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赣州祛除太田痣哪家医院好

2019年02月22日 09:49:13 | 作者:99助手 | 来源:新华社
The plague has killed hundreds of millions, sweeping across entire countries and bringing civilizations to their knees. Even though we now know more than those who suffered through the biggest outbreak, knowing more about the disease makes it no less frightening.鼠疫曾杀死上亿人,横扫全世界并使人类文明屈膝。尽管现在我们对这种疾病的了解比那些在鼠疫世界性大流行中死难的古人要更多,但这并不妨碍我们进一步了解它以减轻对它的恐惧。10、There Are Different Types鼠疫有不同的类型We hear most about the bubonic plague, but that’s actually just one of three plague varieties. The bubonic plague is distinguished by swollen lymph nodes, called “buboes,” which give the disease its name. This type is sp only through the bites of fleas and blood contact with the infected insect; there is no way that bubonic plague can sp from one person to another.我们都听说过黑死病,其实它只是三种鼠疫之一。黑死病会使得腹股沟淋巴结肿大。这也是它学名(淋巴腺鼠疫)的由来。黑死病只能通过跳蚤和与染病昆虫的血液接触两种方式传播,而不能通过人际传播。Similarly, septicemic plague is sp only through breaks in the skin and by blood contact. It worsens as bacteria multiply in the blood stream. Septicemic plague has many of the same symptoms as bubonic plague, including fever and chills, but it lacks the bubonic plague’s telltale nodes.类似的,败血症鼠疫通过皮肤创口和血液接触传播。它的病因是细菌在血液中大量繁殖。败血症鼠疫与黑死病在症状上十分相似,包括发烧和发冷,只是没有它标志性的淋巴结肿大。The third type is the only one that can transmit from person to person. Pneumonic plague is airborne and can pass from one person (or animal) to another just by breathing in close proximity to someone. The different types of plague can mutate into one another; pneumonic plague and septicemic plague are often complications of untreated bubonic plague.第三种鼠疫是唯一一种通过人际传播的。肺炎型鼠疫通过空气,仅凭呼吸就可以在人人,人畜,畜畜之间传播,不同的鼠疫通过变异能够相互转化;肺炎型鼠疫和败血症鼠疫往往是黑死病的并发症。Because the different types have similarly devastating effects, we’ve long thought that bubonic plague was the disease that swept across Europe during the Black Death. New research supported by DNA evidence suggests the Black Death wasn’t bubonic plague after all but the faster-sping pneumonic plague.因为不同类型的鼠疫都有相似的严重症状,所以我们很长时间都以为黑死病(淋巴腺鼠疫)是在黑死病时期席卷欧洲的罪魁祸首,但新的研究表明在黑死病时期肆虐的并非淋巴腺鼠疫,而是能够快速传播的肺炎型鼠疫。(注:全文中认为黑死病是起源于中国的,依据是第二次世界鼠疫大流行的发源地是中国云南。这是错误的,因为第一次世界性鼠疫大流行的发生地仅限于东罗马帝国和地中海地区,与中国无关。事实上鼠疫是世界性的疾病,古代长期在全世界范围内流行,不能简单的将其起源归到中国) /201408/319893Fitness trackers–the Bluetooth-enabled bracelets and wearable devices that monitor things like a person’s heart rate, steps taken and calories burned–had a moment last year. Then everyone realized that knowing how many steps they’d taken each day wasn’t all that helpful. What do you do with that information? Reports surfaced that half of fitness tracking devices had become inactive; industry experts suggest that number is closer to 85%.健康追踪器(也就是基于蓝牙技术的腕带和可穿戴设备,能监测人们的心率、行走步数和消耗的卡路里)去年着实热闹了一阵。然后所有人都意识到,光知道自己每天走了多少步其实没什么用。您会拿这些信息做什么用呢?一些研究报告发现,这类设备有半数最终都闲置了起来;业内专家则认为这个数字要接近85%。The fitness tracker moment has passed. The next wave of connected devices is taking a different approach: Instead of incentivizing users to exercise or sleep or eat healthy, and rewarding them for it with virtual badges and digital high-fives, this new class of devices use shame, guilt, and in one case, a physical shock, to keep their owners in line.健康追踪设备可谓大势己去。下一波互联设备则采取了全新的互动方式:它们不再鼓励用户去锻炼,也不是鼓励他们保持饮食和睡眠健康,同时用什么虚拟奖牌和数字化击掌致意来奖励他们;相反,这些全新设备用羞耻感、负罪感,以及某种情况下的物理震动来让用户守规矩。Where first-generation fitness trackers offered the carrot, the latest class is offering the stick. Soon everything you own, from your chair, to your lighter, to your fork or belt, will be able to scold you.如果说第一代健康追踪设备奉上的是胡萝卜,那最新一代设备挥舞的就是大棒了。很快,你所拥有的一切东西,从板凳到打火机,从叉子到皮带,都能把你骂上一顿。Take Quitbit. It’s a “smart lighter,” which measures how much its owner smokes, in hopes that that information will motivate them to cut back on the habit. Its designers created the device after they tried to track their own smoking with Google Docs and iPhone notes. They realized they weren’t always proud of how much they smoked, and therefore weren’t motivated to continue recording the behavior. So they built a lighter that records the data for them. In addition to tracking the data, which founders Takuji Nakano and Ata Ghofrani say is proven to help smokers decrease their smoking, Quitbit can be programmed to only work a certain number of times each day. They’re careful not to push the guilt factor, since it takes time for smokers to come around to the idea of quitting. “We have to be really gentle with it and will continually ease them into it by making them more cognitive about how much they’re smoking,” Nakano says. “We want to empower them to just try to quit.” The Quitbit crossed its funding goal on Kickstarter and will be available for purchase later this year.比如Quitbit,这是个“智能打火机”,它能测出用户抽了多少烟。它的设计意图是希望这类信息能让用户少抽点烟。它的设计师是在用“谷歌医生”(Google Docs)和iPhone notes追踪自己的抽烟情况后才有了设计它的念头。他们知道自己并不总会因为自己抽了多少烟而感到自豪,因此也不会很有动力地记录这种行为。所以他们才会打造这么一款打火机来记录抽烟数据。中野卓二和阿塔o高夫拉尼这两位创始人表示,这款设备确实能帮吸烟者少抽烟。除此之外,Quitbit还能设定每天有效工作的次数。他们很注意不要激发吸烟者的负罪感,因为吸烟者需要一定的时间来认识到戒烟的必要性。中野说:“我们不得不小心行事,通过让吸烟者逐步意识到自己的吸烟量,持续地推动他们慢慢戒烟。我们希望能让他们确实有动力试着戒烟。”Quitbit已在众筹网站Kickstarter上公布了募资目标,今年晚些时候就能上市销售。For drinkers, there are a myriad of iPhone breathalyzer tools that not only tell users how intoxicated they are and how long until they’ll be sober, but map out alcohol intake over time in a handy chart. The quantified drinker can choose from breathalyzer devices from BACTrack (which I reviewed last year),Breathometer, or Alcohoot.喝酒的人们则可以选用各种iPhone上的酒精测试工具。它们不仅能告诉用户他们到底醉到了什么程度,还需要多久才能清醒,还能通过一个简明的表格显示出一段时间以来的酒精摄入量。喜欢定量的饮酒者可以选择的工具有BACTrack(去年我评测过),Breathometer或Alcohoot。For speed-eaters, there’s Hapifork, an electronic fork that vibrates when its user eats too fast. The idea is that eating more slowly helps users consume less food, chewing more frequently to aid digestion and decrease gastric reflux. Naturally, there’s an app to go with it, tracking one’s eating speeds over time.吃得太快的人可以使用Hapifork。这是一款电子叉子,用户如果吃得太快,它就会开始震动。它的设计理念是,吃得慢一些可以让用户吃得少些,咀嚼更充分以帮助消化,同时减少肠胃返流。它自然也自带了一款应用,可以监测用户一段时间内的饮食速度。For fixing bad posture, there’s the LumoBack, a connected belt that vibrates any time its wearer slouches. A sensor can be set to pulse until the wearer has adjusted into a “good posture.” A related smartphone app allows users to “watch” their posture, assigning a score for how straight one is sitting or standing. In addition, the LumoBack tracks time spent standing, sitting, and sleeping.如果要纠正不良体态,可以用LumoBack,每当用户弓腰塌背时,这条联网的带子就会震动。带子上的一个传感器会不断跳动,直到用户调整到“正确姿势”为止。一个相关的智能手机应用可以让用户“看到”自己的体态,并给自己坐得或站得有多直打分。此外,它还能监测我们站立、端坐及睡觉各花了多少时间。For those uncomfortable wearing a vibrating belt, there’s Darma, the “smart cushion.” This device offers vibrating reminders to stand up (sitting kills, remember?) and to alert users to correct their bad posture. The company touts the cushion’s non-intrusiveness, since it is not stuck on your body.有些人不喜欢戴着震动带,他们可以用Darma,所谓的“智能靠垫”。这个设备能发出震动提示,让用户站起来(记得吗?坐着很难受),同时警告用户纠正自己的糟糕体态。生产这款设备的公司大谈这个“靠垫”是如何不烦人,因为它不需要挂在身体上。But the most punishing device, not yet available in the market, is the Pavlok, its name a nod to the father of classical conditioning research. Pavlok was created by Maneesh Sethi, a blogger who became Internet-famous when he hired a woman to slap him every time he mindlessly opened Facebook. The Pavlok bracelet, which has been beta testing several hundred users, grew out of that experiment. (The company will launch a crowdfunding campaign later this year, Sethi says.)而最具惩罚性、目前还没有上市的一款设备叫Pavlok,这个名字是为了纪念经典条件反射理论研究之父的。它的发明者是梅尼西o塞西,这是一位在网上暴得大名的主。之所以出名,是因为他曾经雇了一位女性,只要看到他不当心打开了Facebook就扇他一巴掌。Pavlok腕带就是从这种试验中打造出来的,而且正在几百位用户中进行测试(塞西称,公司今年晚些时候会为此发布一个众筹计划)。Users can program the bracelet to change a variety of habits, from opening fewer tabs in their web browser, to meditating every day. Pavlok users assign themselves a goal and choose a “referee,” who gets a text message to check in every day at 7 p.m. If the user hasn’t completed their goal, they get a shock through the bracelet and charged money through the app. If they complete their goal, they get rewards like lottery tickets or money. Sethi says the bracelet starts with punishment for bad behavior, and moves to positive feedback for good behavior over time. “The negative gets you started and the positive keeps the habit going,” he says. “As you start to succeed, you can take away the negative reinforcement and give positive reinforcement. And then the habit comes more automatic and you don’t need it at all.”用户可以通过设定自己的腕带来改变很多习惯,既可以在浏览器里少开几个标签,也可以学会每天冥想。Pavlok的用户可以给自己设定一个目标,同时选择一位“仲裁者”。这位仲裁会收到一条短信,每天晚上七点对该用户进行检查。如果这名用户没有完成目标,腕带就会传给他们一阵震动,同时还会被从应用里扣钱。如果他们完成了目标,就能获得票或现金之类的奖励。塞西表示,这种腕带从惩戒坏习惯开始,随着时间推移开始逐渐奖励好行为。他说:“负面回馈先让你开始用上它,慢慢地正面奖励帮助你养成好习惯。当你开始养成好习惯时,就可以取消惩戒措施,代之以正面的奖励。随后,当这个习惯逐渐变得自然而然后,你就不再需要它了。”This wave of punishing devices may end up with same high abandonment rates as fitness trackers. But in the case of breaking bad habits, abandonment doesn’t mean failure–it could mean users have successfully broken their bad habits and no longer need a device to judge them.这一波惩罚神器的浪潮可能最终也会像健康追踪器一样以被丢在一边收场。但如果能借此改掉坏习惯,哪怕丢了也不代表失败——这反而说明用户成功改掉了坏习惯,再也不需要这么个玩意儿来看着自己了。 /201406/306062

You know the smartest things to do with your money. But what are the worst moves? What should you avoid?自己的钱该怎么打理才最明智,对此你一定心知肚明。但是你知道最糟糕的做法是什么吗?哪些是你应该避免的呢?Weirdly enough, they are things that a surprising number of people are still doing─even though they probably know, in their heart of hearts, how foolish they really are.奇怪的是,那些应该避免的事情却有很多人仍然在做,而且人数之多让人瞠目──尽管这些人在内心深处可能很清楚自己的做法实际上有多愚蠢。Any list is going to be incomplete. But here are five to avoid.想把这些蠢事一个不落地全列出来恐怕不可能。不过我们可以试着列出其中的五件。 /201403/280474

Father forces 10-year-old daughter to wear a cartoon backpack and shirt announcing her age after catching her pretending to be older to secretly date a boy在发现十岁女儿假装高龄秘密约会男孩后,父亲强迫其背卡通背包和穿上印有真实年龄的衬衫Kevin Jones is the type of dad you really don#39;t want to mess with.KevinJones作为一位老爸,你可能惹不起。The father from Louisville, Kentucky, was shocked to catch his daughter sneaking behind his back.这名父亲来自肯塔基州的路易斯维尔,他震惊的发现自己的女儿在背后搞鬼。At 5foot 11 and just 10-years-old, the little girl - who The Mail Online chose notto name - appears much more mature than she is, and had been using that onlineto pass as someone of around 15.他的女儿身高5英尺10英寸,今年10岁,但是看起来比其年龄要成熟,并且在网上宣称自己15岁。She had secretly set up social media accounts pretending to be a teenager and even had a boyfriend.她秘密的建立了自己的社交网络帐号,假装自己是一名青少年,甚至都有男朋友了。So her old man decided she needed to learn a lesson - a very public one.父亲发现后决定给她一个教训——一个非常公开的教训。He created a cute shirt announcing her age, put barrettes and bows in her hair and gave her a princess backpack.于是他发明了这款可爱的衬衫,上面标有她的年龄,还要求她戴上发夹和饰片,并且让她背公主背包。#39;She claims to be in love and going out with a boyfriend which is completely against my rules!!!!#39; Mr Jones wrote on hisFacebook, posting pictures of his daughter.“她说自己陷入了爱河,还要和她的男朋友去约会,这完全违反了我的规则!!!”他在自己的脸书主页上说道,还发布了他女儿的照片。#39;I uncovered that she has been doing this for quite some time.“我发现原来他已经有男朋友挺久了。”#39;Here#39;sthe consequences behind her actions.#39;“所以这就是她这么做所需要付出的代价。”The little girl does not look at all happy with her punishment, however it was well-recieved online and quickly went viral.小女孩对自己所遭受的惩罚一点都不开心,但是这种做法在网上受到好评,并马上传播开来。Parents from all over got behind Mr Jones, saying he did the right thing and was a good father.所有父母都持这位父亲的做法,认为他做了正确的事情,是个好父亲。Posted on October 21, it has got almost 250,000 likes and has been shared over 77,000 times.自10月21号发布以来,已经25万人点赞,被分享超过77000次。#39;You did the right thing. I bet she got in line real quick . So keep it up. You#39;rean awesome dad. She will thank you later when she#39;s not pregnant at 12 and hasa standing chance in this world,#39; one supporter wrote.一名持者写到:“这件事情你做得对,我猜她肯定马上就能走上正规。所以继续努力,你是个很棒的爸爸。以后她会感谢你的,因为她不用在12岁的时候怀,并且能够立足于世界。” /201410/339426

Single women should ditch Facebook because the #39;perfect lives#39; of their friends are bad for their health, a relationship expert has warned.由于在社交网络上看到朋友的“完美生活”对单身女性的健康无益,恋爱心理专家建议单身女性远离社交网络。Author Zoe Strimpel says the social media site bombards singletons with pictures of #39;perfect#39; weddings and babies which causes envy and voyeurism.女作家佐伊说,社交媒体上“完美”的婚礼和宝宝照片对单身女性来说是一种信息轰炸,会引起单身女性产生嫉妒心理和偷窥癖。She said: #39;What [Facebook] does is it enhances the sense that your life is lacking and specifically, when you are single, you focus in on all those pictures of perfect weddings, perfect babies, perfect couples.她称,“Facebook这样的社交网络会使人感到自己的生活有所空缺,特别是对单身人士而言,社交网络会使单身人士过多关注那些完美的结婚照片、宝宝照片、情侣照片等等。”She urged single women to cut down or get rid of Facebook completely during a lecture at Cambridge’s Festival of Ideas.在剑桥大学的构想节期间佐伊进行了一场讲座,她建议单身女性减少登陆社交网络的次数,或者彻底摈弃掉此类网站。She said getting rid of your profile will help #39;limit that delicious but yucky feeling of voyeurism, slight envy, maybe even narcissism.#39;她说,对单身女性而言,摆脱掉她们在社交网络上的账号有助于她们“克制偷窥癖、轻度嫉妒、甚至自恋等等不良情绪。”Ms Strimpel, who wrote ‘Man Diet: One Woman’s Quest to End Bad Romance’, said the fairer sex also spends too much time monitoring potential suitors online.佐伊写过一本名为《爱情节食:如何中止孽缘》的书,她说,女性还往往在社交网络上花费大量的时间,去寻找潜在的恋爱对象。She said the y availability of biographical information on Facebook encourages women to over-analyse potential dates.脸书网上公开的个人资料信息会导致女性对有好感的男士产生过高的期待心理。#39;Thanks to Facebook you may know his mother’s name, the details of his last holiday, the names of his exes, who he is hanging around with.This is not healthy or helpful information, plus it gives the impression that these men are more in your life than they actually are, which is quite corrosive.There’s plenty of psychology that supports taking a break from social media.#39;“多亏了脸书网,你可以知道他母亲的名字,他上一个假期是怎么度过的,他前女友的名字,经常跟他聚在一起的朋友。但这些都是无益的信息,反而有害。许多心理学理论都明,单身女性应该避免社交网络。”Explaining the inspiration for her book, Ms Strimpel added: #39;I was 28 and I just had broken up with a boyfriend - Oh my God I’m single, I’d better act single.There was fun goodness and yucky badness. For some reason the badness was getting the upper hand.#39;佐伊谈到写这本书受到的启发时说,“我今年28岁,刚刚和男友分手——哦天呐,我现在单身了,我最好像一个单身女性那样生活。这种生活既有乐趣和益处,又有苦涩和害处。由于某种原因似乎害处更多一些。” /201311/264935

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