时间:2019年02月18日 16:41:10

SAN FRANCISCO — Apple said on Wednesday that it would oppose and challenge a federal court order to help the F.B.I. unlock an iPhone used by one of the two attackers who killed 14 people in San Bernardino, Calif., in December.旧金山——苹果公司本周三表示,反对和质疑联邦法院要求其帮助联邦调查局(FBI)解锁一部iPhone的命令。去年12月,两名袭击者在加利福尼亚州圣贝纳迪诺杀害了14人,其中一个袭击者曾使用过这部手机。On Tuesday, in a significant victory for the government, Magistrate Judge Sheri Pym of the Federal District Court for the District of Central California ordered Apple to bypass security functions on an iPhone 5c used by Syed Rizwan Farook, who was killed by the police along with his wife, Tashfeen Malik, after they attacked Mr. Farook’s co-workers at a holiday gathering.本周二,加州中央区联邦地区法院法官谢莉·皮姆(Sheri Pym)命令苹果绕过赛义德·里兹万·法鲁克(Syed Rizwan Farook)用过的iPhone 5C的安全功能。法鲁克和他的妻子塔什芬·马利克(Tashfeen Malik)袭击了他同事举办的节日聚会,之后双双被警方击毙。Judge Pym ordered Apple to build special software that would essentially act as a skeleton key capable of unlocking the phone.皮姆法官命令苹果公司构建专门的软件,充当解锁该手机的万能钥匙。But hours later, in a statement by its chief executive, Timothy D. Cook, Apple announced its refusal to comply. The move sets up a legal showdown between the company, which says it is eager to protect the privacy of its customers, and the law enforcement authorities, who say that new encryption technologies hamper their ability to prevent and solve crime.但数小时后,苹果首席执行官蒂莫西·D·库克(Timothy D. Cook)发表声明,宣布拒绝遵行这道命令,该公司和执法部门之间的法律对抗就此形成。一方面苹果表示要努力保护客户隐私,另一方面,执法部门宣称新的加密技术削弱了他们预防和打击犯罪的能力。In his statement, Mr. Cook called the court order an “unprecedented step” by the federal government. “We oppose this order, which has implications far beyond the legal case at hand,” he wrote.在声明中,库克称法院的这道命令是联邦政府“史无前例的一步”。“我们反对这道命令,因为它牵涉的含义远远超出了眼前这个法律案例的范畴,”他写道。Asked about Apple’s resistance, the Justice Department pointed to a statement by Eileen M. Decker, the ed States attorney for the Central District of California: “We have made a solemn commitment to the victims and their families that we will leave no stone unturned as we gather as much information and evidence as possible. These victims and families deserve nothing less.”当被问及苹果的抗命时,司法部(Justice Department)援引了加利福尼亚中央区联邦检察官艾琳·M·德克尔(Eileen M. Decker)的声明:“我们已经向受害者及其家属作出庄严承诺,我们会想尽一切办法收集尽可能多的信息和据。这是受害者和家属理应获得的对待。”The F.B.I. said that its experts had been unable to access data on Mr. Farook’s iPhone, and that only Apple could bypass its security features. F.B.I. experts have said they risk losing the data permanently after 10 failed attempts to enter the password because of the phone’s security features.联邦调查局说,他们的专家无法获取法鲁克iPhone上的数据,只有苹果才有办法绕过它的安全功能。联邦调查局专家们表示,根据这种手机的安全功能,如果10次尝试输入密码失败,就可能会永久失去手机上的数据。The Justice Department had secured a search warrant for the phone, owned by Mr. Farook’s former employer, the San Bernardino County Department of Public Health, which consented to the search.司法部已拿到了针对这部手机的搜查令,作为机主,法鲁克的前雇主圣贝纳迪诺县公共卫生署同意对其进行检查。Because Apple declined to voluntarily provide, in essence, the “keys” to its encryption technology, federal prosecutors said they saw little choice but to get a judge to compel Apple’s assistance.由于苹果公司拒绝自愿提供手机加密技术的“钥匙”,联邦检察官说,他们别无选择,只能让法官迫使苹果提供援助。Mr. Cook said the order would amount to creating a “back door” to bypass Apple’s strong encryption standards — “something we simply do not have, and something we consider too dangerous to create.”库克说,这道命令相当于要求他们构建一个“后门”,绕过苹果强大的加密系统——“我们根本就没有这样的东西,我们认为构建出这样的东西太过危险。”In 2014, Apple and Google — whose operating systems are used in 96 percent of smartphones worldwide — announced that they had re-engineered their software with “full disk” encryption, and could no longer unlock their own products as a result.2014年,苹果和谷歌——全球96%的智能手机都使用它们的操作系统——宣布,他们已经用“全磁盘”加密方式重新设计了软件,因此自己也无法解锁其产品。That set up a confrontation with police and prosecutors, who want the companies to build, in essence, a master key that can be used to get around the encryption. The technology companies say that creating such a key would have disastrous consequences for privacy.由于警方和检察官希望公司能构建一个可以绕过加密系统的主密钥,双方之间出现了矛盾。技术公司表示,构建这样的密钥会在隐私方面导致灾难性的后果。“The F.B.I. may use different words to describe this tool, but make no mistake: Building a version of iOS that bypasses security in this way would undeniably create a back door,” Mr. Cook wrote. “And while the government may argue that its use would be limited to this case, there is no way to guarantee such control.”“联邦调查局也许用了另一种措辞来形容这个工具,但不要被误导:构建一个采用这种方式绕过安全屏障的iOS版本,无疑就创建了一个后门,”库克写道。“虽然政府可能会宣称只限于在本案中使用这个后门,但是他们没有办法保将来不会失控。”An Apple spokeswoman declined to elaborate on the statement, but the company’s most likely next step is to file an appeal.苹果发言人拒绝对这份声明进行详细解释,但该公司的下一步行动很有可能就是提起上诉。The legal issues are complicated. They involve statutory interpretation, rather than constitutional rights, and they could end up before the Supreme Court.相关的法律问题很复杂。它们涉及到法律解释,而不是宪法权利问题,最后有可能会诉至最高法院。As Apple noted, the F.B.I., instead of asking Congress to pass legislation resolving the encryption fight, has proposed what appears to be a novel ing of the All Writs Act of 1789.就像苹果公司指出的,FBI并没有要求国会通过立法来解决关于加密的分歧,而是对1789年的《所有令状法案》(All Writs Act)提出了一种看起来很新颖的解读。The law lets judges “issue all writs necessary or appropriate in aid of their respective jurisdictions and agreeable to the usages and principles of law.”该法律允许法官“签发所有令状”,只要“有必要,或能为各自辖区提供适当帮助且符合法律的适用和原则”。The government says the law gives broad latitude to judges to require “third parties” to execute court orders. It has cited, among other cases, a 1977 ruling requiring phone companies to help set up a pen register, a device that records all numbers called from a particular phone line.政府表示,这条法律向法官赋予了宽泛的裁量权,可要求“第三方”执行法庭的命令。政府援引的若干案件中包括,1977年的一项判决要求电话公司安装一台拨号记录器(pen register),它可以记录某条电话线路拨叫的所有号码。Apple, in turn, argues that the scope of the act has strict limits. In 2005, a federal magistrate judge rejected the argument that the law could be used to compel a telecommunications provider to allow real-time tracking of a cellphone without a search warrant.而苹果公司则认为,该法案的适用范围有严格的限制。2005年,一位联邦治安法官裁定,不能利用这项法律,在没有搜查令的情况下,迫使电信务提供商允许对一台移动电话进行实时跟踪。Marc J. Zwillinger, a lawyer for Apple, wrote in a letter for a related case in October that the All Writs Act could not be interpreted to “force a company to take possession of a device outside of its possession or control and perform services on that device, particularly where the company does not perform such services as part of its business and there may be alternative means of obtaining the requested information available to the government.”苹果公司律师马克·J·施威林格(Marc J. Zwillinger)去年10月就一宗相关案件发信称,不能通过解读《所有令状法案》,“来迫使一家企业取得一台不归其所有的设备的所有权,或控制该设备并对其进行维护,尤其是此种维护并不属于该公司经营范围,况且政府可能还有其他手段取得其索求的信息。”The government says it does not have those alternative means.政府表示,它并没有其他手段。Mr. Cook’s statement called the government’s demands “chilling.”库克在声明中称,政府的要求让人“感到寒意”。He added: “If the government can use the All Writs Act to make it easier to unlock your iPhone, it would have the power to reach into anyone’s device to capture their data. The government could extend this breach of privacy and demand that Apple build surveillance software to intercept your messages, access your health records or financial data, track your location, or even access your phone’s microphone or camera without your knowledge.”他补充道:“如果政府动用《所有令状法案》让解锁iPhone变得更容易,它就有能力侵入任何人的设备并取得其数据。政府就可以延伸这种侵犯隐私的做法,要求苹果编写监控软件拦截您的信息,访问您的健康记录或金融数据,追踪您的位置,甚至在您不知情的情况下访问您手机的麦克风或摄像头。”The Electronic Frontier Foundation, a nonprofit organization that defends digital rights, said it was siding with Apple.保护数字权利的非营利组织电子前沿基金会(Electronic Frontier Foundation)表示,它持苹果公司。“The government is asking Apple to create a master key so that it can open a single phone,” it said Tuesday evening. “And once that master key is created, we’re certain that our government will ask for it again and again, for other phones, and turn this power against any software or device that has the audacity to offer strong security.”“政府要求苹果创建一个主密钥,好让它能解开一部手机,”该基金会周二晚间表示。“一旦创建了这个密钥,我们可以肯定,政府就会一而再、再而三地要求解开其他的手机,并动用这种权力与任何一种胆敢提供强大安全性能的软件或设备作对。”The San Bernardino case is the most prominent such case, but it is not the first.圣贝纳迪诺案是此类案件中最受关注的一宗,但并不是第一宗。Last October, James Orenstein, a federal magistrate judge in Brooklyn, expressed doubts about whether he could require Apple to disable its latest iPhone security features, citing the failure of Congress to resolve the issue despite the urging of the Justice Department.去年10月,布鲁克林的联邦治安法官詹姆斯·奥伦斯坦(James Orenstein),对于他能否要求苹果禁用最新款iPhone中的安全功能表达了疑虑,其理由是尽管司法部一再催促,但国会未能解决这个问题。The judge said such requests should fall under a different law, the Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act of 1994, which covers telecommunications and broadband companies.该法官表示,这种请求应由另一项法律管辖,即1994年《通信协助执法法案 》(Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act),该法案涵盖了通信和宽带企业。Congress has been debating whether to amend that act to include technology companies like Apple, Facebook and Google, and Judge Orenstein said he would consider ordering Apple to unlock the phone when and if Congress makes the change. That case is still pending.国会一直在辩论是否对该法案进行修订,将苹果、Facebook、谷歌(Google)这样的科技企业纳入其中。奥伦斯坦表示,如果国会作出这样的修订,届时他会考虑责令苹果解锁手机。相关案件仍在审理当中。Although Apple is portraying its opposition to Judge Pym’s order as a principled defense of privacy, one of its motivations is the preservation of its reputation for robust encryption, at a time of rising concerns about identity theft, cybercrime and electronic surveillance by intelligence agencies and overzealous law enforcement agencies.尽管按照苹果的叙述,该公司反对皮姆法官的命令是根据原则捍卫隐私权,但当前用户对身份窃取、网络犯罪、情报机构的电子监控、执法机构的越界举动愈发感到焦虑,苹果的一个动机也是保护其强劲加密技术的声誉。Apple also says that a master key would amount to a vulnerability that hackers could exploit.苹果还表示,主密钥会构成安全隐患,黑客可能会加以利用。China is watching the dispute closely. Analysts say that the Chinese government does take cues from the ed States when it comes to encryption regulations, and that it would most likely demand that multinational companies provide accommodations similar to those in the ed States.中国正密切关注着这场争端。分析人士表示,在信息加密的监管方面,中国的确会参考美国的做法,极有可能会要求跨国公司提供类似于对美国的配合。Last year, Beijing backed off several proposals that would have mandated that foreign firms provide encryption keys for devices sold in China after heavy pressure from foreign trade groups. Nonetheless, a Chinese antiterrorism law passed in December required foreign firms to hand over technical information and to aid with decryption when the police demand it in terrorism-related cases.去年,北京方面提出了若干项法规,打算要求外国企业交出在中国出售设备的加密密钥。但在外国行业团体极力施压之后,北京做出了让步。尽管如此,中国在去年12月通过的反恐法,还是要求外国企业交出技术信息,并在涉及恐怖主义的案件中,依照警方要求帮助进行解密。While it is still not clear how the law might be carried out, it is possible a push from American law enforcement agencies to unlock iPhones would embolden Beijing to demand the same. China would also most likely push to acquire any technology that would allow it to unlock iPhones. Just after Apple introduced tougher encryption standards in 2014, Apple users in China were targeted by an attack that sought to obtain login information from iCloud users.尽管尚不清楚这项法律会如何实施,但美国执法机构要求解锁iPhone的做法,可能会让北京方面更加大胆,作出同样的要求。中国也极有可能会要求取得解锁iPhone的任何技术。就在苹果2014年推出更强大的加密标准之后,中国的苹果用户就受到了黑客攻击,黑客当时寻求取得iCloud用户的登录信息。 /201602/427241

SYDNEY, Australia — The Australian authorities on Wednesday raided the home of a computer expert and entrepreneur in suburban Sydney, just hours after two news outlets identified the man as a likely creator of the digital currency Bitcoin.澳大利亚悉尼——本周三,澳大利亚当局在悉尼郊区搜查了一名电脑专家和创业者的住所,在那之前的几个小时,有两家新闻媒体称这名男子可能是数字货币“比特币”(Bitcoin)的发明者。The Australian Federal Police said the raid on the residence of the man, Craig Steven Wright, was for a tax investigation, and a spokesman said it had no connection to the Bitcoin reports. The Australian Taxation Office, which asked the police to carry out the raid, declined to comment on “any individual’s or entity’s tax affairs.”澳大利亚联邦警察表示,该男子名为克雷格·斯蒂文·莱特(Craig Steven Wright),搜查其住所是为了进行税务调查,警方发言人表示此次行动和比特币的新闻无关。而要求警方开展突袭行动的澳大利亚税务局(Australian Taxation Office)拒绝对“任何个人或实体的税务问题”置评。The raid, in the leafy suburb of Gordon on Sydney’s upper north shore, came hours after reports in Wired magazine and Gizmodo drew strong links between Mr. Wright and Satoshi Nakamoto, the pseudonymous creator of the virtual currency that has grown to billions of dollars in total value.这次突袭发生在悉尼上北海岸草木繁茂的郊区戈登(Gordon),就在《连线》(Wired)杂志和Gizmodo报道称莱特和中本聪(Satoshi Nakamoto)之间有紧密联系的几个小时之后。中本聪是比特币发明者的假名,这种虚拟货币的总价值已增长到了数十亿美元。The identity of Mr. Nakamoto has been a mystery since the currency’s computer code was released in 2009, with several false leads having been aired and debunked. The growing value of Bitcoin, which is managed by computers that run its peer-to-peer software, has driven the search for its elusive creator or creators.自2009年比特币的计算机代码发布以来,中本聪的身份一直是个谜,先后传出的几条假线索也都被揭穿。比特币是通过运行其点对点软件的计算机来管理的,随着它的价值日益增长,人们也一直在寻找它的的发明者。Wired, which was first to identify Mr. Wright as a possible inventor of the currency, cited old blog posts as well as leaked documents and emails. The magazine acknowledged that the trail of clues could be a hoax, but it added: “If Wright is seeking to fake his Nakamoto connection, his hoax would be practically as ambitious as Bitcoin itself.”《连线》率先指出莱特可能是比特币的发明者之一,它引用了一些早前的客文章以及泄露的文件和电邮作为据。该杂志承认,这些线索可能是一个骗局,但它表示:“如果莱特试图伪造出他和中本聪之间的联系,那么这个骗局的高明程度不亚于比特币本身。”The Gizmodo report said that Mr. Wright and Dave Kleiman, an American who died in 2013, “were involved in the development of the digital currency.”Gizmodo报道说,莱特和2013年去世的美国人戴夫·克莱曼(Dave Kleiman)“参与了这种电子货币的开发”。Both outlets cited what was described as a transcript of a 2014 meeting among Mr. Wright, lawyers and tax officials, in which he is ed as saying, “I did my best to try and hide the fact that I’ve been running Bitcoin since 2009.”这两家媒体都援引了一份记录,据称是2014年莱特与律师和税务官员之间的会议记录,其中莱特说,“我从2009年开始,一直在管理比特币,我尽了最大努力来隐瞒这个事实。”“By the end of this, I think half the world is going to bloody know,” he added, according to the transcript.记录显示,他说:“经过这件事之后,我觉得全世界有一半的人都会知道了。”Efforts to reach Mr. Wright on Wednesday were unsuccessful.本周三我们多番试图联系莱特,但均未成功。A Newsweek investigation in 2014 incorrectly identified the Bitcoin creator as Dorian Satoshi Nakamoto, a physicist living with his mother in Southern California. He denied the report, saying he had only learned of Bitcoin weeks earlier after a reporter contacted his son.《新闻周刊》(Newsweek)在2014年刊发的一篇调查文章误认为多利安·中本聪(Dorian Satoshi Nakamoto)是比特币的创造者。此人是一名物理学家,与母亲住在南加州,他否认了那篇报道的说法,称几周之前一名记者联系他儿子时,他才听说比特币这种东西。 /201512/415517

Will a magnet really destroy your smartphone?磁铁真的会毁了你的智能手机吗?Do magnets actually pose a terrifying risk to our gadgets, and where did we get the idea that they’re dangerous in the first place?磁铁真的会对我们的智能工具造成威胁吗?我们又是为什么会认为它们是危险的?Let’s find out.现在我们就来揭晓。This more than likely stems from old electronic devices, such as CRT monitors and televisions, which were susceptible to magnetic fields, explains Matt Newby from first4magnets, ;When placing a strong magnet near one of these you could distort the picture. Thankfully, modern televisions and monitors aren’t susceptible in this way.;“老式电子设备如 CRT 显示器和电视机易受磁场影响,”first4magnets公司的马特·纽比解释道,“当你在这些设备附件放置强力磁铁时,画面可能会变形。不过值得庆幸的是,现代电视机和显示器不易受到此种影响。”Most modern electronics, like our smartphones, are not going to be adversely affected by small magnets; but is that all there is to it?大多数现代电子产品,比如我们的智能手机,不太会受到小型磁铁的不利影响,不过事情真是如此吗?How do magnets affect smartphones?磁铁是如何影响智能手机的?The vast majority of magnets that you come across day to day, even many of the super-strong ones on the market, will have no adverse effect on your smartphone, says Matt, ;In fact, within the device there will be a number of very small magnets which perform important functions.For example, the new Apple Watch uses a magnetic inductive wireless charging system.;马特表示“我们在日常生活中见到的绝大多数的磁铁,甚至市面上那种超强磁铁都不会对指智能手机造成伤害”,“事实上,在一些装置内会有若干非常小但却发挥重要作用的磁铁。例如,最新一代的苹果手表就使用了磁性感应无线充电系统。”However, before you get carried away and start rubbing magnets all over your smartphone, there is something else to consider.不过,在你大松一口气,开始用磁铁在你的智能手机上划来划去之前,还要了解一些事情。Matt warned that magnetic fields can temporarily interfere with the digital compass and magnetometer inside your smartphone, and that’s more serious than you may think.马特警告说,磁场可能暂时干扰智能手机里的数字罗盘和磁强计,而其后果远比你想象的严重。The engineers over at Kamp;J Magnetics actually experimented with an iPhone to show how the sensors inside can be affected by a magnet.其实,Kamp;J Magnetics工程师已经用iPhone进行了实验,来检测磁铁会如何影响iPhone内部的传感器。The problem we found is that a nearby magnet will affect the internal magnetic sensors inside the phone. The compass won’t correctly, explained Michael Paul, an engineer at Kamp;J, ;What’s worse, if you stick a strong magnet to the phone, you could slightly magnetize some steel components inside, making them act like weak magnets. This can make it difficult to properly calibrate the compass.;“我们发现附近的磁铁会影响手机内部的磁性传感器。造成指南针失常,”Kamp;J Magnetics的工程师Michael Paul解释道,“更糟糕的如果你在手机旁放置强力磁铁,里面的一些钢构件会稍稍磁化,他们会变成弱磁铁。这样指南针便难以正确校对。”You might think it’s unimportant because you never use the compass app, but that doesn’t mean other apps aren’t relying on the same sensor.你可能认为这不重要,因为你从来不使用指南针这个应用程序,但这并不意味着其他应用程序不依赖于相同的传感器。Google (GOOGL, Tech30) Maps, for example, uses the sensor to detect which way the phone is facing, and a number of games also rely on it to work out your orientation.例如,谷歌公司(GOOGLTech30)的谷歌地图就使用传感器来检测你的朝向,而且很多游戏也依靠它来判断你的方向。It seems as though magnets aren’t likely to kill your smartphone, but there’s definitely a possibility they’ll mess some pretty important aspects up, so why take the risk?虽然磁铁不会让你的智能手机报废,但它极有可能扰乱一些重要的原件,因此我们完全不必冒这样的险。 /201506/378577

The consumer tech marketplace offers a range of pad-based charging systems that require contact between smartphone and charging mechanism. The dream, however, is to create a wireless in-room network, much like Wi-Fi, that instantly charges devices when you#39;re in range.消费者技术市场提供了一系列以衬垫为基础的充电系统,这些系统要求手机和充电器相连。然而,人们一直梦想着创造一个像Wi-Fi一样的室内无线系统,可以在有限范围内不断为设备充电。A San Jose-based company called Energous is busy creating WattUp, a wire-free charging system that can power gadgets up to 15 feet away using a combination of RF (radio frequency), Bluetooth and other imperceptible tech. The company is aiming to have WattUp embedded in devices ranging from smartphones to toys as early as next year.一个名为Energous的圣荷西本土公司正忙于研发WaitUp,这是一款能够和无线电配率、蓝牙和隐形技术一起使用,在15英尺外给小配件充电的无线充电系统。公司希望最早在明年,WaltUp可以嵌入从智能手机到玩具的各类装置。Arriving even sooner is the XE from TechNovator, a company out of Poland and Ukraine. The XE is a tower that communicates via electromagnetic resonance with a smartphone case that then safely translates those energy waves into electricity. TechNovator plans to launch with a Kickstarter campaign in November focusing on iPhone 6 and 6 Plus cases.波兰和乌克兰的TechNovator公司的XE出现的更早。XE是一个通过电磁感应和智能手机交流的塔楼,他可以安全地把那些能量波转化为电流。TechNovator计划在十一月推出针对Iphone 6和Iphone 6But while the XE tower is impossible to ignore, uBeam is aiming for a base station that is all but invisible and takes the form of a wafer-thin ceiling tile. And while initially uBeam may use smartphone covers to transfer power, eventually one option could be to embed small chips directly into handsets, according to uBeam founder Meredith Perry, 26.尽管XE无线塔不容忽视,但是uBeam正致力于搭建一个无形的基站,它看起来像是一层薄薄的天花板瓷砖。首先,uBeam可能会用智能手机来传递能量,但是据uBeam创始人Meredith Perry解释,最终可能会直接在手机中嵌入芯片。The Santa Monica-based start-up has raised .2 million from the likes of Mark Cuban, Marissa Mayer and super-agent Ari Emanuel. While still very secretive about her tech, Perry is doggedly focused on a vision for wireless charging that aims to do away with power cords.圣莫妮卡初创企业已经从向Mark Cuban,Marissa Mayer和超级经纪人Ari Emanuel这样的粉丝中筹集了2320万美金。虽然她的技术仍然很神秘,Perry仍然固执地致力于去除充电线的无线充电幻想中。Perry is one of four guests at USA TODAY#39;s Change Agents Live event Sept. 29 in San Francisco.Perry是将于9月29日在圣弗朗西斯哥举行的今日美国变革代理商直播活动的四位嘉宾之一。 /201510/402063

文章编辑: 健步乐园