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黑龙江省医院网上预约电话松北区妇幼保健院在哪个区黑龙江阳光做宫腔粘连手术好吗 Science and Technology Pollution in the Himalayas Time to call the sweep?科技 喜马拉雅山受到了污染 是时候呼吁清扫了吗?Soot gets everywhere. Even into the worlds highest mountains到处都弥漫着烟灰,甚至蔓延到了世界的最高山。THE Himalayas and the adjacent Tibetan plateau are sometimes referred to as the Earths third pole, because of the amount of ice they host. They are also known as Asias water tower. Their glaciers feed the continents largest rivers—and those, in turn, sustain some 1.5 billion people. Many studies suggest, though, that the Himalayan glaciers have been shrinking over the past few decades. This has usually been attributed to rising air temperatures, but climate researchers have now come to realise that tiny airborne particles of soot and dust are also to blame. Being dark, they absorb sunlight. And that warms their surroundings.喜马拉雅山及其邻近的青藏高原有时被称作是地球第三极,这是因为它们身上覆盖着大量的冰雪。有时也被称作亚洲水塔,它们所蕴藏的冰川是这片大陆中最大河流的水源,反过来这些河流维系着15亿人的生命。然而许多研究表明在过去的数十年里喜马拉雅山的冰川在不断地减少。这通常是由不断高升的气温所致,但是气候研究人员开始意识到这也归咎于空气中的烟灰粒子和尘埃,因为这些物质是黑色的,所以吸收阳光,进而使得周围气温升高。Near cities, and in regions like South-East Asia, where people are clearing vegetation by burning it, soot is expected. But as Angela Marinoni of the Institute of Atmospheric Sciences and Climate in Bologna explained to an audience at the 2nd Third Pole Environment Workshop in Kathmandu on October 27th, the high Himalayas are also under an onslaught from this sort of pollution. Even at altitudes above 5,000 metres (16,400 feet), soot is widesp. And when it lands on glaciers it accelerates their melting.在城市附近和像在东南亚这些地区,人们烧毁植被,因此就产生了烟灰。但是10月27日在加德满都举行的第二次第三极环境研讨会上,但是来自波隆纳的Angela Marinoni—一位大气物理学及气候研究所的研究人员对一名观众解释到:;喜马拉雅山也受到了这种烟灰的污染;.即使在海拔高于5000米(约16400英尺)的地区也弥漫着烟灰,当它们飘落到了冰川上,就会加速冰川的融化。Dr Marinoni and her colleagues have been examining Himalayan soot since 2006. In that year the Nepal Climate Observatory - Pyramid, in the Khumbu valley, began a full-time study of aerosol particles, soot among them. The researchers initial intention was to take advantage of what they assumed would be the pristine conditions found at such high altitude (the observatory is 5,079 metres above sea level) to measure typical background conditions of the atmosphere. Instead, they were surprised to find a thick haze, loaded with soot, smothering the mountain slope. In the rainless pre-monsoon months between January and May, about one day in five saw the Khumbu valley blanketed in a dense brown cloud.自从2006年开始Dr Marinoni和他的同事就在调查研究喜马拉雅山上的烟灰。在那年,尼泊尔气象天文台—金字塔在孔布山谷开始专职研究浮质粒子中的烟灰。研究的初始目的是利用地处这片高纬度地区的原始地貌来测量大气中特殊的背景环境(天文台设在海拔5079米处)。然而他们惊讶的发现了一片充斥着烟尘的厚厚阴霾,笼罩着山坡。一月至五月是少雨的前季风时期,孔布山谷平均每五天中就有一天笼罩在厚厚的棕色烟云下。By analysing atmospheric circulation patterns, Dr Marinoni and her colleagues found that winds could bring soot and dust from as far away as Europe, the Middle East and North Africa. And if that were not bad enough, the Himalayan valleys act as chimneys, pumping pollutants from the Indian plains to the mountain peaks. Dr Marinoni estimates that the combined effect of this crud could reduce the glaciers ability to reflect light by 2-5% and increase the amount of melting by 12-34%.通过分析大气循环类型,Dr Marinoni和他的同事发现风力可以把烟灰和尘土从远至欧洲,中东和北非等地带到喜马拉雅山上。如果这还不够糟糕的话,喜马拉雅山谷就犹如烟囱一样,把印度平原的污染物排放到喜马拉雅山峰。Dr Marinoni估计这种杂质的共同作用能使冰川的反光能力降低2-5%,融化范围增加12—34%。Those suggestions are corroborated by a study led by Xu Baiqing of the Chinese Academy of Sciences Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, in Beijing. His team drilled cores from the ice of five Tibetan glaciers in order to examine the past few decades worth of pollution. These cores show that the level of pollution, especially soot, in Himalayan glaciers correlates with emissions in Europe and South Asia.中国科学院青藏高原研究所的徐柏青领导做了一项研究实了以上研究人员的发现。他的研究小组钻取了青藏高原5大冰川的冰心以观察过去数十年的污染。这些冰心不仅表明了此地的污染程度,更重要的是说明了喜马拉雅山冰川上的烟灰与欧洲和南亚的排放相关。In the north-west and centre of the Tibetan plateau Dr Xu and his team found that particularly high levels of soot had fallen on the glaciers during the 1950s. These regions are under the influence of westerly winds, suggesting that the soot in question originated in Europe. That hypothesis is supported by the observation that soot levels fell during the 1970s, a period when many European countries enacted clean-air regulations.在青藏高原的西北部和中部地区徐士和他的研究小组发现:在20世纪50年代大量的灰尘落在冰川上。这些地区受西风影响,因此研究人员正讨论这些烟灰可能来自于欧洲。一项调查报告实了这个假设,报告表明20世纪70年代大量灰尘落到了喜马拉雅山冰川上,而且就在这一时期许多欧洲国家制定了净化空气的法规。The glaciers in the south-eastern part of the plateau, by contrast, are downwind of the Indian subcontinent—and Dr Xu found that the concentration of soot in those glaciers went up by 30% between 1990 and 2003, coinciding with a period of rapid industrial growth in India.相比之下,青藏高原东南部地区的冰川地处于印度次大陆的顺风处,徐柏青发现1990年至2003年间其地区的烟灰覆盖增长了30%,恰巧与印度这时期工业的迅速发展成正比。The worry is not that the Himalayan glaciers will disappear. Despite a foolish mistake in a report by the International Panel on Climate Change suggesting that this might happen quickly, no one believes that to be the case. But accelerated melting induced by this soot could cause flooding. That would be bad enough.人们所担忧的并非是喜马拉雅山冰川将会消失。尽管国际气候变化小组发布一项愚蠢的报告,表示在不久的将来可能会发生这一惨剧,但是没有人去相信。烟灰会加速冰川融化进而导致洪水的爆发。尽管这样,这也已经够遭的了。 /201301/222665哈市阳光医院电话预约

哈尔滨三精女子专科医院在哪里哈尔滨宫颈肥大的治疗需要多少钱 Mr Beevor is keener than Mr Hastings on detailing the horror. He is particularly vivid in describing the barbarities that became commonplace during the carnage on the Eastern front. Frozen German corpses littering the battlefield were frequently missing their legs, not because they had been blown off, but because Red Army soldiers wanted their boots and could only pull them off after the legs had been defrosted over camp fires. Outside the besieged city of Leningrad, amputated limbs were stolen from field hospitals and bodies snatched from mass graves as a source of food. Within the city, 2,000 people were arrested for cannibalism. Those most at risk were children, who were eaten by their own parents. 安东尼·比弗也比马克斯·哈斯丁花了更多笔墨详细描述二战所带来的恐惧。他对士兵暴行的描述特别生动,后来这些暴行在东部战线的大屠杀中司空见惯。冻僵的德军尸体遍布战场,其中很多没有腿,但那不是被炸掉的,而是苏联红军想要德军的靴子,但不用火烤脱不下来。在被包围的列宁格勒外,战地医院中被截下来的腿被人偷走,尸体被人争相从乱葬岗中挖出来果腹。在列宁格勒,有2000人因吃人而被捕。受害者大多是被父母吃掉的小孩。 The cruelties perpetrated by the Japanese against civilians in China (Mr Beevor sees the Sino-Japanese conflict that began with the Nanking massacre in 1937 as the true opening chapter of the second world war) and any of the countries unfortunate enough to come within the “Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere” were nearly as systematic as any of the crimes committed by the Nazis. Japanese commanders actively encouraged the dehumanisation of their troops in the belief it would make them more formidable. Prisoners were burned on huge pyres in their thousands and killing local people for meat was officially sanctioned.日军在中国(安东尼·比弗视1937年南京大屠杀后开始的中日军事冲突为第二次世界大战的真正开端)以及其他不幸被他们纳入所谓“大东亚共荣圈”的国家对无辜平民犯下的暴行与德国纳粹的行径一样是有组织有系统的战争罪行。日军的司令积极鼓励士兵采取灭绝人性的行动,相信这样会使士兵更加勇猛。数千战俘在大柴堆上被烧死,杀死本地人取其肉为食的行为也得到日本军方的认可。Mr Beevor also gives more attention than Mr Hastings to the appalling acts of violence suffered by women when invading armies arrived. Again, it was the Japanese who set about mass-rape with methodical zeal. Hundreds of thousands of Chinese and Korean girls were press-ganged into becoming “comfort women”; 10,000 women were gang-raped after the fall of Hong Kong. But revenge-fuelled Red Army soldiers were little better. Soviet forces looting and pillaging their way through East Prussia on their way to Berlin raped around 2m women and girls.同样,安东尼·比弗也比马克斯·哈斯丁更关注妇女在侵略军到来时所遭受的残忍对待。日军还犯下了有组织有计划的大规模强奸妇女的罪行。数十万的中国和韩国女孩被强征为“慰安妇”;香港沦陷后有一万名妇女被轮奸。不过,为报仇而来的苏联红军也没好到哪去。苏联军队穿过东普鲁士前往柏林时,一路抢掠,还强奸了近两百万名妇女。 This is, however, a less satisfying book than Mr Beevor’s earlier, more focused works. There is an unevenness of quality. The author has a tremendous grasp of the things he has written about before, in particular the titanic struggle between Hitler and Stalin. But he is dutiful rather than exhilarating when dealing with some other passages and theatres of the war. The account of the campaign in north Africa plods, and American ers may be disappointed by his handling of the war in the Pacific. The battle of Midway, arguably the defining naval engagement between Japan and America, gets two pages. At other times, there is too much detail: a succession of generals, armies and battles come and go. Second world war anoraks and students of military history will get more of what they are looking for from Mr Beevor, but less committed ers will find Mr Hastings’s work easier to get to grips with and a better . Is there room for both books? Absolutely.不过这本书并不如安东尼·比弗之前的那些内容更为集中的著作,这本书的内容质量参差不齐。安东尼·比弗对他以前所写的主题钻研得十分透彻,尤其是希特勒和斯大林之间的剧烈争斗。不过在处理一些其他章节和战区时,他只是尽了提到的责任,并没有写得出。他描写北非战役的笔墨十分沉重,而美国读者可能会他所写的太平洋战争感到失望。被公认为日美两国战事转捩点的中途岛战役只占了两页的篇幅,一些其他内容的细节却太多:一连串的将领、军队和战役如走马灯似地出现。二战发烧友和学军事史的学生会在安东尼·比弗的书中找到更多他们想要的东西,但没那么狂热的读者会觉得马克斯·哈斯丁的书更容易理解,读起来更舒。能不能两本一起看?当然没问题。201207/189979哈尔滨省医院做孕检多少钱

哈尔滨二四二医院能做人流吗According to the Maya calendar, the world is expected to end on December 21st, 2012. Whether by natrual disaster, nuclear fallout or some other doomsday event. One southern Californian man is keeping the deadline in mind with hopes of providing a solution. Entrepreneur Robert Vicino is building and selling spaces in underground shelters across the country. He is the visionary behind the $ 200 million project called VIVOS with the goal to retrofit or build as many as 20 bunkers around the US, ahead of any catastrophic event that may threaten life as we know it.无论是自然灾害,核泄漏,还是其他灾害,根据玛雅太阳历的记载,2012年12月21日将是世界末日。不管怎样,一加利福尼亚州男子将这个日子记在了心头,并且期望在这个日子来临前能够提供解出决方案。公司创建人Robert Vicino正在全国范围内建造并销售地下庇护所。他是这个名为VIVOS,预计耗资2亿美元计划的梦想家,以在重大灾害前建立并改装尽可能多的避难所为己任。;The Maya calendar just happens to be the perfect time and there is a lot of awareness we havent on there on our websites. Kind of a metaphor for, for, hey, if you believe, here is the number of days. But you know, who is to say when its gonna happen? It could happen tomorrow. You know, whatever the reason that you may need a shelter like this can happen any time.;“网上已经有相关灾难灭亡的流言,玛雅太阳历只是给了我们一个准确的日期。就像是一种暗喻:如果你相信,那么就是那一天了。但是,你要知道,谁会真的去说世界末日就是那天呢?也许世界末日就是明天。不管是什么灾难,我们只是去准备避难所以备不时之需。”Vicino denies that he is promoting a doomsday scenario in order to move his product and increase the number of units sold. He says there are plenty of other forces in play they creating a concern for many who feel that the end of the world may happen in their lifetime.Vicino拒绝因为末日说而改变产品或增加生产量。他表示,媒体的宣传给大众造成了很大影响,民众害怕在有生之年经历世界末日。;So we are just providing a solution. We are not fanning the flames of fear. The media is aly doing a good enough job of that for us and Mother Nature, and perhaps the Al-Qaeda. We are just providing a solution. Thats all we are.;“因此我们只是提供一个解决方案。我们并不是在添油加醋,媒体宣传得已经够多了,庇护所,自然灾害,还有基地组织。我们只是提供一个解决方案,只是这样。”Several including the one located in the Mojave Desert 170 miles from Los Angeles are former power stations with walls ladder 3-feet thick. Vicino emphasizes there are disarter-proof durability.包括距洛杉矶170英里的莫哈韦沙漠在内的几个地方被认为是抗灾效果最好的场所,莫哈韦沙漠废弃的发电厂,有3英尺厚的墙体。;We are nuclear blasts resistant, we are biological and chemical proof, we are waterproof, we are earthquake proof to several force 10 earthquakes on the Richter scale. In fact, this entire facility can be shoved through the earth, sideways, 30 feet and it will not hurt the facility.;“这里防核辐射,防生物化学药剂的侵蚀,防水,抗地震,甚至能抗击10里氏地震。事实上,这整个庇护所可以移动30英尺都不会破损。”The underground cities will all be located within 150-200 miles of major cities on high ground. Each one will be fully equipped to meet the needs of its inhabitants for up to 1 year. Vicino says hes aly recieving 50-100 applications a day fielding international calls from a variety of interest parties.这些地下小城都将被建造在主要城市地下50到100英里的地下。每一座地下城市都将能容纳地上居民长达一年之久。Vicino表示他每天都天能收到50到100个各地的申请电话。In Los Angeles, I am John Russell for Reuters.路透社消息,John Russell洛杉矶报道。retrofit 改装,对…翻新改进metaphor 暗喻fan the flame 火上加油,使局势更趋紧张,煽动情绪注:本篇文章英文来自普特论坛,译文属原创,,。201207/191278 哈尔滨宫颈糜烂要多少钱才能治好黑龙江省哈尔滨三院官方网站



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