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Mongolia’s new government has revealed a budget deficit equivalent to nearly one-fifth of economic output, underlining the dire financial conditions that have sent the currency tumbling.蒙古国新政府披露称,该国财政预算缺口已接近经济产出的五分之一。这凸显出该国财政状况是多么的糟糕,该国货币已因此大幅贬值。Even after stringent cost-cutting measures outlined by the Mongolian People’s party, which won a landslide victory in last month’s elections, 蒙古人民党(Mongolian People’s party)在上月的选举中获得压倒性胜利。the country faces a gap between its revenues of MNT5.34tn (.67bn) and MNT9.7tn (.87bn) expenditure — a shortfall equivalent to 18 per cent of gross domestic product, well above the 4 per cent statutory limit.尽管该党列出了严格的削减成本措施,但蒙古国5.34万亿图格里克(合26.7亿美元)的财政收入与9.7万亿图格里克(合48.7亿美元)的财政出之间仍存在缺口——这一赤字相当于该国国内生产总值(GDP)的18%,远高于4%的法定上限。Mongolia, with a population of 3m and GDP of some bn, is heavily dependent on mining and commodities exports, mostly to China. 蒙古国人口为300万,GDP约为120亿美元,高度依赖采矿业和大宗商品出口(主要出口对象是中国)。A surge of mining investment helped it repay previous IMF loans early, but the more recent downturn in copper and coal prices has dealt a heavy blow to the economy.矿业投资猛增帮助蒙古国提前偿还了之前国际货币基金组织(IMF)给该国的贷款,但最近的铜价和煤价下行对该国经济造成了沉重打击。The country also faces hefty debt repayments beginning in March, when a 0m bond issued by the Development Bank of Mongolia comes due. It must repay .7bn-.8bn over the next two years, including a swap agreement with China’s central bank.从明年3月开始,蒙古国还面临着沉重的偿债压力,届时蒙古开发(Development Bank of Mongolia)发行的一笔5.8亿美元的债券将会到期。该行在未来两年必须偿还17亿至18亿美元,其中包括与中国央行之间货币互换协议要求的还款金额。“Our priority is to bring discipline and order to our finances, to make sure the public gets the full picture and understands the reasons for our actions,” said Tsend Munkh-Orgil, foreign minister.“我们的当务之急是给我国的财政带来纪律和秩序,确保公众了解全部情况、理解我们为什么采取这些行动,”蒙古国外长蒙赫奥尔吉勒(Tsend Munkh-Orgil)说。The budget includes cuts in civil service salaries, higher taxes and a later retirement age. 这份预算案包括下调公务员工资、加税和延长退休年龄。Other social payments from funds set up during the height of the mining boom have run dry, including subsidies for students and the popular universal “child money” of MNT20,000 () per month for every family.蒙古国在矿业发展风头最劲时建立了一些基金,用于满足其他社会性出。如今,这些出已经枯竭,其中包括学生补贴、以及颇受欢迎的每个孩子每月2万图格里克(合9美元)的全民“儿童补助”。“While we expected increased fiscal pressure, we did not expect the budget situation to be as critical as recently reported,” said Yolanda Fernandez, representative for the Asian Development Bank. “The government is going to face two challenging years.”“尽管我们预料到财政压力会加大,但我们没预料到预算状况会像近期报道的那样生死攸关,”亚洲开发(ADB)驻蒙代表冯幽兰(Yolanda Fernandez)表示,“(蒙古国)政府将迎来颇具挑战性的两年。”The Mongolian People’s party government has not formally requested assistance from international donors, but observers expect that it will after the budget is approved and the new government draws up a plan later this year.蒙古人民党政府尚未正式向国际捐助机构求援,但观察人士预计,当预算案获批、新政府在今年晚些时候拟定一份方案后,人民党政府就会正式求援。 /201608/463608。

India’s Supreme Court has banned new luxury diesel vehicles in Delhi and doubled a recently imposed “green tax” on trucks coming into the city — the latest in a series of tough measures to curb pollution.印度最高法院已禁止豪华柴油车在德里上牌,并将近期对驶入德里的卡车开征的“环保税”提高一倍。这是印度一连串遏制污染的强硬措施中的最新一例。The ban on the registration of new diesel vehicles with engines of two litres or more will initially be in force only until March 31. But it is a warning sign to India’s car industry of the growing backlash against diesels — especially larger, heavy sport utility vehicles popular among the wealthy.这项禁止发动机排量在2升及以上的柴油车上牌的禁令,将只试行至明年3月31日。尽管如此,它对印度汽车业来说还是一个警告,它提醒印度汽车业注意:柴油车正受到越来越大的反对,尤其是受富裕阶层欢迎的车体较大较重的运动型多用途车(SUV)。According to the Society of Indian Automotive Manufactures, 37 per cent of all passenger cars sold in India during the financial year to March 2015 were diesel variants, and the share of diesels in total car sales has been rising in recent months.根据印度汽车制造商协会(Society of Indian Auto Manufacturers)的数据,截至2015年3月的上一财年里,印度市场上售出的所有乘用车中柴油车占37%,而且近几个月里柴油车在汽车总体销量中的占比还在不断上升。However, about 90 per cent of the SUVs and other utility vehicles sold last year, and many German-made luxury cars, are fuelled by diesel, which is substantially cheaper than petrol.此外,去年售出的SUV及其他类型多用途车有90%左右为柴油车,很多德国造的豪车也是如此。柴油要比汽油便宜不少。“The rich can’t be allowed to buy luxury diesel cars and SUVs and pollute the air with adverse consequences on the health of the rest of the population,” the court said on Tuesday, a day ahead of its formal ruling.印度最高法院在正式颁布禁令的前一天表示:“不能允许富人购买豪华柴油车和SUV来污染空气,而对其他民众的健康造成不良影响。”The court also doubled a “green tax” on trucks that it imposed last month in a bid to deter highly polluting commercial vehicles from driving through the capital unless they had business there. It has also banned trucks more than 10 years old from entering the city.印度最高法院还将对卡车开征的“环保税”提高了一倍。该税是从上月开始征收的,目的是劝阻高污染的商用车辆没事办就别从首都经过。印度最高法院还禁止车龄超过10年的卡车驶入德里。Environmental activists hailed the court decision as a much-needed move to put the brakes on the deterioration of Delhi’s air quality.印度最高法院这一决定受到环保人士的欢迎,他们称这是一项极为必要的、阻止德里空气质量恶化的举措。 /201512/417466。

The links between the countries and peoples living along the arteries and veins criss-crossing Asia are nothing new. For millennia, silk roads, sometimes collectively referred to as the Silk Road, brought peoples, goods and ideas into contact with each other.沿着亚洲纵横交错的交通要道栖息的人民之间有联系不是什么新鲜事。数千年来,有时被统称为“丝绸之路”的多条交通线让不同的民族、商品和思想相互接触。Two and a half thousand years ago, Chinese writers set about a systematic approach to gathering information about the peoples beyond the deserts and mountain ranges that protect China’s interior, assessing their markets, leaders, strengths and weaknesses. That found a parallel in the works of authors such as Herodotus, whose attention was likewise on the land bridge that connects east and west.2500年前,中国的作家们着手建立一套系统性方法,用以收集生活在作为中原地区屏障的荒漠和山脉以外的民族的信息,对他们的市场、领导者、优势和弱势进行评估。这与古希腊作家希罗多德(Herodotus)等人的作品有些相似,希罗多德将注意力放在了连接东方和西方的大陆桥上。There was good reason for the attention lavished then on the “heart of the world” — just as there is today. Two thousand years ago, the significance came in part because of the natural wealth — silver, gold and lapis lazuli — found in rich supply in what is now Iran, Iraq, Afghanistan and the central Asian states. The great cities such as Samarkand, Mosul and Merv offered great commercial opportunities, thanks to their large, rich elites.和今天一样,当时的人们有很好的理由将如此多的注意力到“世界的心脏”上。2000年前,这种重要性部分来自于今天的伊朗、伊拉克、阿富汗和中亚诸国出产的天然财富——白银、黄金和青金石。当年的撒马尔罕(Samarkand),苏尔(Mosul)和梅尔夫(Merv)等伟大城市拥有大量富裕的精英,这提供了巨大的商机。Just as important were the connections that linked the cities, towns and oases. Control of these arteries allowed empires to be built — and were crucial in their fall. Known since the late 19th century as the silk roads, these networks carried goods, merchants and evangelists who brought ideas about faith and salvation, enabling the sp of Buddhism and Hinduism, Judaism, Islam and Christianity — the latter taking root quicker and more successfully in Asia than it did in the Mediterranean.城市、城镇和绿洲之间的连接也同样重要。帝国依靠对这些交通要道的控制而建立,而这些交通要道也在帝国的覆灭中扮演了关键角色。在19世纪末期后被称为丝绸之路的交通网络运载了商品、商人以及带来信仰和救赎思想的传教士,让佛教、印度教、犹太教、伊斯兰教和基督教得以传播开来——其中基督教在亚洲的扎根比在地中海地区更快、更成功。Trade, though, was the oil in the engine of vibrant exchange over many centuries. Those who were able to build credit networks did particularly well. Minority groups bound over long distances by family connections, religious practices and common identities developed systems to lend, borrow and pay for goods that were sometimes thousands of miles away.然而,多个世纪以来,贸易就好比动力十足的交流引擎中的润滑油。那些能够建立信贷网络的人表现尤为出色。通过家庭关系、宗教习俗和共同身份而超越地理隔阂维系在一起的少数群体,建立了放贷、借贷和为有时远在千里之外的货物付款的系统。In late antiquity, it was the Sogdians who dominated transcontinental trade, while more recently, Armenians played a prominent role thanks to their linguistic skills. Indeed, recent research suggests that the silk roads were fundamental to the development of Yiddish, a transnational language of Jewish traders plying the silk routes.在近古时期,主宰跨大陆贸易的是栗特人,而在更近代时期,亚美尼亚人依靠他们的语言技能扮演了重要角色。的确,近年的研究表明,丝绸之路对于依地语(Yiddish)的发展至关重要,这是来往丝绸之路的犹太商人所使用的一种跨国语言。Many goods were traded along these networks, in both directions, including spices, silks, minerals and human beings — sold in huge numbers in the Middle Ages.在两个方向上,许多商品沿着这些路线进行交易,包括香料、丝绸、矿产和人口——在中世纪,人口曾被大量贩卖。But problems also flowed through the arteries: violence and disease, most notably the Black Death, which originated in central Asia and passed from town to town, ravaging all in its path.但麻烦也同样通过这些交通要道传播:暴力和疾病,其中最突出的是黑死病,这种起源于中亚的疾病从一个城镇蔓延至另一个城镇,沿路大肆破坏。Control of highways and cities meant control of taxes. States and leaders with ambitions — from the age of Alexander the Great to Britain and Russia in the 19th century — were drawn to the heart of the world.控制了干道和城市意味着控制了税收。从亚历山大大帝(Alexander the Great)时代到19世纪的英国和俄国,野心勃勃的国家和领导者都被世界的心脏所吸引。Few understood this better than the Mongols, whose vast 13th and 14th century empire, extending from the Pacific to the Black Sea and Mediterranean, was not characterised by violence and chaos, but by careful and deliberate investment into major urban centres. They employed what we would today call progressive tax policies, which encouraged trade within and between cities to stimulate greater revenues for the state.在这方面,很少有人比蒙古人了解得更深。13世纪到14世纪的蒙古帝国从太平洋绵延至黑海和地中海,这个帝国的特征不是暴力和混乱,而是对主要城市中心的谨慎和有意的投资。他们采用了我们今天称为累进税的税收政策,鼓励城市内部和城市之间的贸易,以求为国家带来更多的财政收入。In the 20th century, it was the turn of the Soviet Union and ed States to wrestle for influence in Afghanistan, Iran and Iraq. Attempting to control the countries lying in the “heart of the world” was a significant feature of the Cold War.在20世纪,轮到苏联和美国在阿富汗、伊朗和伊拉克角逐影响力。试图控制这些身处“世界的心脏”的国家是冷战的显著特征。Now it is China’s turn to cast its eye towards the silk roads. The combination of opportunities and challenges offered by the “One Belt, One Road” plan would have been familiar in the Chinese capital 2,500 years ago.现在轮到中国把目光投向丝绸之路。2500年前中国首都的人们不会对“一带一路”计划带来的机遇和挑战感到陌生。Peter Frankopan is author of The Silk Roads: A New History of the World, published by Bloomsbury (UK) and Knopf (USA)彼得#8226;弗兰科潘(Peter Frankopan)著有《丝绸之路:一部新的世界史》(The Silk Roads: A New History of the World),由英国布鲁姆斯伯里出版公司(Bloomsbury)和美国克诺普夫出版公司(Knopf)出版 /201605/444665。

Europe is prepared to fight back against economic protectionism by the Donald Trump administration with policies akin to those used to combat Chinese anti-competitive practices, according to France’s industry minister. 法国工业部长克里斯托夫.西吕格(Christophe Sirugue)表示,欧洲准备回击唐纳德.特朗普(Donald Trump)政府的经济保护主义,拟采取的政策将类似于用来打击中国反竞争行为的政策。Christophe Sirugue said Europe cannot be simply a “spectator” if Mr Trump follows through on his campaign promises, which include plans to tear up global trade deals and impose punitive tariffs and higher barriers to trade. 西吕格称,如果特朗普履行其竞选诺言,包括打算撕毁全球贸易协定、开征惩罚性关税和设立更高的贸易壁垒,那么欧洲不能只作一个“旁观者”。“If he adopts the protectionism that he promised during the campaign, Europe would need to react to that#8201;.#8201;.#8201;.#8201;[We would need to] invent tools to react,” he said in an interview with the Financial Times. “如果他采取他在竞选期间承诺的保护主义,欧洲有必要作出回应……(我们需要)发明一些反制手段,”他在接受英国《金融时报》采访时表示。Mr Sirugue said the continent could employ similar fiscal and legislative tools as those used to fight against Chinese practices that are deemed anti-competitive, for example those used to combat dumping in the steel industry. 欧洲采取过一些财政和立法手段来回击中国那些被认为具有反竞争性质的行为,例如用来打击钢铁业倾销行为的手段。西吕格表示,欧洲可采取与之类似的手段来反制美国。“How did we react to the Chinese? We did not close our borders. We did not say that protectionism was the response of Europe. We invented a tool that allows us to confront unfair practices abroad,” he said. “我们过去是如何反制中国人的?我们没有关闭我们的边境。我们没有说保护主义是欧洲的对策。我们发明了一种让我们能够应对海外不公平做法的手段,”他表示。“There are fiscal tools, there are regulatory tools, there is a whole pallet of reforms that could be put in place [against the US].” “我们有财政手段,有监管手段,有一整套可用来(反制美国的)改革措施。”Mr Trump has focused his protectionist rhetoric on Asia and Mexico, threatening to impose a 45 per cent tariffs on goods from China and a similar 35 per cent levy on products imported from Mexico. 特朗普的保护主义言论一直针对的是亚洲和墨西哥,他扬言要对进口自中国的货物征收税率为45%的关税,对进口自墨西哥的产品征收类似的、税率为35%的关税。But there are concerns that this could have a ripple effect on Europe, or that his sights could be turned on Europe next.但有人担心,这可能会对欧洲产生附带冲击,或者特朗普接下来可能会把目光对准欧洲。 /201612/483384。