的事情:你们要知道,这些只是我给你们示范的一些例子。You need to create your own codes that work for you.你们要自己想出适合自己的符号。I...if I#39;m taking notes on an essay, on the listening section, for example -- I know what all these means...what all these mean, sorry, these are my codes.假如我在做听力部分,正在做关于一篇文章的笔记,我知道所有这些的意思,这些是我的符号。You might not know what this means, ;w/;.You may have to practice it a while until you remember it.但你们也许就不知道;w/;是什么意思了。你们也许要练习一段时间才能记住。But make your own codes, something that you will remember when it#39;s time to use it for the listening section, the speaking section, the writing section.但是你们要想出属于自己的符号,一些你们用在听力、口语和写作部分时能记住的东西。So here#39;s a little sample of codes.Some of these, you know from your texting on your phone.下面是一些符号的范本。其中一些你们用手机发信息的时候应该认识。You will never have to use LOL, OMG, BBF on the TOEFL, but good to know that they work.你们在中永远都不会用到LOL, OMG, BBF,但是你们要知道这是行得通的。I have a b, I have a 4 -- b4, I have an L, I have an 8 -- L8, add an R -- L8R. Okay?Up -- go up, increase, raise, grow.我用一个b和一个4就组成了b4 (before),一个L和一个8就组成了L8(late),再加一个R就变成了L8R(later)。向上的箭头可以表示一切增加类的单词,比如go up, increase, raise, grow。Down -- go down, decrease, decelerate, slow down, whatever you need.Anything that shows going down, anything that shows going up.向下的箭头表示任何减少下降的单词,比如 go down, decrease, decelerate, slow down。任何表示下降或上升的单词都可以用这两个箭头代替。4 -- why did he go to the store? For milk -- 4 milk. Etc.2 -- could be ;to;, ;too;, or ;two;.4(four-for)——他为什么去商店?For milk (为了买牛奶)——4 milk。2,可以表示;to;或者;too;或者 ;two;。Although very rarely will you have to actually worry about numbers like... because that#39;s details.不过你们很少需要担心数字,因为那是细节。Times -- five X as many, so there are five times as many people in that class as this class.So five X people, that#39;s it, Class A, B, 5X -- that#39;s it.倍数,比如5倍,那个班上的人是这个班人数的5倍。5倍的人,那我们就可以写成“班级A,B,5X”,就这样。Minus-- less, plus-- in addition, up 2--means maximum, down 2 -- minimum, approximately-- this is my sign, it means not equal, but close to, so approximately.“-”表示减少,“+”表示增加,向上的箭头加2表示最大量,向下的箭头加2表示最小量,“大约”——这是我的符号,意思是不等于但相近,所以就是大约。Greater than -- A is more than B, less than, equal, with something, without something.H2O. What is ;H2O;? You dink it every day. Water.“比......大”——A比B多,这些分别是:“少于”,“相等”,“有......”,“没有......”。H2O,什么是H2O?你们每天都喝的东西——水。Any little code that you can use to help you write things quickly and remember things quickly, especially things like this...任何你们能用来帮助自己快速写下和记住信息的小符号都可以,尤其是像这样的......There#39;s...TOEFL for some reason loves science things, they love science lectures, they love science articles.不知道为什么,特别喜欢出科学类的题目,他们喜欢科学讲座、科学文献。Be very comfortable with those because you#39;re going to see a lot of them, okay?熟悉这些体裁的内容,因为你们会看见很多这类文章的。Now, the next thing we#39;re going to look at is abbreviations, which are just as important as the codes.下面我们要学习的是缩写词,这和符号一样重要。And again, something that you#39;re going to have to practice and work on, but I#39;ll give you a little bit of a sample to get you started.而且也是你们要练习和努力学习的东西,不过我会讲一些示例给你们起个头。Okay. So now we get into the area where it#39;s really more up to you to create your own master list and practice it and study it, so on test day you can use it and not have any problems.现在我们要讲的这个部分是真的由你们自己设计出个人专属的总清单,并且要不断练习和学习,这样考试当天你们就能轻轻松松地用上它。We#39;re looking at abbreviations, an ;abbreviation; means taking a word and squeezing it, making it shorter.我们在讲的是缩写,“缩写”的意思是拿出一个单词,把它挤一挤变得更短。So the abbreviation for abbreviation is ;abbr.; Okay? Abbreviation.abbreviation这个单词的缩写形式就是;abbr.;,取了abbreviation的前四个字母。The most important thing to remember is that you must remember what ;abbr.; means.最重要的事情是,你们一定要记住;abbr.;是什么意思。If I see ;abbr.; in any document, I will automatically understand this means ;abbreviation;.不论在哪个文件中看见了;abbr.;,我都会自动明白这是“缩写”的意思。Some of these are very common, everybody uses them, some of them, you will have to make your own, and I#39;ll show you how to do that as well.这些中有的缩写形式很常见,每个人都会用,但有些你们要自己想出来,我也会告诉你们怎么做的。So for example, you have to be careful sometimes, you have to make yourself little changes, like with a dot.比如,你们有时候必须小心,要自己做一些小改动,像用个点什么的。So ;inc.; if I have only ;inc; without a dot, I understand ;increase;.比如说;inc.;,如果我看见的没有点,只是;inc;, 我会把它理解成;increase;的缩写。Okay? If I see ;inc.; with a dot, I understand ;incorporate;. Okay?如果我看见的是带点的;inc.;,那我就会把它理解成;incorporate;。Same with ;co; without a dot is ;company;, ;co.; with a dot -- ;corporation;, or ;cor.; -- depends on how you want to do it.同样的,没有点的;co;是;company;的缩写,有点的;co.;是;corporation;,也可以写成;cor.;,你们想怎么写就怎么写。Now, sometimes, you have some of them that look very similar, only one letter difference, right?有时候,你们会看到一些看起来很相似的缩写形式,只有一个单词的区别。;App; for me means ;application;, ;appt; means ;appointment;, ;acct; means ;account;.;App;对我来说是;application;,;appt;是;appointment;,;acct;是;account;的意思。;Accm; means ;accommodation;, ;accp; means ;accompany;, ;act; -- ;active; or ;action;.;accm;是;accommodation;的缩写,;accp;是;accompany;,;act;是;active;或者;action;的缩写形式。You also have the shortened versions of Mr., Mrs., Miss or Ms., and Dr. Okay?称谓也有缩写的形式,比如 Mr., Mrs., Miss或Ms.,还有 Dr. 。Sometimes, you can use the slash, everything, nothing, something, somewhere, anywhere, etc.有时候你们还能用“/”(斜线)来表示everything, nothing, something, somewhere, anywhere等等。Whatever -- w/e., ;etc.; means ;and so on;, ;like that;, ;Ie.; means ;in other words;, so you can use another way of saying the same thing, ;eg.; means ;example;.Whatever可以写成w/e.,;etc.;是“等等”,“像这样的”的意思,;Ie.;是换句话说,这样你们讲同一件事情时就能另一种方式了,;eg.;是例子。So if you hear, for example, in the listening, you do ;eg.;, and then write the example, ;n.b.;, nota bene, means ;note well;, means very important point.所以举个例子来说,当你们在听力中听到;eg.;,就要写例子,;n.b.;是注意,留心的意思,指的是非常重要的点。Keep that in mind.If somebody in the lecture says ;n.b.; or ;nota bene;, make sure you write down what he or she says, President, chairman, etc.请牢牢记住。如果某个人,比如总统,主席,在演讲中说了;n.b.;或者;nota bene;,请一定要把他(她)说的内容写下来。Make your own list, if you#39;re not sure how to do it, the easiest way is take any word, take out all the vowels.列出你们自己的缩写词清单,如果你们不确定应该怎么做,最简单的方法就是随便找一个单词,把单词中所有的元音字母都去掉。So you have the word ;responsible;, how are you going to write it as an abbreviation?比如说;responsible;这个单词,你们要怎样把它写成一个缩写形式呢?I#39;ll just write ;rsp;-- responsible, but I would remember that ;rsp; means ;responsible;, or if you want to just put one...sorry, ;Resp; -- ;resp; sounds like ; responsible;.我会直接把responsible写成;rsp;,不过我会记住;rsp;就是;responsible;的意思,或者如果你们想放进一个元音字母的话,可以写成;resp;,读起来也很像;responsible;。Okay? So remember it that way.Another thing you can use...another way to remember these things and take notes is using acronyms.懂了吗?你们就这么记吧。你们能用的另一个东西,能用来记住这些信息和做笔记的另一个方法是使用首字母缩略词。Acronyms are basically the initials of something, each letter stands for something.首字母缩略词基本上就是某些词的首字母,每个字母都代表着一个单词。B.A.-- Bachelor of Arts, B.Sc, I forgot to write down--Bachelor of Science, B.Ed-- Bachelor of Education, and so on.Master of Arts, PhD. -- doctorate or post-graduate.B.A.是Bachelor of Arts,B.Sc,我忘记把它写下来了,它是Bachelor of Science,B.Ed是Bachelor of Education的缩略形式,像这样的缩略词还有很多。Master of Arts, PhD.指的是士或者研究生学位。IBM -- International Business Machine, big company name, CIA -- Central Intelligent Agency in the States, IRS -- Internal Revenue Services, part of the tax company of the government.IBM指的是International Business Machine,一家大公司的名字, CIA是美国的Central Intelligent Agency的首字母缩略形式 , IRS是Internal Revenue Services,政府税务公司的一部分。a.m. -- morning, p.m. -- afternoon or evening.But notice here, ;p.m.; with dots and ;PM; without the dots or the dot is after.a.m.是上午,p.m.指的是下午或者晚上。但是这里请注意有两个点的;p.m.;和没有点或者后面有一点的;PM;或;PM.;。;p.m.; -- afternoon, evening, ;PM; -- ;prime minister;.Okay? So all these little things have a huge impact.;p.m.;是下午或者晚上,;PM;是 ;prime minister;。所有这些小小的单词都有巨大的效果。But once you master how to do this, and believe me, it takes a lot of practice.不过一旦你们对此游刃有余,相信我,这需要很多练习。Once you know how to do this, then you can go into the TOEFL test, your listening section becomes much easier, speaking section, writing section,一旦你们知道该怎么做了,你们就可以去参加了,你们的听力部分会变得容易很多,口语部分、写作部分,everything is much easier because you have the information in front of you when it#39;s time to answer the questions. Okay?所有的都会简单得多,因为要回答问题的时候你们面前有所需的信息。Now, we#39;re just going to do one more thing, I#39;m going to show you an example, I#39;m going to take a complicated sentence, sort of.现在,我们还要再做一件事,我会给你们展示一个例子,我会选择一个有点复杂的句子。I#39;m going to reduce it to code, and you#39;ll see more or less how it#39;s done, it#39;s not easy, but let#39;s look at it.然后把它缩减成符号,这样你们多多少少就能看到应该怎么做了,这不是件简单的事,不过我们看看吧。Okay. So now we#39;re going to look at an example.Now, first of all, keep in mind you#39;re seeing this; you#39;re not hearing it -- two very different things.那现在我们要来看一个例子。首先要记住,在这里你们是用眼睛看的,而不是听的,这是两件非常不同的事情。But I just wanted to give you an idea of what I want you to practice doing, and you can of course do that on your own.但是我只是想让你们知道我想让你们练习的是什么,你们当然也可以自己独自去做。Lots of places to do it, I#39;ll give you a couple examples.在很多地方都能这么做,我会给你们几个例子的。I#39;m going to redo the sentence, and then I#39;m going to show you how this area means the same thing. Okay?我要重写一下这个句子,然后告诉你们这一区的单词是如何指的同一件事的。You#39;re not necessarily going to have to write this much detail, you#39;re not going to have to write down a whole sentence, but just to show you how it works.你们不用写这么多细节,不用把整个句子写下来,我只是让你们看看应该怎么操作。;With the advent of the information age, as well as widesp access to this information via technological advances in communication, came a new threat for civil protection agencies to tackle.;这个句子是这样的:随着信息时代的到来,以及通信技术的进步,可以广泛获取这些信息,同时也对对民防部门构成了需要应对的新威胁。Now, if you#39;re taking the TOEFL, you should know what everything means.如果要参加,那你们应该知道所有单词的意思。It should be not... ;advent; means, like, think about ;advance;, something is progressing.;Tackle; means, basically, ;fight;.不应该是......;advent;的意思像......你们可以想想;advance;,某个东西正在前进。;tackle;主要是;fight;,也就是“与......斗争”的意思。;Threat;, something that#39;s dangerous to you or could be harmful to you.But anything else, you really should know all these words if you#39;re y for the TOEFL. Okay?;threat;指的是对你来说危险或者会对你有害的东西。还有其他单词,如果你们准备好了参加的话,就真的应该知道所有这些单词的意思。So what did I do here? ;The advent of information;--;the increase; in...or ;the going up;, in this case ;advances;, ;information technology;, ;communication;.那么我要怎么做呢?把句子分割成小部分: ;The advent of information;可以写成增加,或者用向上的箭头表示,在这里指的是“发展,前进”;还有 ;information technology;和 ;communication;;New threat for cops;, ;civil protection agencies;, what are they? They#39;re cops, they are police, ;cops to fight;.;New threat for cops;, ;civil protection agencies;,这是什么呢?他们是警察;还有;cops to fight;。Everything here in a short little thing like this, this takes you ten seconds to write.把句子写成像这样的简短的形式,写这些只会花你们十秒钟时间。Meanwhile, you can continue listening and go on to other things. Okay?与此同时,你们还能继续听并接着看其他内容。Now, again, I will say this a thousand times if I have to.You need to practice this, this is not easy to do quickly.再说一次,如果有必要的话,说一千遍我也要说。你们要不断练习,要快速做到这一点并不容易。You need to do this and continue listening at the same time.你们要做这个并且同时继续听材料。In the speaking and writing sections especially, you#39;re listening for specific things that may play into the question that#39;s coming. Right?尤其是在口语和写作部分,你们要注意听的是也许会出现在接下来的题目里的具体信息。You can practice all these.Now, if you know www.ted.com, it#39;s a good website, there are lots of lectures, CNN also.所有这些都是可以练习的。你们不妨去TED网站上看看,那是个很不错的网站,上面有很多演讲,还有CNN网站。You can go get listening sections, you can listen to news or you can listen to lectures, but they also have transcripts, okay?你们可以去练习听力部分,可以听新闻或者演讲,不过它们还有文本。So you can practice your note taking skills, listen two, three, four times, as many times as you need.这样你们可以练习做笔记的技巧,听两遍、三遍、四遍,需要听多少次就听多少次。Take notes, then look at the transcripts and compare your notes to the transcripts, how close did you come?做好笔记,然后看看文本,把你们的笔记和文本做个对比,看看差别有多大。And believe me, the more you do it, the better you#39;ll get at it, just like anything else.相信我,你们练习得越多,结果就会越好,就像其他的所有事情一样。It#39;s a skill at the end of the day, and it#39;s a very important skill if you want to succeed on the TOEFL tests. Okay?毕竟它是个技巧,而且如果你们想完胜的话,这一个技巧非常重要。Now, if you go to www.engvid.com, I#39;ll give you a few more examples like this, I#39;ll give you some sentences like this, and you#39;ll try to match them to the correct long sentence and vice versa.你们可以登陆engvid.com网站,我会再给出一些像这样的例子,一些类似这样的句子,你们要试着找到它们相应的正确的长句子,还有找到和长句对应的小短句。So go to www.engvid.com for extra practice and questions.想要获取更多练习和题目请登陆www.engvid.com。Also, check out my new site-- www.WriteToTop.com and subscribe to my channel on YouTube.And I#39;ll see you again soon. Thanks.另外,你们还可以去我的新网站www.WriteToTop.com看看,别忘了在YouTube上订阅我的频道。那下次再见啦,谢谢。 Article/201707/516705

He has a background in classical music.他有古典音乐的背景。have a background in something就是指有某方面的背景。I have a background in special education.我有特殊教育的背景。 /200802/27281

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