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Graffiti涂鸦The writings on the wall墙上文化Having turned respectable, graffiti culture is dying涂鸦文化获得体面,然濒临灭绝LONDONS fastest-changing art gallery is hidden in a sunken ball court on a housing estate in Stockwell, southLondon. On a sunny Sunday afternoon six or seven men, mostly in their 30s, are busy painting the walls with new designs. They have put up cartoons, names written in elaborate, multicoloured lettering and clever perspective tricks. Tins of spray paint and beer stand on the ground; ladders lean against the paintings. The atmosphere is not unlike that of a golf course: a mix of concentration and blokey relaxation.伦敦的艺术展瞬息万变,这次则在伦敦南部斯托克维尔住宅区的一个地下球场举行。一个阳光明媚的周日午后,六七个30多岁的男子把自己的新设计画在墙壁上。他们在上面画了卡通图,精心设计的名字、色缤纷的字母和巧妙的错觉图。地上摆着一瓶瓶喷漆和啤酒,扶梯靠在墙上。这场景和高尔夫球场一样:是一种专注力和休闲的并存体。Graffiti painting is traditionally a daredevil pursuit. Teenagers dodge security guards to put their names on trains and buses. But over the past decade that has all but disappeared fromBritains cities. Between 2007 and 2012 the number of incidents of graffiti recorded by the British Transport Police fell by 63%. A survey by the environment ministry shows that fewer places are blighted by tags than ever. Graffiti are increasingly confined to sanctioned walls, such as the Stockwell ball courts. In time the practice may die out entirely.一般来讲,涂鸦画可谓是一种不计后果的活动。年轻人们会避开保安,把它们的名字画上火车和巴士。但在过去的十年,这种现象在英国的城市已经消失了。从2007到2012年,违反英国交通法规的涂鸦案件下降了63%。环境部的调查显示,比起以前,受到标语破坏的地方越来越少。现在,涂鸦画日益局限在那些允许被涂画的墙上,比如斯托克维尔的球场。假以时日,这种行为可能会完全消亡。The most obvious reason for the decline in tagging and train-painting is better policing, says Keegan Webb, who runs The London Vandal, a graffiti blog. Numerous CCTV cameras mean it is harder to get away with painting illegally. And punishments are more severe. Once-prolific taggers such as Daniel Halpin, who painted his pseudonym “Tox” all overLondon, have been given long prison sentences. British graffiti artists who want to paint trains usually go abroad to do it these days, says Mr Webb.Keegan Webb,一个经营名叫“伦敦文化艺术破坏者”的涂鸦客的主说,绘名和铁皮车涂鸦风靡程度下降最主要的原因是政策法规更加完备。非法在墙上绘图越来越难以逃离无处不在的中央电视台摄像头,相应的惩罚也更加严重了。多产的绘名艺人Daniel Halpin把他的笔名“Tox”涂遍了整个伦敦,因此被判长期监禁。Mr Webb说近来想去涂画铁皮火车的英国的涂鸦艺人通常都会选择出国。A generational shift is apparent, too. Fewer teenagers are getting into painting walls. They prefer to play with iPads and games, reckons Boyd Hill, an artist known as Solo One, who in effect runs the Stockwell ball courts. Those who do get involved tend to prefer street art to graffiti proper (which purists define as letters and names, however elaborately drawn). Some have gone to art school and want to make money from their paintings. The internet means that painters can win far more attention by posting pictures online than they can by breaking into a railway yard.一代人心态的转变也很明显。现在越来越少的年轻人想参与墙上涂鸦活动。经营斯托克维尔球场的Boyd Hill(被称为艺术家独一人)承认,相较而言,年轻人们更愿意玩儿IPad和电脑游戏。就算对这方面感兴趣的年轻人也比较喜欢街头艺术,而非正宗的涂鸦(不管画得多么仔细,纯粹主义者们都只称其为字母和名字)。他们中有一些人已经去了艺术学校,并想从他们的绘画作品中获利。网络的普及意味着这些人可以把自己的绘图在线上传,相较把它们画在铁路调车场,这样更能提高他们的知名度。Taggers and graffiti artists mostly grew up in the 1980s and 1990s. Those men—and almost all are men—are now older and less willing to take risks. “We cant run away from the police any more,” says Ben Eine, who turned from tagging to street art. The hip-hop culture that inspired graffiti in the first place has faded. Video games and comic books provide more inspiration than music.绘名和涂鸦艺人大都是80或90后。这个群体—大多是男士—碍于年龄,不甚愿意冒险。Ben Eine说“无论如何我们再也不能像从前那样从警察眼皮子下溜走了。”,因而他从“绘名党”转向街头艺术。刚开始掀起涂鸦的嘻哈文化已渐渐销声匿迹。相比较而言,和漫画书比音乐更能予人灵感。Graffiti may eventually disappear. But for now the hobby is almost respectable. Mr Eine says he has lots of friends who used to paint trains. Now with wives and children, they paint abandoned warehouses at the weekend. It has become something to do on a Sunday afternoon—a slightly healthier alternative to sitting watching the football涂鸦画可能最终会消失。但是直至现在,这种爱好仍然受到人们的尊敬。Ben Eine说他有很多朋友曾经痴迷于在火车车皮厢上作画。现在有了妻儿,他们只有周末去废弃的仓库墙上大展身手。这已经成了周日下午的惯例—一种比坐在电视机前看足球略微健康的消遣。译者:张丹 校对:尤熠译文属译生译世 /201511/411519

According to reports, a 5-year-old girl from Laplace, Louisiana, is dead after she accidentally shot herself with her fathers gun. 据报道,路易斯安那州拉普拉斯的一名5岁女童用她父亲的意外开自杀身亡。Authorities say Haley Moore shot herself while her father was apparently in the shower. 当局称,哈利开自杀时,她的父亲在淋浴。The little girl got a hold of the unsecured gun, which had allegedly been left on a table. 小女孩得到这把没上锁的,据称是留在桌子上A neighbor says she found it unusual that the gun was left unattended. 一位邻居说,她发现这是不寻常的,这把无人看管。She said the father was a military veteran.她说,这位父亲是一名退伍军人。She added, he would tell his kids about the gun dangers. 她还说,他会告诉他的孩子们有关的危险。He did not want them to be ignorant of the fact that they can harm you.他不想让他们忽视可以伤害你的事实。译文属。201605/445271

A coral reef during the day is a very different place from a coral reef at night.珊瑚礁的白天与夜晚是两个完全不同的世界。The atmosphere changes completely.这里的气氛完全不同。The day shift has logged off, and the night shift has gone to work.白天活跃的动物休息了,夜晚活动的方才出动。Its mean and moody, and the animals here mean business.夜晚环境恶劣多变,动物们必须保持警惕。Just as in human cities, theres a new cast of characters after dark.就像人类城市一样,夜幕下出动的都是迥然不同的角色。Octopus emerge from their holes to stalk their prey.章鱼从藏身的洞穴里出来觅食。A tiny sole improves his chances of survival by mimicking a toxic flatworm.这条小鰨鱼为了增加生存机会在模仿有毒的扁虫。Some of the strangest nocturnal creatures are relatives of the starfish, like this feather-mouthed sea cucumber, sifting food from the sand.一些最奇特的夜间生物都是海星的表亲,比如这一有着羽毛状口部的海参在用口从沙中筛出食物。Another is the basket star.还有这个筐蛇尾。It comes alive at night, throwing out thousands of arms to filter food from the plankton-rich current.它夜间出来,伸展开上千个枝杈般的触手从富含浮游生物的水流中过滤食物。These animals can live for a very long time, up to 35 years.它们的寿命很长,可达35岁。And theres records of these guys being seen night after night,in the same place for over 15 years.有记录明这几个昼伏夜出的家伙在同一地点被观察记录了15年之多。 201411/343260

Libyas government利比亚政府Sailing into troubled waters驶向穷途A struggle to control oil exports reflects deeper dysfunction政府职能紊乱,无力控制原油出口“OIL IS our strength”, declares a billboard campaign launched by Libyas oil ministry. The advertising is meant to foster national pride in a country still riven with regional and tribal faultlines three years after the ousting of its dictator, Muammar Qaddafi. But in Libyas restless eastern half, sometimes known as Cyrenaica, armed federalists are trying to make that slogan a political reality.“石油是我们的力量。”利比亚石油部门在宣传活动中提出这句标语。在驱逐了独裁者卡扎菲·格达菲三年后,国家仍然四分五裂,部落存在断层。在这样的环境下,这句口号本是为了重聚国家的自豪感,然而在利比亚躁动的东半部,也就是所谓的昔兰尼加,武装组织却正将这一口号变为政治现实。Since July a group calling itself the Cyrenaica Political Bureau has blockaded Libyas main oil ports, the countrys chief source of income. Its initial pretext was to protest against alleged fraud in oil-export accounts, but its ambitions have widened. On March 11th it pulled off a coup, successfully loading and dispatching 234,000 barrels of crude oil—worth about m—aboard a North Korean-flagged tanker, in defiance of the central government.从7月开始,自称为昔兰尼加政府的组织就封锁了利比亚石油出口的主要港口,而这是国家收入的主要来源。最初封锁的理由只是反对石油进口诈欺案,但它的野心越变越大。3月11日,组织发动政变,无视中央政府,强行卸下234000桶原油(约3000万美元)调运到朝鲜油轮上。Authorities in the capital, Tripoli, responded furiously. On March 9th Ali Zeidan, the prime minister, called it an act of piracy and warned that the tanker would be bombed if it tried to leave the port of Es-Sider. Navy craft were mobilised to prevent the ship from departing. When it escaped nonetheless, apparently after a brief skirmish, Libyas acting proto-parliament, the 200-member General National Congress (GNC), voted to dismiss Mr Zeidan. Powerful local militias loyal to the GNC began an advance from Sirte, midway along the Libyan coast, towards the east. The rebels have been given two weeks to give up the oil terminals.位于首都黎波里的当局对此反映强烈。3月9日,首相阿里·扎伊丹称这是盗窃行为,并且警告油轮如果试图离开意赛德港口,将会遭到炮击,并派遣海军舰队组织油轮的离开。然而在经过了一场小冲突后,它仍然逃脱了,利比亚国民议会因此投票罢免了扎伊丹。议会所属的武装力量立即从苏尔特沿着利比亚海岸出发一路向东,要求反叛军在两周之内放弃石油港口。The drama has set the scene for what some analysts fear could be a descent into deeper disorder. The eastern rebels are no match for the better-armed government-aligned forces, and ordinary Cyrenaicans have little appetite for another all-out war, particularly given bitter local rivalries. But there is still a danger that the authorities in Tripoli may overplay their hand to the point of provoking full-scale rebellion in the east.戏剧化的事态发展使分析师原本认为的袭击恶化为深层混乱。东部反叛军无法对抗装备良好的政府武装力量,而昔兰尼加平民也不希望另一场全面战争爆发,尤其反对激烈冲突。然而黎波里当局仍有可能过度插手,从而引发东部大规模的叛乱。In moving to oust Mr Zeidan, the GNC asserted itself as Libyas prime authority. But it is divided along factional lines and has few tools to impose its writ. Blaming the ex-premier for the tanker fiasco, it also directed the state prosecutor to charge him with embezzlement. Mr Zeidan still managed to flee to Germany.在驱逐扎伊丹的行动中,GNC声称它们自己是利比亚主要的当局。但是它沿着派系线来划分并且用一些工具来加强自己的法令。对前任首相油轮事件惨败的指责,也带来了国家检察官对他贪污的指控。扎伊丹仍试图逃亡德国。In fact, many Libyans view the GNC as dimly as they had come to regard Mr Zeidan. Behind its manoeuvrings many see the hand of powerful Islamist groups, led by the Justice and Construction Party, which is affiliated to the Muslim Brotherhood. Frequently during Mr Zeidans year-and-a-bit in office, these groups moved to stymie his governments initiatives. The newly installed interim prime minister, Abdullah al-Thinni, a former defence minister, is thought to be close to the Islamists, as is the speaker of the GNC, Nuri Abu Sahmain. Both men are supported by the countrys best-armed militias, based in the city of Misrata, whereas Mr Zeidan was backed by armed groups from Zintan, to the southwest of Tripoli.事实上,许多利比亚人隐约地看待GNC如果看待扎伊丹一样。它的阴谋活动背后有许多能看到由公正和建设党领导的伊斯兰主义组织,隶属于穆斯林兄弟会。扎伊丹任职期间这些组织频繁的妨碍他政府的主动权。新上任的临时首相,前国防部部长Abdullah al-Thinni也被认为是伊斯兰主义者,就像GNC的发言人Nuri Abu Sahmain一样。他们都是由总部在米苏拉塔的国家最好的民兵持,然而扎伊丹是由来自黎波里西南部城市津坦的武装组织持。These rival forces have clashed around Tripoli for several months. In the wake of Mr Zeidans ejection the citys military council, which co-ordinates Tripolis various local militias, issued an order for the withdrawal of “forces occupying strategic positions”. This was seen as a warning to the Zintan group, which controls the capitals main airport among other places.这些敌对势力在黎波里发生冲突好几个月了。随着扎伊丹被负责协调黎波里大量当地的民兵的军事委员会驱逐,他们提出撤回“武装占领战略位置”的要求。这被看作是做对津坦组织的一个警告,该组织控制着首都与其他地方之间的主要机场。The main city in the east, Benghazi, has meanwhile become increasingly insecure. Near-daily bombings and assassinations appear to be aimed at undermining any authority, to the advantage of jihadist factions that seek to impose Islamic law. With oil exports slumping from 1.4m barrels a day to around 235,000, the central government has plundered the countrys foreign reserves to keep salaries flowing. It is not clear how long it can afford to continue.东城区主部班加西,同时日益危险。几乎每天出现炮轰和暗杀,旨在破坏任何当局,利用圣战主义派系来加强伊斯兰法律。随着石油进口量从每天14,000,00桶下降到大约235,000桶,中央政府还是掠夺国家的外汇储备来维持资金的流动。目前尚不清楚它能持续多久。These ingredients make a combustible mixture. Fighting in the east could provoke a wider insurrection there; and deepening disorder in Tripoli could tempt other local authorities, especially those in the deep south, to declare their autonomy. Should a Brotherhood-friendly government emerge in Tripoli, neighbouring countries such as Egypt and Algeria would become twitchy.这些因素都是这些混合情况一促即发。东部的争斗可能会引发更深的动乱,黎波里严重加深的动乱会引起其他当局,特别是南方的,来宣布他们的自主权。是否一个兄弟友好型的政府在黎波里出现,会引起周边如埃及和阿尔及利亚国家的焦躁不安呢。Libya may yet drag itself back from the brink. Rather than attempting to hold their ground at Sirte, the Cyrenaican rebels quietly pulled back to the old border line that demarcates the former federal region, which was abolished in 1963. Optimists point out that Mr Zeidan was ousted by an elected body, and left without a shot fired. GNC members have promised fresh national elections by midsummer. But just now that looks awfully distant.利比亚可能仍未将自己从边缘处来回。与其试图守住在苏尔特的立场,昔兰尼加反叛军悄悄回到老的前联邦区域的边境线,这边境线在1963时曾被废除。乐观主义者指出扎伊丹是由民选机构驱逐的,并未留下战火。GNC成员已经承诺在盛夏时举行新的选举。但这似乎看起来遥不可及。 译文属译生译世 /201507/383756

The Next IdeaIn his recent op-ed piece in the Financial Times, ;Europe is a continent that has run out of ideas,; Economics Nobel Laureate Edmund Phelps hangs the near collapse of the worlds second largest economy on a failure of the collective culture to produce real innovators.More so, he sees the same fate for America if it continues to rely on government incentives, business school training and monstrous financial institutions for capital. Phelps espouses that innovation prowess is forged in the fiery furnace of experience and laments that Americans have grown soft.While its commonplace to politicize Professor Phelps views, he raises important issues about the role culture plays in producing economic growth. In his bestseller Mass Flourishing: How Grassroots Innovation Created Jobs, Challenge, and Change, he lays out a sweeping approach for restoring our cultural prowess for innovation. Curiously, for someone who eschews the current spotlight on human capital development -- for example, he believes the educational focus on STEM is wrongheaded -- he espouses a uniquely humanist view. The ing of inspirational literature, the exploration of the unknown and the persistence that comes from overcoming grievous challenges are all seen as key to developing an entrepreneurial spirit.In essence, Dr. Phelps suggests that ambition and courage are prerequisites to personal, artistic and economic growth.Culture is the knowledge and characteristics of a group that are made manifest in its language, arts and social habits. It is the beliefs we identify with and value. An innovation culture comes from the desire for something better and new -- both evolutionary and revolutionary.Lets start by stopping the punitive cuts to the visual and performing arts, as well as literature, crafts and all manner of artistic endeavor.Here in Michigan we have seen significant economic and job growth supported by government funding and interventions. But it is not clear if these investments will produce a scalable culture of innovation that will lead to sustainable economic growth.So Whats the Next Idea?Here are some ideas for reestablishing an innovation culture here in Michigan:Make Creativity a Cornerstone of the Curriculum: Lets start by stopping the punitive cuts to the visual and performing arts, as well as literature, crafts and all manner of artistic endeavor. Though these subject areas do little to directly create jobs, they provide the underlying capability and quality of mind necessary to produce innovation and high-wage employment.The arts require the type of hands-on creativity and problem solving skills that Professor Phelps sees as essential to establishing an innovative culture. Perhaps its time for our public school system to revisit the action-learning methodologies of the Montessori, Dewey and Waldorf schools to fully engage students in the creative process.Follow the Juilliard School Model of Talent Development: It is notoriously difficult to gain acceptance to the Juilliard. It is a true meritocracy that focuses on refining the skills of their most talented prospects. Students start by mastering difficult pieces and move on to their own compositions which are critiqued by celebrated teachers and accomplished artists. A high level of ambition is required to support such lofty aspirations.Why not bring together Michigans best artisans, practitioners and scholars to establish something akin to the Juilliard? We can build on similar creative communities, such the Interlochen Center for the Arts and the Cranbrook Academy of Art, but should expand these missions to include secondary schools and entrepreneurial incubators.Make Apprenticeship a Condition of Funding: The perceived failures of the public education system and the cost of higher education appear to have renewed an interest in apprenticeships. For centuries this was the proven road to craftsmanship and invention. Sometimes these apprenticeships are associated with institutions, but historically the most successful ones are loose federations of individuals who share an interest.Anyone who has been to Greenfield Village can attest to the fact that Edisons Menlo Park and George Washington Carvers soybean lab were not only places of great invention but also of great learning. ;See one, do one, teach one; is an ancient manta of the craft guilds. This approach still prevails in the training of doctors, master electricians and design engineers. Local banks and other regional funding sources could be enlisted to give preference to apprenticed entrepreneurs by giving these lenders the right of first refusal on new ventures, as well as special incentives such as rebates and guarantees.Dr. Phelps might be on to something. Culture may be far more important than politics or economics when it comes to making innovation happen. Maybe its time we focused on creating a sense of destiny in Michigan and develop the fortitude to achieve it.Jeff DeGraff is a clinical professor of management and organizations at the Ross School of Business at the University of Michigan.Join the conversation in the comments section below, on Twitter or Facebook, or let us know your Next Idea here.201508/396343


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