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2019年02月19日 03:00:29
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Everyone has their own favorite foods to choose from, but how many of our beloved foods do we know the history of? Who has sat down with their burger at a fast food chain and asked themselves #39;Where did the idea of burgers come from?#39; Probably nobody, as their mouth would be full of burger before the thought would even occur to them. Some of the foods we eat day-in, day-out, however, can have surprisingly long histories behind them. In this list, we#39;ll be exploring the origin stories behind ten commonplace foods from around the world. Try not to get too hungry.每个人都有自己喜爱的食物,但我们对它的历史了解多少呢?谁会在快餐店里拿着汉堡坐下,然后问自己:;汉堡的主意来自哪里呢?;可能不会有人这么做,因为在他们这么想之前,嘴巴就已经被汉堡塞满了。然而,我们每天所吃的食物背后可能存在着令人吃惊的悠久历史。在这篇文章里,我们将了解全球常见的10种食物背后的故事。可不要太饿哦。10.Burgers10.汉堡包A lot of people reckon that the burger was an American invention, but they were by no means the first country to think it up. The humble burger, like many other foods, actually has quite a long history attached to it. Perhaps it did not have cheese, onions, and buns to go with it, but it was definitely there.很多人认为汉堡包是美国人的发明,但他们绝不是第一个想出这个点子的国家。像其他很多食物一样,平凡的汉堡包实际上有着非常悠久的历史。或许那时它还没有加奶酪、洋葱和小圆面包,但它确实已经出现在那里。The full name, #39;hamburger#39;, originates from 1880, when German immigrants created the meal within Hamburg, Germany. In order to make a beef steak, they would grind up the meat and create a steak from what remained, calling it a #39;Hamburg steak#39;. This steak would eventually have its name shortened to #39;hamburger#39;. What must be noted, however, was that this was the origin of the steak itself – nobody quite knows where the idea of sticking a hamburger between two buns came from. As for the steak itself, we have our German friends to thank for that. Big Macs would not be the same without you. There is a little bit of history that states that the Romans created the #39;Isicia Omentata#39;, regarded as the first burger. However, this appears to be a recipe for a sausage, rather than an actual burger. More on sausages later.它的全名是;汉堡包;,起源于1880年,当时德国移民在汉堡发明了这种食物。为了做牛排,他们将肉磨碎,用它制成肉饼,叫做;汉堡牛排;。这种牛肉饼的名字最后缩短成了;汉堡包;。但必须说明的是,这是牛排自身的起源——没人知道把一个煎牛肉饼贴在两个圆面包之间的主意从哪儿来。至于牛排,我们要感谢德国朋友。要是没有你们,现在的巨无霸也会不一样。有一些历史表明罗马人发明了;Isicia Omentata;,这被认为是第一款汉堡包。但是,它的制作食谱看起来像是一个香肠的食谱,而非真正的汉堡。后面会介绍更多关于香肠的内容。9.French Fries9.炸薯条Of all the foods to have an origin story, this one seems to be the most clear cut as to where it came from. Unfortunately, there#39;s an ongoing dispute between France and Belgium as to who really made it.在所有具有历史起源的食物中,这一款食物的源起最清楚不过。不幸地是,法国与比利时一直在争论到底是谁真正发明了这种食物。The Belgian side of the story is that the 17th Century residents of the Meuse Valley in Belgium were not shy of frying things. They had a tendency to fry any fish that they caught, which made up the majority of what they ate. When winter came and the rivers froze over, the Belgians turned to the ever-reliable spud, preparing them in battered slices, the same way they prepared fish. The French side states that, in the late 17th Century, potatoes were regarded unfit for human consumption, and only for pigs to eat. When a famine struck in 1785, this mind-set changed, and the French gave the potato another chance. It caught on so well, by 1795 they were grown everywhere, with even some royal gardens being converted to help grow the friendly spud. During this boom, someone had the smart idea of frying the slices and selling them as #39;frites#39;. Thus, the French fry was born. Whichever side you take, just remember that asking for #39;Belgian fries#39; at a drive-thru will get you funny looks.比利时的版本是:17世纪比利时默兹河流域的居民喜欢吃油炸食品。他们习惯把捕来的所有鱼都进行油炸,这在他们的饮食中占据了绝大部分。当冬天来临,河流冰冻,比利时人就求助于他们一直以来所依赖的马铃薯,把它们切成薄片预备着,他们对鱼也采取同样的处理方式。法国的版本是:在17世纪后期,人们认为土豆并不适合食用,只能用来喂猪。到1785年爆发了饥荒,这种想法才得以改变,法国人发现了土豆的另一个用途。它变得相当流行,到1795年已经在各个地方都有种植,甚至一些皇家公园都被改造以有利于这些友好的马铃薯生长。在这个土豆繁荣的时期,有人想出一个聪明的点子,将土豆切片并油炸,然后起名为;炸薯条;进行售卖。薯条由此诞生。不论你相信哪个版本,只要记住,在汽车餐厅里点一份;比利时薯条;会让你看起来很搞笑。8.Sausages8.香肠The exact origin of the sausage is unclear, with reports ranging around 50,000. There is an agreement, however, that the sausages, frankfurters, and hot dogs that people eat on a daily basis originated from a desire to preserve meat.香肠的准确起源并不清楚,大约在公元前50000年就已经有了相关记载。不过存在着一个共识,那就是人们每天吃的香肠、法兰克福香肠和热都是源于人们保存肉类的愿望。Ever wonder why sausages are wrapped in some form of casing? The reason is that, before refrigeration, butchers would want to preserve meat during transit. They took the meat, organs, and blood of a slaughtered animal, sprinkled it with salt to preserve it, then wrapped the gristly results in the animal#39;s intestine or stomach to stop it going off before it could be eaten. This is why some sausages contain a large amount of blood in their recipes; the origin of this practice was to help use up any blood that was left over after slaughtering an animal. We have no real use for salting today, given how good fridges can be with preserving meat. The tradition of meat in casing, however, still goes strong to this day.想知道香肠为什么要用各种肠衣包裹?原因就是在冷藏之前,屠夫想要在运输途中保存肉类。他们将动物屠杀,在所得的肉、五脏和血上撒盐以便保存,然后将这些柔软的东西包进动物的肠或胃里,防止吃之前腐坏。这就是为什么有些香肠的制作食谱中包含有大量的血,这种做法是为了用尽屠杀动物后所留下的所有血。在今天,我们已经无需再盐腌肉类,因为有冰箱可以保存肉类。但是,将肉灌进肠衣的传统至今仍然盛行。7.Pizza7.披萨Any time anyone mentions the dish, the image of black-haired, rotund Italian chefs kissing their fingers comes to mind. The #39;traditional#39; image of the dish consisting of b, tomatoes and cheese did, in fact, originate from Naples. The food was easy to make with little cost, and was regarded as something that the poor could eat to keep themselves going. It contained cheese, tomatoes and basil – very similar to the kind we consume today. The idea of placing food on top of flatb, however, dates before the Italian invention.任何时候想起这个食物,人们脑海中就会浮现出黑头发圆滚滚的意大利厨师亲吻自己手指的画面。这款食物包含着面包、土豆和奶酪的;传统;形象实际上起源于那不勒斯。这种食物容易制作,成本低,被认为是穷人也能吃得起的东西。它包括奶酪、土豆和罗勒——与我们今天食用的很相似。但是,将食物铺在面饼上的主意最早由意大利人发明。A lot of cultures – including the Romans and the Egyptians – came up with the concept of meal on top of flatb, but the Persians were the first recorded case. When King Darius the Great ruled the Persian Empire, it is thought that his soldiers baked flatbs on their shields, and added cheese and dates for flavouring. Ordering Dominos while in enemy territory just isn#39;t ideal.很多文化——包括罗马与埃及——都给这种面饼上面的食物下过定义,但波斯人最先进行了记录。在大流士一世统治波斯帝国的时候,他的士兵就在盾牌上烤制面饼,并添加上奶酪和枣椰子调味。在敌人领地里要求吃上达美乐披萨可不太现实。6.Tomato Ketchup6.番茄酱Everyone would probably think that tomato ketchup would originate from the US, and they#39;d be right. The first recipe popped up in 1801 in the #39;Sugar House Book#39;, an American publication. What#39;s interesting about our favourite condiment, however, is that ketchup was based on an older recipe.人人都会以为番茄酱起源于美国,他们没错。第一份制作食谱于1801年出现在《糖屋书》中,这本书由美国出版。但是,有趣的是,这款我们最喜欢的调味品其实是在一份更加古老的食谱基础之上制作而成。Its original name is #39;ke-tsiap#39; and it started in 17th Century China. While it has a name similar to the bottle of red stuff we shamelessly apply to everything, the actual sauce itself was made up of fish brine and spices. The Dutch and English would end up taking a few bottles back home with them, well-loved due to its ability to keep for large amounts of time, a key trait that sailors and travelers appreciated when stocking their larders. The sauce saw a lot of remixes on the original recipe – including a moment in time where mushrooms where a primary ingredient — before the tomato variation was devised.它起初的名字是;ke-tsiap;,起源于17世纪的中国。尽管它的名字很像我们往各种食物上洒的红色调料,但实际的调味汁本身却是由鱼露和香料制成。荷兰人和英国人最后就带了几瓶回家,这种酱汁得到厚爱,因为它能够保存很长时间,水手和旅行者很喜欢将其储存在食品室里。在最初的食谱中,这种酱汁由很多种材料混合而成——最早的原料中还曾一度包含了蘑菇——后来才发明出了以番茄为原料的变种。翻译:赵倩 来源:前十网 /201510/405191上犹县妇幼保健院绣眉手术多少钱赣州俪人男科医院激光脱毛多少钱A cool new service in Japan is meant to help busy career women cope with the stress of their hectic lifestyles. For about 7,900 yen, they can hire #39;Ikemeso#39; – cute men – to wipe away their tears, quite literally!当下,日本新兴一种酷炫务,能够帮助职业女性排解忙碌生活带来的种种压力。花上7900日元(约合420元人民币),日本妇女就能雇一名“擦泪帅哥”(日语叫Ikemeso)帮忙擦眼泪!Here#39;s how it works: You call the company and pick one of seven Ikemeso, who will then arrive at your workplace to help you release stress through crying. If you#39;re in tears aly, the licensed “crying therapist” will simply wipe your tears away with the softest handkerchief and comfort you with kind words. If work-related stress hasn#39;t pushed you to tears yet, the Ikemeso will play an emotional film meant to induce crying. After the is over, he#39;ll wipe your tears away.究竟是怎么回事呢?原来,顾客通过拨打电话,能从7位“擦泪帅哥”中挑选一名。随后,这位帅哥就会到达你的工作地点,助你痛哭减压。如果你已经哭成了泪人,“痛哭治疗师”会一边用最柔软的手绢擦去你眼角的泪水,一边温柔地安慰。如果你还未被工作压垮,失声痛哭的话,他就会放一部催泪的情感电影,并在观影后,为你擦干泪水。There are different types of guys you can choose from, depending on your taste – the little brother, the intellectual, the bad boy, the slightly older hot guy, and more. The service is all set to launch on September 24.顾客还能根据口味,选择偏爱的帅哥,其中就包括了邻家小哥、知识分子、坏小子、性感大叔等。这项务于9月24日正式推出。According to Hiroki Terai, the creator of Ikemeso, “Japanese women are under tremendous stress at the office here in Tokyo, which often ends in tears. We are here to provide a kind word and brush the tears away by one of our seven lovely men on call.”务的发起人寺井广树(Hiroki Terai)说:“在东京,职场女性承受的压力实在太大了,常常让她们失声痛哭。我们这7个帅哥随叫随到,希望其中一个能安慰她们,帮她们拭去泪水。”Some will undoubtedly find the whole idea sexist, but Terai claims that the company has been receiving queries non-stop ever since they launched the website last week. He also insists that the service is not a hoax. “More and more women are trying to hold down professional jobs these days but the male dominated, workaholic workforce makes it hard for them,” he said. “We want such put-upon women to have a good cry and feel better when they feel targeted.”毫无疑问,不少人会觉得这想法充满了性别歧视,但寺井广树称,自公司网站上线一周来,他们接到了顾客源源不断的咨询电话。他坚称,这项务并非恶作剧。“如今,越来越多的女性都尽力保住自己的工作,但男性工作狂依旧称霸职场。”他说,“我们希望压力过大的女性能好好哭上一场,遭受不公平待遇时不至于灰心丧气。”“Who doesn#39;t feel better after a big boo-hoo?”“毕竟,大哭一场后,谁不会感到如释重负呢?”The term Ikemeso is a word play that combines ikemen (hot guy) and mesomeso (crying). Oh, and speaking of ikemen, remember Shabani the handsome gorilla that used to drive Japanese women nuts?Ikemeso这个词由ikemen(帅哥)和mesomeso(大哭)结合而来。说到帅哥,不知你还记不记得名古屋动物园那只迷倒日本妇女的大猩猩?For now, Ikemeso seem to only cater to stressed employees, but judging by the positive feedback the service has gotten even prior to its official launch, it#39;s fair to assume it will soon be more widely available.目前,这项务仅面向备受压力的职业女性。不过,鉴于其尚未正式推出便大获人气,今后或许会面向各个群体。It#39;s a bizarre service, to be sure, but not by Japanese standards. After all, we#39;re talking about the country that came up with strange ideas like a slow taxi service, a dress-rental business for men who want to feel like princesses or a rent-a-friend service, among many others.实话说,“帅哥擦泪”听起来颇为疯狂,但放在日本,大概算稀松平常。毕竟,发生在日本的奇事太多了,比如慢车务、男人租公主裙务、租友务等等。 /201509/400967Good books take ers on journeys in their minds. The announcement of this year’s US National Book Awards finalists has highlighted a number of modern literary gems.一本好的书能带领读者徜徉心灵的海洋。今年美国国家图书奖的入围书目无疑是现代文学的瑰宝。The books tackle a range of topics, from science to friendship to culture. Here are some standouts to add to your ing list.图书涵盖了各种主题,从科学、友谊到文化。下面为各位推荐其中几本好书。 The Soul of an Octopus《章鱼的灵魂》by Sy Montgomery作者:赛餠哥马利Publisher: Atria Books出版商:阿特里亚图书“A good book might illuminate something you knew little about, transform your world view, or move you in ways you didn’t think possible. The Soul of an Octopus delivers on all three,” the magazine New Scientist commented.“一本好书能为你开启未知世界的大门,它能改变你的世界观,亦或为你打开曾以为不可能的路。《章鱼的灵魂》满足了上面三个条件,“《新科学家》杂志评价说。After writing about birds, pigs and tigers, US naturalist Sy Montgomery decided to choose these polypod animals as the subject of her latest book, The Soul of an Octopus:A Surprising Exploration into the Wonder of Consciousness.继写过鸟、猪和老虎后,美国物学家赛餠哥马利决定以多足动物为自己新书的主题,新书名为《章鱼的灵魂:意识奇迹的意外探险》。“Here is a baggy, boneless body that can pour itself into the tiniest spaces, has venom like a snake, ink like an old fashioned pen, a beak like a parrot, can taste with their skin, and can change color and shape,” Montgomery explained to the National Geographic on why octopuses intrigue her.蒙哥马利在向《国家地理》杂志解释章鱼是如何给自己灵感时说:“这是一个松松垮垮的无骨肉体,它能进入最小的空间,有蛇一样的毒液,有老式钢笔一样的墨汁,有鸟一般的喙状物,可以通过皮肤尝味道,可以任意改变颜色和形状。”In the book, Montgomery explores the emotional world of the octopus. She uses different experiments to show that they possess consciousness as well as individual personalities.书中,蒙哥马利探寻了章鱼的情感世界。她通过不同的实验展示了章鱼和人一样也是有意识的。For example, based on her research, she finds out that Octavia, an octopus caught in the wild, is friendly and good at multi-tasking. And Kali, who has been living at the New England Aquarium, is playful and loves exploring.比如,在研究的基础上,她发现一个从野外抓回来的,叫奥克塔维亚的章鱼,十分友善并且擅于同时处理多个任务。而另一只生活在新英格兰水族馆名为卡莉的章鱼,则顽皮而热爱探索。Montgomery is a good storyteller. Her skillful writing weaves facts together with personal narratives, which makes the book very informative but easy to .蒙哥马利很会讲故事。她用高超的写作技巧把事实和个人叙述穿插起来,让这本书简单易懂又不失知识性。 /201512/413730上犹县妇幼保健院做双眼皮开眼角手术多少钱

龙南县妇幼保健人民医院胎记多少钱赣州俪人整形美容医院去黑头怎么样The world#39;s second-largest gem quality diamond has been discovered in Botswana, the Lucara Diamond firm says.加拿大卢卡拉钻石公司宣布在茨瓦纳发现世界第二大宝石级钻石。The 1,111-carat stone was recovered from its Karowe mine, measures 65mm×56mm×40mm in size, about 500km (300 miles) north of the capital, Gaborone. It is the biggest diamond to be discovered in Botswana and the largest find in more than a century.这颗钻石重达1111克拉,尺寸为65毫米×56毫米×40毫米,开采于距首都哈罗内500千米以北的茨瓦纳Karowe矿场。 这是有史以来在茨瓦纳发现的最大钻石,也是近百年来发现的最大钻石。The 3,106-carat Cullinan diamond was found in South Africa in 1905 and cut into nine separate stones, many of which are in the British Crown Jewels.史上最大钻石“卡利南钻石”于1905年在南非发现,重量惊达3106克拉,被切割成9块,其中多数被镶嵌在英国皇室的上。;The significance of the recovery of a gem quality stone larger than 1,000 carats, the largest for more than a century... cannot be overstated,; William Lamb, the CEO of Lucara Diamond, a Canadian diamond producer, said in a statement.坐落于加拿大的这家钻石公司的首席执行官威廉兰姆,在一份声明中这样表示,“虽重达1000多克拉的宝石级钻石,一个多世纪以来的钻石之最,这次发现的重要性不可过分估量。”Lucara says two other ;exceptional; white diamonds - an 813-carat stone and a 374-carat stone - were also found at the Karowe mine.卢卡拉公司表示,本周公司在Karowe矿场还发现另外两颗钻石,重量分别为813克拉和374克拉。;This has been an amazing week for Lucara with the recovery of the second largest and also the sixth largest gem quality diamonds ever mined,; Mr Lamb said.兰姆表示,“这一周对卢卡拉公司来说是巨大的惊喜,先后发现世界第二大钻石,也是被开采的世界第六大宝石级钻石。”The stone is yet to be evaluated, but commodities and mining analyst Kieron Hodgson, told AFP news agency that ;the potential to be one very expensive diamond.;钻石还有待准确估价,而大宗商品和矿物分析师基隆霍奇向法新社表示,这颗钻石的价值不菲。In April a flawless 100-carat diamond was sold for .1m (14.8m bounds) at Sotheby#39;s in New York. The gem, originally mined in South Africa, had taken more than a year to cut, polish and perfect.今年四月,在纽约苏富比,一颗没有瑕疵、100克拉的钻石售价是2210万美元(148万英镑)。这颗于南非开采的钻石切割、打磨、完善,整个过程花费了一年多的时间。Botswana is the world#39;s largest producer of diamonds and the trade has transformed it into a middle-income nation.茨瓦纳是世界上最大的钻石生产国,凭借钻石贸易位居中等收入国家之列。 /201511/411583Yan Fu (1854~1921), styled Jidao, self-assumed name Yuye in his late years, alias philosopher of Tianyan sect,was a native of Houguan (present Fuzhou) in Fujian Province. He was among the first to study in England.严复(1854~1921),字几道,晚年自号老人,别署天演宗哲学家,福州南台人,曾经作为中国第一批留学生留学英国。He attributed the sticking point of the ;Chinese Problem; to “the messy and chaotic internal affairs instead of bully and humiliation of foreign countries;.他把“中国问题”的症结归结为“不在外国的欺凌,而在内政之不修”,认为中国只有变法图强,才能挽救危亡。Therefore in order to save the nation in peril and make the national might felt once again, China had no other way out but to initiate liberal social and political reforms and self-strengthening, and learn from Western science and technology of the capitalist era.要重振中国的雄风,只有一条路可走,那就是学习西方的近代科学技术与知识。He translated large numbers of Western academic masterpieces such as introducincing the modern Western society, politics, culture and ideology, especially Darwinism, establishing his status of ;top translator of modern China;.他翻译出版了大量西方学术名著,介绍西方近代的社会、政治、文化与思想,尤其是达尔文的进化论,从而奠定了“近代中国第一译手”的地位。He wanted to acquaint the Chinese with such biological evolutionist ideas as “organic evolution and natural selection; and ;the survival of the fittest; and awaken them to the necessity of retaining the political consciousness of striving to become stronger, of competing with nature for supremacy. These ideas became powerful weapons against the ossified ideas of the feudal diehards and stimulated people#39;s demand for institutional reform and national revival.他的目的是使中国人知道“物竞天择,适者生存”的道理,唤醒中国人保种自强、与大争胜进而变法图存的政治意识。He translated the British political economist Adam Smith#39;s An Inquiry into The Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, which was the most important of his translations and largest in scale.为了促进中国的富强与发展,他翻译了英国政治经济学家亚当·斯密的《原富》(今译《国民财富的性质及原因研究》),是分量最重、规模最大的一本译作。He paid a panegyric on the British philosopher Herbert Spencer#39;s vulgarization of evolutionism conformed better to the actual demand of saving the nation from extinction and self-strengthening.他特别推崇英国哲学家斯宾塞的“庸俗进化论”,翻译了他的《群学肄言》(今译《社会学研究》),认为斯宾塞对进化论所进行的庸俗化更合乎当时中国社会救亡图存的现实需要。He also translated A History of Politics, On Liberty, De l#39;Esprit des Lois, System of Logic and Pure Logic.另外,他还翻译了《社会通诠》 ,《群己权界论》、《法意》(今译《论法的精神》)、《名学》、《名学浅说》等。Yan Fu devoted all his life to the publicity of the ideology of enlightenment. He was one of the most eminent thinkers of enlightenment in modern China.严复毕生致力于启蒙思想的宣传,是近代中国最著名的启蒙思想家之一。 /201511/408355赣州祛痘坑医院赣州市去除黑眼圈多少钱

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