明星资讯腾讯娱乐2018年10月19日 03:03:11
TED演讲集 那些匪夷所思的新奇思想201610/470017Imagine you take two dogs and put them in two different areas...设想一下,把两只小放在两个不同的地方…You shock the first dog and you give him an option to escape.电击第一只小,让它可以选择逃跑。He tries to escape, hes successful, and he gets away from the shocks.它尝试并成功逃离了电击。The second dog however, you put in a place where no matter what he does, he cannot escape the shocks.然而第二只小,把它放在一个无论做什么都无法逃脱的地方。He soon figures out that theres nothing he can do, he gives up, and hell just sit there and accept the shocks.它很快就发现什么也做不了,于是放弃了,坐在那默默承受。Now you take these two dogs and put them in two new areas again, but this time they can both escape.现在把它们放在两个新地方,但这次它们都可以逃走。The first dog, who had learned that he was able to escape, will get out of there like usual.第一只已经学会逃跑的小,会像往常一样逃离那里。But the second dog will just lay there and accept the shocks, even though in this new environment he could just escape.但是第二只小就只会趴那继续承受,尽管这次它可以逃跑。This is what is known as learned helplessness, and you probably know people who act like the helpless dog.这就是习得无助,你可能知道有些人的行为很像那只无助的小。The opposite of this is learned optimism.与之相反的是习得乐观。Learned Optimism is basically the idea that you can learn to be optimistic, and positive, and happy.习得乐观基本的就是你可以学会乐观,积极和高兴。You can cultivate these things.你可以培养这些心态。And this is exactly what Seligman was trying to do, by running a workshop.塞利格曼通过运行工作组来尝试这种培养。The results of the workshop were promising...结果很有前景。Thirty-two percent of the students in the control group had a moderate to控制组中32%的学生有中度severe episode of depression in contrast to 22 percent of the group that was in the workshop.到重度的抑郁症状,对比来看,工作组中的比例占有22%。Also... 15 percent of the controls had an episode of generalized anxiety disorder而且…控制组中15%的学生有广泛性焦虑症的症状versus only 7 percent of people who took the workshop.工作组中的这部分比例只有7%。They also found that it was the change from pessimism to optimism that caused the prevention of depression and anxiety.他们还发现从悲观到乐观的转变,阻止了抑郁和焦虑的发展。And these studies are great, but even when I look at my own life, happiness, positivity, optimism...这些研究很棒,但即使当我审视自己生活的时候,高兴,积极,乐观…These are the things that Ive had to learn and that I have to keep cultivating.这些是我不得不学习并一直在培养的东西。When I was a kid, I hated my life. I was constantly depressed and anxious.当我还是个孩子的时候,我讨厌生活。一直很沮丧和焦虑。I had suicidal thoughts for the majority of my childhood.我童年的大部分时间里都有自杀的想法。But thats all gone now and my life just keeps getting better, but this is something that you need to put effort into.但现在那些都消失了,我的生活也越来越好,但是这是一件值得你为之努力的事情。This is something that can be learned. So now lets look at the benefits of optimism...这也是值得学习的。所以我们来看一下乐观的好处…Optimists on average achieve more, have better overall health, and just lead a more enjoyable life.通常来说乐观者会获得更多,身体更健康,生活更愉悦。Pessimists, on the other hand, are more likely to give up, are more likely to suffer from depression,另一方面,悲观者更有可能放弃,也更容易沮丧,and just lead a not really enjoyable life.所以生活也不是那么愉悦。And the big difference between pessimists and optimists悲观者和乐观者的最大差距comes from their explanatory styles about whether things are permanent, pervasive, and personal...在于他们对于事物永久性,普遍性以及个体性的归因方式…So lets say you walk up to a girl, and you just get humiliated and rejected...比如你靠近一个女孩,受到了羞辱还被拒绝了…If youre a pessimist youll think that its permanent: Ill never be able to attract a girl.如果你是个悲观者,你就会认为那是永久的:我从来都不能吸引女生。If youre an optimist, youll think that it isnt permanent: There are going to be plenty of girls who like me.如果你是个乐观者,你会想那不是永久的:以后会有很多女生喜欢我的。If youre a pessimist youll think that its pervasive: Im just not an interesting person.如果你是个悲观者,你会认为那是个普遍现象:我是个很无聊的人。If youre an optimist, youll think that it isnt pervasive:如果你是个乐观者,你会想那不是普遍的:It was just one isolated situation. It doesnt mean that Im not interesting.只是个例罢了。并不意味着我很无趣。If youre a pessimist youll think that its personal: Im ugly. Of course shes going to humiliate me.如果你是个悲观者,你会认为那是个人原因:我很丑。她当然会羞辱我。If youre an optimist, youll think that it isnt personal: Well, she might have been in a bad mood...如果你是个乐观者,你会觉得那不是个人原因:可能是她的心情不好…And Ive seen this so many times. If you have a pessimistic explanatory style, youre going to have your soul crushed.我见过很多次这种情况。如果你用悲观的归因方式,你的灵魂会受到创伤。Every single friend Ive had who was good with women always had an optimistic explanatory style.我认识的每一个和女性相处很好的朋友都具有乐观的归因方式。So optimism is much more helpful to you than pessimism but you also NEED BALANCE,所以乐观主义比悲观主义对你的帮助要大,但是你也需要平衡二者,Just like with everything else, YOU NEED BALANCE…和其他事物一样,你需要平衡…Otherwise, you can get really delusional and actually end up hurting yourself.否则,你会变得妄想,而且会伤害到自己。Imagine if you have a really bad business idea and youre just a naive optimist…想象一下如果你有一个非常差劲的生意点子,你只是一个幼稚的乐观主义者…The business isnt going anywhere and you say, ;Well, this isnt permanent...;生意发展并不好,你说,“这种情况不会持续很久的…”And you keep wasting resources on a stupid idea.然后你继续在这个糟糕的点子上浪费资源。Youve put in six months aly and it hasnt gone anywhere and you say,你已经投入了六个月的时间,依然没有进展,你说,;Well, its just this part of the project thats slow, but the project as a whole is amazing.;“嗯,只是项目的这一部分进展比较慢,但是从整体上来看这个项目还是不错的。”Or you try to get support and no one wants to go along with your terrible idea and you say,或者是,你想获得持,但没人愿意附和你那个糟糕的想法,你会说,;Well, they were probably just in a bad mood today.;“可能他们只是今天心情不好吧。”I dont know if I would call this person an optimist or just an idiot.我真不知道是应该把他称之为乐观主义者呢,还是笨蛋。The biggest problem with optimism is when its not balanced,乐观主义最大的问题就是在它没有得到平衡的时候,because you might end up not taking responsibility when you need to.因为你可能最终没有承担应有的责任。So I would absolutely recommend being optimistic but at the same time balancing it out with pessimism,所以我肯定还是建议要保持乐观理念,但是同时要维护好它和悲观主义的平衡,or not even pessimism in my opinion, but just simply realism.或者是在我看来不叫悲观主义,可以简单理解为现实主义。201706/515716

The king was crowned at Westminster on the 23rd April, 1661.国王于1661年4月23日在威斯敏斯特加冕His reign was backdated to the day after his father had been beheaded.他的统治被追溯到 他父亲上断头台的第二天But even before the king was crowned,甚至在他加冕前there were those with long memories looking for revenge.这些不忘前嫌的保皇派已经在伺机报复On January 30th, 1661,exactly 12 years after Charles Is severed head dropped into the straw,1661年1月30日 准确来说 是在查理一世人头落地十二年后the remains of Cromwell and the regicides were dragged from their tombs克伦威尔及其他弑君者的遗体 被保皇派从棺中拖出and hanged from the gallows at Tyburn before being buried in a deep pit.于泰伯恩行刑场处以绞刑 之后被埋于深坑之中Over the next months, eleven other king-killers were hanged, drawn and quartered.随后数月 相继有11名弑君者 被处以绞刑 剖腹或分尸The old Cromwellians watched all this in tactful, furtive silence.曾经的克伦威尔追随者 则悄无声息的注视着事态发展They wondered just how reasonable this new regime might actually be.他们倒要看看 这种新政权怎能存活Killing the killjoys, though, Charles knew,would not damage his popularity.不过查理明白 除掉几个道学先生 不会影响民众持度Given a free vote,the people would, especially after the Major Generals,vote for pleasure over piety.如果让民众自己选择 他们肯定会摒弃之前将军们所谓的;道义; 选择欢乐 而非虔诚 /201704/504178

  Halloween is on Monday and we still have Youtube周一的万圣节 我们的节目照常在油管上播出which means its time once again and tell your kids you ate all their Halloween candy.也就是说 又是一年一度 你要告诉你的孩子 你吃光了他们所有的糖果啦Everywhere you go, especially last couple weekends无论你去哪里 特别是近几周people ask me if youre gonna do it again.总有人会问我 会不会再录制一波节目And they answers yeah we are gonna do this然后他们说 是啊 我们还会在录制一波节目嗒Every year until they stop the kids finally figure out, but每年他们都欺骗自己的孩子 直到他们最后找到了糖果if you have kids and it isnt hard to do, in fact that its very easy you can do it at home.如果你有小孩 这一点都不难做到 很简单 你在家里就能实现No, my candy, hes gone. Where did it go? Mum and dad ate it不 我的糖 他不见了 他去哪里了 爸爸妈妈吃掉了I ate it. I ate it all and ate all your candy, i ate it. Or you can do it in a car.我吃掉了 我全吃了 我吃完了你所有的糖 或者 你在车里也可以啊I got really really hungry and ate all your Halloween candy在你上学的时候我特别特别的饿when you were at school How? What do you mean how? I ate it?所以我吃完你所有的万圣节糖果 怎么吃的 什么叫怎么吃的 我就吃了呀I dont wanna see you ever again. Go and get a jooob!我再也不想见到你了 去 去找份工作吧Little Donald Trump, I m officially inviting you d take part in your sixth annual Halloween candy Youtube chanllenge.小川普一个 我正式邀请你来参加 第六届万圣节糖果之油管挑战赛Tell your kids you ate all their Halloween candy Not some of it, all of it.告诉孩子们 你吃光了他们的糖 不是吃了一点点 是全部都吃完了Record it, post it to Youtube with this录下来 发送到油管上title HEY JIMMY KIMMEL- I TOLD MY KIDS I ATE ALL THEIR HALLOWEEN CANDY贴上标签“嗨 JIMMY KIMMEL - 我跟孩子说 我吃完了他所有万圣节的糖果”Wont you post the keep an eye for message from us为啥不上传你的视频 用你的油管账号to your Youtube account or go through every or put the best ones on the show next week.和我们保持联系 或者你还可以查看所有视频 选出你希望下周播出哪一段Lets make this a Halloween in your kids will remember for ever and ever. All right, bye, thanks.让这个万圣节 永远的停留在孩子们的记忆中 好的 拜 多谢观看Do you love putting buttons in subscribing into things? Then click the button to subscribe my channel and youll finally be happy.你喜不喜欢点击按钮订阅东西呢 那就在我的频道下方点击订阅吧 你一定会获得快乐的201706/515305

  This car provides good protection and a few other welcome extras.这个车提供了良好的防护 以及其他一些额外东西Its antifreeze. Keep that, actually.Might be useful.这是防冻剂 当然要收好 可能有用Well try and get some of this seating foam out.尽量把一些 坐垫泡沫拿出来Car seats are usually filled with foam,which is an excellent form of insulation.汽车座位一般都填充有泡沫 这里是个绝佳的隔绝之地It can act as a makeshift bed.可以当做一个临时床板And thats all gonna be good to lie on.躺上去会很舒的And I reckon one layer on the bottom is worth two layers on top of you.我认为底下垫一层 比上面盖两层效果要好The body loses heat to the ground many times faster than into the air,身体向地面散热速率要远快于向空中so insulation beneath you is a key to keeping warm.所以底下的隔热层是保暖的关键Now for a fire,and this car contains everything I need to get one started.现在生火 这辆车有生火的所需的全部用具Okay.Got that. Then we need to get one of these headlights out.好的 明白了 接下来 卸下一盏车灯With a headlight and a battery,I can make an improvised fire-starter.利用车灯和电池 我可以制作一个临时打火机What I want is actually the little bulb.Here you go -- inside it.其实我想要的是这盏小灯泡 就是这个 在里面The exposed filament will act as an electric lighter.暴露的灯丝将会起到电打火机的作用There you go. Thats a bulb with still the filament in it.就是这个 灯泡里面灯丝完整Channeling all the batterys power will cause this filament to overheat and burn out.导通电池的全部电量 会使灯丝过热燃烧201610/469301。

  Im here to tell you about the real search for alien life.我想告诉你们一些针对外星生命所展开的真实的探索行动。Not little green humanoids arriving in shiny UFOs, although that would be nice.不过不是那些通过UFO抵达这里的绿色小人儿,当然这样很不错。But its the search for planets orbiting stars far away.而是关于寻找外太空围绕恒星运行的行星。Every star in our sky is a sun.我们天空中的每一颗恒星都是太阳。And if our sun has planets -- Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, etc.,如果说太阳有围绕它的行星--水星,金星,地球,火星,等等,surely those other stars should have planets also, and they do.当然其他的恒星周围也应该有行星,而且它们的确有。And in the last two decades, astronomers have found thousands of exoplanets.在过去的20多年中,天文学家已经找到了数千个系外行星。Our night sky is literally teeming with exoplanets.我们的夜空的确遍布着系外行星。We know, statistically speaking, that every star has at least one planet.从统计学的角度来说,我们知道每一个恒星都拥有至少一颗行星。And in the search for planets, and in the future, planets that might be like Earth,在搜索行星的过程中,在未来搜索像地球这样的行星,were able to help address some of the most amazing and mysterious questions that have faced humankind for centuries.可以帮助我们回答一些最不可思议又充满神秘的问题,这些问题已经困扰了全人类几个世纪。Why are we here? Why does our universe exist? How did Earth form and evolve?我们为什么会存在?为什么我们的宇宙会存在?地球是如何形成和演化的?How and why did life originate and populate our planet?生命如何以及为什么会诞生并在这个星球上繁衍?The second question that we often think about is: Are we alone?我们经常思考的第二个问题是:我们是唯一存在的生命吗?Is there life out there? Who is out there?外太空中还有其他生命吗?其他生命是什么样子呢?You know, this question has been around for thousands of years, since at least the time of the Greek philosophers.这个问题已经存在了几千年,至少在古希腊哲学家的时代就已经存在了。But Im here to tell you just how close were getting to finding out the answer to this question.但是我今天想要告诉你们,我们已经非常接近这个问题的了。Its the first time in human history that this really is within reach for us.这是人类历史上第一次对这个触手可及。Now when I think about the possibilities for life out there, I think of the fact that our sun is but one of many stars.当我想到外太空存在生命的可能性,我就想到了我们的太阳只是若干恒星中的一颗。This is a photograph of a real galaxy, we think our Milky Way looks like this galaxy.这是一个真实的星系的照片,我们认为我们的系差不多就是这一个样子。Its a collection of bound stars.其中聚集了很多彼此紧密联系的恒星。But our is one of hundreds of billions of stars and our galaxy is one of upwards of hundreds of billions of galaxies.但我们的太阳只是千亿颗恒星中的一颗,我们的系也是千亿个星系中的一个。Knowing that small planets are very common, you can just do the math.小行星更是不计其数,可以做一下粗略的计算。And there are just so many stars and so many planets out there, that surely, there must be life somewhere out there.宇宙中的星球真的是太多太多了,一定还会有其他生命存在。Well, the biologists get furious with me for saying that, because we have absolutely no evidence for life beyond Earth yet.不过生物学家们极其不赞同这种说法,因为我们毕竟还没有任何相关的据。Well, if we were able to look at our galaxy from the outside and zoom in to where our sun is, we see a real map of the stars.假设能够从外太空观测我们所在的星系,并聚焦到太阳,我们就会看到一幅恒星的分布图。And the highlighted stars are those with known exoplanets. This is really just the tip of the iceberg.那些被突出标注的恒星都有已知的系外行星。这张图展现的仅仅是冰山一角而已。Here, this animation is zooming in onto our solar system.这个动画突出展示了我们的太阳系。And youll see here the planets as well as some spacecraft that are also orbiting our sun.你们可以看到一些行星和宇宙飞船,它们都在围绕着我们的太阳运行。Now if we can imagine going to the West Coast of North America,假设我们在北美洲的西海岸仰望夜空,and looking out at the night sky, heres what wed see on a spring night.这就是我们在一个春季的夜晚能够看到的景象。And you can see the constellations overlaid and again, so many stars with planets.你们可以看到星座的交替,还有很多带有行星的恒星。Theres a special patch of the sky where we have thousands of planets.天空里有一个区域密布着数千颗行星。This is where the Kepler Space Telescope focused for many years.开普勒太空望远镜在这里聚焦了很多年。Lets zoom in and look at one of the favorite exoplanets.我们再继续放大,看一下其中一个比较有名的系外行星。This star is called Kepler-186f. Its a system of about five planets.这颗行星叫开普勒-186f。这个系统中有大约5个行星。And by the way, most of these exoplanets, we dont know too much about.这里要提一下,这其中大多数的系外行星我们都不太了解。We know their size, and their orbit and things like that.我们只知道它们的大小,轨道之类的信息。But theres a very special planet here called Kepler-186f.不过开普勒-186f非常特殊。This planet is in a zone that is not too far from the star, so that the temperature may be just right for life.它处在一个距离恒星并不太远的区域内,这就意味着那里的温度可能非常适宜物种生存。Here, the artists conception is just zooming in and showing you what that planet might be like.这里我们强化了艺术效果,想要给大家展示一下这个行星可能的形貌。So, many people have this romantic notion of astronomers going to the telescope on a lonely mountaintop或许很多人都会带着一种浪漫的想象,觉得天文学家们都是在孤寂的山顶,and looking at the spectacular night sky through a big telescope.通过巨大的望远镜来观察绚丽多的夜空的。But actually, we just work on our computers like everyone else,不过事实上,我们只是在计算机上操作,跟其他人没什么两样,and we get our data by email or downloading from a database.我们通过邮件或者数据库下载数据。So instead of coming here to tell you about the somewhat tedious nature of the data and data analysis所以,与其说我是来告诉大家数据本身和数据分析有多么枯燥,and the complex computer models we make,我们的计算机模型有多么复杂,I have a different way to try to explain to you some of the things that were thinking about exoplanets.不如说我想以一种不同的方式给大家展示我们对系外行星的一些看法和思考。Heres a travel poster: ;Kepler-186f: Where the grass is always redder on the other side.;这里有一张旅行海报:“开普勒-186f:一边的草总是比另一边更红。”Thats because Kepler-186f orbits a red star, and were just speculating that perhaps the plants there,这是因为开普勒-186f围绕着一颗红色的恒星运行,我们只是猜测那上面的植物,if there is vegetation that does photosynthesis, it has different pigments and looks red.假设有可以进行光合作用的植物,那些植物就会含有不同的色素,让它们看起来是红色。;Enjoy the gravity on HD 40307g, a Super-Earth.;“享受HD 40307g上面的重力吧,这里是超级地球。”This planet is more massive than Earth and has a higher surface gravity.这颗行星比地球的质量要大,拥有更大的表面重力。;Relax on Kepler-16b, where your shadow always has company.;“来开普勒-16b上放松一下吧,你的影子永远不会孤单。”We know of a dozen planets that orbit two stars, and theres likely many more out there.据我们所知,有数十个行星都是围绕着两颗恒星运行,估计还会有更多。If we could visit one of those planets, you literally would see two sunsets and have two shadows.如果我们可以探访其中一颗行星,你确实可以看到两次日落,并同时形成两个影子。So actually, science fiction got some things right. Tatooine from Star Wars.事实上,科幻小说中的一些描述是正确的。比如《星球大战》中的塔图因。And I have a couple of other favorite exoplanets to tell you about.还有一些其他的系外星球,我也想给大家介绍一下。This one is Kepler-10b, its a hot, hot planet.这个叫做开普勒-10b,它的温度极高。It orbits over 50 times closer to its star than our Earth does to our sun.它的运行轨道距离其围绕的恒星只有地球和太阳距离的五十分之一。And actually, its so hot, we cant visit any of these planets, but if we could, we would melt long before we got there.正是因为它的温度太高,我们无法探访任何这样的行星,即便我们试图接近它,在到达那里之前也早就熔化了。We think the surface is hot enough to melt rock and has liquid lava lakes.我们认为它的地表温度足够熔化岩石,能够形成液态的岩浆湖。Gliese 1214b. This planet, we know the mass and the size and it has a fairly low density. Its somewhat warm.格利泽1214b。我们已经知道了这颗行星的质量和体积,它的密度比较低,温度也不算太高。We actually dont know really anything about this planet, but one possibility is that its a water world,但我们对它的了解也仅限于此,不过它上面可能有水存在,like a scaled-up version of one of Jupiters icy moons that might be 50 percent water by mass.有点像木星的一颗放大版的遍布冰雪的卫星,其水含量可能占据了质量的50%。And in this case, it would have a thick steam atmosphere overlaying an ocean,在这种情况下,它就有可能覆盖了一层很厚的蒸汽大气层,就在海洋的上空,not of liquid water, but of an exotic form of water, a superfluid -- not quite a gas, not quite a liquid.不过海里不是液态水,而是一种奇特状态的水,一种超流体--不算是气体,也不算是液体。And under that wouldnt be rock, but a form of high-pressure ice, like ice IX.其下遍布的也不是岩石,而是一种高压状态的冰,类似于冰IX。So out of all these planets out there, and the variety is just simply astonishing,除了这些多样性已经让我们感到惊讶的行星以外,we mostly want to find the planets that are Goldilocks planets, we call them.我们最想找到的是我们称作“古迪洛克行星”的星球。Not too big, not too small, not too hot, not too cold -- but just right for life.体积不大不小,温度不高不低--刚刚好适宜物种生存。But to do that, wed have to be able to look at the planets atmosphere,不过要做到这一点,我们需要能够检测到这个行星的大气层,because the atmosphere acts like a blanket trapping heat -- the greenhouse effect.因为大气层就像一块保温毯--具有温室效应。We have to be able to assess the greenhouse gases on other planets.我们需要监测到其他行星上的温室气体。Well, science fiction got some things wrong.从这一点来说,科幻小说就显得不那么真实了。The Star Trek Enterprise had to travel vast distances at incredible speeds to orbit other planets《进取号》 需要以极高速度旅行很长的距离到达其它行星并环绕飞行,so that First Officer Spock could analyze the atmosphere to see if the planet was habitable or if there were lifeforms there.这样史波克大副才能分析大气层的成分,从而判断该行星是否适宜居住,或者那上面是否有生命存活。Well, we dont need to travel at warp speeds to see other planet atmospheres,不过我们并不需要以极限高速行驶来获取其他行星上的大气数据,although I dont want to dissuade any budding engineers from figuring out how to do that.当然我并不想打击那些跃跃欲试想要实现这项工作的工程师们的积极性。We actually can and do study planet atmospheres from here, from Earth orbit.我们其实可以直接在地球的轨道范围内研究那些大气层。This is a picture, a photograph of the Hubble Space Telescope taken by the shuttle Atlantis这是一张由亚特兰蒂斯航天飞机拍摄的哈勃太空望远镜的照片,as it was departing after the last human space flight to Hubble.这架航天飞机出发时,最后一次前往哈勃的载人太空飞行已经完成。They installed a new camera, actually, that we use for exoplanet atmospheres.他们在飞机上安装了一个新的照相机,可以采集系外行星的大气数据。And so far, weve been able to study dozens of exoplanet atmospheres, about six of them in great detail.目前,我们已经能够研究数十个系外行星的大气层,其中有6个我们可以得到非常详细的数据。But those are not small planets like Earth. Theyre big, hot planets that are easy to see.不过那些都不是像地球这样的小行星。它们非常庞大,温度很高,很容易观测到。Were not y, we dont have the right technology yet to study small exoplanets.我们还没准备好,还不具备研究小型系外星球的技术。But nevertheless, I wanted to try to explain to you how we study exoplanet atmospheres.不过尽管如此,我还是想跟大家解释一下我们是 如何研究系外行星大气的。I want you to imagine, for a moment, a rainbow.大家可以想象一下虹。And if we could look at this rainbow closely, we would see that some dark lines are missing.如果我们可以近距离观察虹,就能发现一些暗色的线缺失了。And heres our sun, the white light of our sun split up, not by raindrops, but by a spectrograph.这是我们的太阳,白色的光被分解了,不是被雨滴,而是被光谱仪分解了。And you can see all these dark, vertical lines. Some are very narrow, some are wide, some are shaded at the edges.我们可以看到所有这些暗色的竖线。有的很窄,有的很宽,有的边缘很模糊。And this is actually how astronomers have studied objects in the heavens, literally, for over a century.这实际上就是过去的一个多世纪以来,宇航员们研究太空物质的方式。So here, each different atom and molecule has a special set of lines, a fingerprint, if you will.在这张图中,每种原子和分子都有一组特殊的谱线,你们可以把它当做一种指纹信息。And thats how we study exoplanet atmospheres.我们就是利用这些信息研究系外行星的大气成分的。And Ill just never forget when I started working on exoplanet atmospheres 20 years ago, how many people told me,我永远也忘不了在20年前刚刚开始研究系外行星大气的时候,多少人告诉我,;This will never happen. Well never be able to study them. Why are you bothering?;“这根本行不通。我们永远也不可能做到。干嘛白费功夫呢?”And thats why Im pleased to tell you about all the atmospheres studied now, and this is really a field of its own.这也是为什么我很高兴的告诉你们目前所有的关于大气的研究,已经完全自成体系了。So when it comes to other planets, other Earths, in the future when we can observe them,那么对于那些在将来我们可以观测到的其他行星,那些类地行星,what kind of gases would we be looking for?我们需要寻找哪些气体呢?Well, you know, our own Earth has oxygen in the atmosphere to 20 percent by volume. Thats a lot of oxygen.大家都知道,我们地球上的大气含有20%体积的氧气。这个含量是很高的。But without plants and photosynthetic life, there would be no oxygen, virtually no oxygen in our atmosphere.不过没有植物和其它光合生物,大气中就不会有氧气,事实上连一丁点儿都不会有。So oxygen is here because of life.所以氧气的出现是因为生命的存在。And our goal then is to look for gases in other planet atmospheres, gases that dont belong,所以我们的目标就是要找到其他行星的大气中原本并不应该存在的气体,that we might be able to attribute to life. But which molecules should we search for?或许可以归功于生命的存在。那么哪些分子是我们需要寻找的呢?I actually told you how diverse exoplanets are. We expect that to continue in the future when we find other Earths.我已经告诉过你们系外行星的种类有多么繁杂了。在我们寻找类地行星的过程中,一定还会有更多种类的外行星出现。And thats one of the main things Im working on now, I have a theory about this.这就是我目前正在从事的主要工作之一,对此我有一番自己的理论。It reminds me that nearly every day,这倒是提醒我了,几乎每天,I receive an email or emails from someone with a crazy theory about physics of gravity or cosmology or some such.我都会收到一封或者很多封电子邮件,发件人都对重力或者宇宙物理学提出了自己疯狂的理论。So, please dont email me one of your crazy theories.不过,在此还是想提醒大家,请不要再给我发这种邮件了。Well, I had my own crazy theory. But, who does the MIT professor go to?我有一套自己的疯狂理论。那么麻省理工的教授要跟谁探讨呢?Well, I emailed a Nobel Laureate in Physiology or Medicine and he said, ;Sure, come and talk to me.;我曾经给一名诺贝尔生理学或医学的获奖者发过邮件,他说,“听上去还不错,过来我们讨论一下吧。”So I brought my two biochemistry friends and we went to talk to him about our crazy theory.于是我就带上了两个生物化学领域的朋友,跟他介绍了一下我们的疯狂理论。And that theory was that life produces all small molecules, so many molecules.那个理论就是,生命制造了所有的小分子,不计其数的小分子。Like, everything I could think of, but not being a chemist.几乎是作为一个非化学领域专家,我能想到的所有分子。Think about it: carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, molecular hydrogen, molecular nitrogen, methane, methyl chloride -- so many gases.比方说:二氧化碳,一氧化碳,氢分子,氮分子,甲烷,氯甲烷--太多太多了。They also exist for other reasons, but just life even produces ozone.它们之所以存在也有很多其他的原因,不过单单是生命,甚至就可以产生臭氧。So we go to talk to him about this, and immediately, he shot down the theory. He found an example that didnt exist.于是我们去跟他讨论了这套观点,结果很快就被他否决了。他找到了一个并不存在的气体的例子。So, we went back to the drawing board and we think we have found something very interesting in another field.于是我们只好回去继续推导,我们认为我们已经找到了一些在其他领域中很有意思的东西。But back to exoplanets, the point is that life produces so many different types of gases, literally thousands of gases.回到系外行星这个话题,重点是生命制造了这么多种气体,差不多几千种。And so what were doing now is just trying to figure out on which types of exoplanets, which gases could be attributed to life.我们现在的任务就是试图找出哪些种类的系外行星上的哪些气体可能是由生命制造出来的。And so when it comes time when we find gases in exoplanet atmospheres所以当我们在系外行星的大气中找到了那些气体,that we wont know if theyre being produced by intelligent aliens or by trees,我们很难确定这些气体是怎么来的,是由外星人制造的,还是来自树木,or a swamp, or even just by simple, single-celled microbial life.或者沼泽地,或者仅仅是来源于简单的单细胞生物。So working on the models and thinking about biochemistry, its all well and good.所以建立一些模型,应用一些生物化学的知识,我们就会得到我们想要的。But a really big challenge ahead of us is: how? How are we going to find these planets?那么在实际过程中面临的最大挑战就是:要怎么做?要怎么找到这些行星?There are actually many ways to find planets, several different ways.其实可以通过很多方式来寻找,各种不同的方式。But the one that Im most focused on is how can we open a gateway so that in the future, we can find hundreds of Earths.不过我重点在研究的是要如何实现这样一个途径,在未来可以让我们找到数百个类地行星。We have a real shot at finding signs of life.我们事实上已经开始行动了。And actually, I just finished leading a two-year project in this very special phase of a concept we call the starshade.我刚刚完成了一个由我负责的两年项目,在这个特殊的项目中,我们提出了”遮星板“的概念。And the starshade is a very specially shaped screen and the goal is to fly that starshade遮星板是一个形状非常特殊的屏障,我们想要将它送入太空,遮挡恒星的光线,so it blocks out the light of a star so that the telescope can see the planets directly.这样就可以通过望远镜直接观测那些行星了。Here, you can see myself and two team members holding up one small part of the starshade.这张图上你们可以看到我和两名项目成员,正在展示遮星板的一块很小的局部。Its shaped like a giant flower, and this is one of the prototype petals.它的形状就像一个巨大的花朵,这是一片花瓣的雏形。The concept is that a starshade and telescope could launch together, with the petals unfurling from the stowed position.这个过程就是把遮星板和望远镜一同送入太空,遮星板的花瓣会从运载器上打开。The central truss would expand, with the petals snapping into place.中心的桁架会展开,花瓣也会迅速延展到位。Now, this has to be made very precisely, literally, the petals to microns and they have to deploy to millimeters.这个过程需要做到非常精准,也就是说花瓣的精度要达到微米级,定位的精准度要达到毫米级。And this whole structure would have to fly tens of thousands of kilometers away from the telescope.这一整个部件需要移动至距离望远镜数万公里的距离。Its about tens of meters in diameter.它的直径大概有几十米。And the goal is to block out the starlight to incredible precision so that wed be able to see the planets directly.它能够以难以置信的精度实现对恒星光线的遮挡,这样我们就能直接观测行星了。And it has to be a very special shape, because of the physics of defraction.它的形状必须十分特殊,这是由物理学中的衍射现象决定的。Now this is a real project that we worked on, literally, you would not believe how hard.这是我们从事的一项实际的项目,说真的,你们想象不出这有多难。Just so you believe its not just in movie format,为了明这并不只是一种假想,heres a real photograph of a second-generation starshade deployment test bed in the lab.给你们展示一个真实的照片,这是实验室中的第二代遮星板调试试验台。And in this case, I just wanted you to know that that central truss has heritage left over from large radio deployables in space.在这个项目中,我只是想让你们知道中心桁架装有太空大范围无线电部署的一部分。So after all of that hard work where we try to think of all the crazy gases that might be out there,那么,在这一系列我们试图寻找那些外行星中的神秘气体,and we build the very complicated space telescopes that might be out there, what are we going to find?以及建造了极其复杂的太空望远镜之类的艰难任务之后,我们会有什么收获呢?Well, in the best case, we will find an image of another exo-Earth. Here is Earth as a pale blue dot.最好的情况是,我们会获得另一个类地行星的图像。这张图上的地球是一个淡蓝色的小点。And this is actually a real photograph of Earth taken by the Voyager 1 spacecraft, four billion miles away.这是一张地球的真实照片,由旅行者1号航天飞机从40亿英里外的距离拍摄的。And that red light is just scattered light in the camera optics.那条红色的光线只是相机的 光学部件散射出的光。But whats so awesome to consider is that if there are intelligent aliens orbiting on a planet around a star near to us想象一下,如果存在着高智慧的外星生物,正绕着我们附近恒星的行星运转,and they build complicated space telescopes of the kind that were trying to build,它们搭建出了我们正在建造的复杂的太空望远镜,all theyll see is this pale blue dot, a pinprick of light.它们能看到的也仅仅是一个淡蓝色的小点,极其微小的光点,这该有多酷啊!And so sometimes, when I pause to think about my professional struggle and huge ambition,有时候,当我停下来思考我所面临的难题和我远大的理想,its hard to think about that in contrast to the vastness of the universe.这跟浩瀚的宇宙相比真的不算什么。But nonetheless, I am devoting the rest of my life to finding another Earth.不过尽管如此,我还是打算奉献我的一生来寻找另一个地球。And I can guarantee that in the next generation of space telescopes, in the second generation,而且我可以保,用下一代的太空望远镜,也就是第二代,we will have the capability to find and identity other Earths.我们将会有能力找到并识别出其他的类地行星。And the capability to split up the starlight so that we can look for gases我们也将能够分解恒星发出的光线,能够找到那些气体,and assess the greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, estimate the surface temperature, and look for signs of life.获得那些大气中的温室气体成分信息,估算星球表面的温度,并寻找生命的迹象。But theres more. In this case of searching for other planets like Earth,不过我们还有更长远的打算。在寻找其他类地行星的同时,we are making a new kind of map of the nearby stars and of the planets orbiting them, including that actually might be inhabitable by humans.我们还在制作一幅展示附近恒星及其行星的新太空地图,包括有可能适宜人类居住的行星。And so I envision that our descendants, hundreds of years from now, will embark on an interstellar journey to other worlds.我能够想像我们的后代,在几百年之后,能够通过星际旅行到达其他的星球。And they will look back at all of us as the generation who first found the Earth-like worlds. Thank you.他们能够回首我们这一代,第一个发现类地新世界的一代。谢谢大家。And I give you, for a question, Rosetta Mission Manager Fred Jansen.你先来提问吧,有请罗塞塔任务的负责人,Fred Jansen。You mentioned halfway through that the technology to actually look at the spectrum of an exoplanet like Earth is not there yet.你部分提到了可以分析类地行星光谱的技术还尚未实现。When do you expect this will be there, and whats needed?你认为什么时候可以实现,要如何实现呢?Actually, what we expect is what we call our next-generation Hubble telescope.事实上,我们打算依靠下一代的哈勃望远镜。And this is called the James Webb Space Telescope, and that will launch in 2018,我们叫它詹姆斯·韦伯太空望远镜,会在2018年把它送上太空,and thats what were going to do, were going to look at a special kind of planet called transient exoplanets,整个计划大概是这样的,我们会观测一种特殊的行星,叫做过渡系外行星,and that will be our first shot at studying small planets for gases that might indicate the planet is habitable.那将是我们研究小行星上可能预示着生命迹象的气体的第一次尝试。Im going to ask you one follow-up question, too, Sara, as the generalist.莎拉,我还有个大众一点的问题要问一下你。So I am really struck by the notion in your career of the opposition you faced,我真的对你的职业生涯中所面临的反对声音感到很震惊,that when you began thinking about exoplanets,也就是当你开始思考系外行星,there was extreme skepticism in the scientific community that they existed, and you proved them wrong.科学领域对它们是否存在持有极端怀疑的态度,你明了他们是错的。What did it take to take that on?你是如何承受这些的呢?Well, the thing is that as scientists, were supposed to be skeptical,作为科学家,我们理应持怀疑态度,because our job to make sure that what the other person is saying actually makes sense or not.因为我们的工作就是要确认其他人的观点是否是合理的。But being a scientist, I think youve seen it from this session, its like being an explorer.但是作为一名科学家,我觉得你们可能已经在这段演讲中看到,我的职责更像是探索者。You have this immense curiosity, this stubbornness, this sort of resolute will that you will go forward no matter what other people say.这需要极大的好奇心,固执,还需要坚定不移的意志,无论其他人说什么,都不能动摇。I love that. Thank you, Sara.说的太好了。非常感谢你,莎拉。201706/513809

  My name is Ian Karmel, which is ridiculous我叫伊恩卡梅尔,名字和本人有出入,because I am a 6 foot 3, 300-pound Jewish man and my name sounds like a whimsical British candy store.我身高6.3英寸,体重300磅,是犹太人。伊恩卡梅尔听起来像一个英国糖果店,很奇怪。This should not be Ian Karmel.不应该叫伊恩卡梅尔。My name should be like Schlomo Pudding Tits. Or it should just be ham hock, one word.我的名字最好像施罗布丁山雀,或者就是火腿。Just ham hock and my entire comedy act would be me saying better put some butter on it and then just leave.因为火腿需要黄油,我的戏剧表演需要奉承话,然后离开。If you like the name Ian doesnt fit me at all.是不是觉得伊恩这个名字不太适合我When your name is Ian, you get invited for art walks or stuff like that.叫伊恩的话,就会受邀被参加艺术漫步。I dont ever want to go to an art walk. I dont like either of those things.我不想参加。一点也不喜欢。Its too late for me to change my name though which is too bad. I wish I could.现在改名字,太晚了,虽然这个名字不怎样。Because my middle name fits me perfectly. My middle name is perfect for me.我中间名很适合我。特别符合我的气质。My middle name is George.我的中间名是乔治。Look at me right now. Look at this perfect George standing in front of you.看看此刻的我。看看这个站在你们面前的完美的乔治吧。George is the kind of person who eats chicken wings like a hostage trying to open the door handle with his mouth.乔治吃鸡翅的方式,就像用嘴打开门把手的人质,他就是这样一个人。Its hard looking like this when you live in Los Angeles.当你住在洛杉矶时,你很难看到这样的场景。There are people here in Los Angeles who I see every day我每天都能在洛杉矶看到一些很美的人,who are so beautiful that I cant believe were the same species of animal. You know what I mean?她们美到我都不敢相信我们是同一种生物。你们懂我吗?You know what I mean, Ryan Gosling is just a person who lives in Los Angeles.你们懂我吗?瑞恩高斯林就是一个这样居住在洛杉矶且漂亮的人。Thats not fair. Thats not fair at all. I hate that.这美的不公平呀。一点儿也不公平。我不喜欢那个。When Ryan Gosling and I were babies, we looked the same, by the way. We looked the same.对了,当瑞恩高斯林和我一样都是婴儿的时候,我们看起来没什么两样。I messed up bad. I messed up. Yeah.我长残了。我长残了呀。哎。And look, Im fine with how I look.你看,我对我的长相还挺满意的吧,Im fine with how I look but the fact is I look more like a giant panda than I look like Ryan Gosling.但与其说我看起来像瑞恩高斯林,你还不如说我看起来像一个大熊猫。I do. Im happy with how I look.我对我的长相挺满意的。But if you saw me, Ryan Gosling and an actual giant panda all hanging out together,但如果你看到了我,瑞恩高斯林和一个实际的大熊猫挂在了一起,you would be like, oh, my god, Ryan Gosling bought two giant pandas.你会想,哦,天啊,瑞恩高斯林买了两只大熊猫。Hes doing well. Hes doing well.他做得很好。是的吧。He shouldnt let that one eat Subway. Thats not what they eat.他不该让那个人吃赛百味。这不是他们该吃的东西。Im trying to something about that. Im trying to lose a little bit of weight.我想做些事,我想减减肥。I want to get down to Hollywood fat, you know what I mean?我想变成好莱坞式的肥胖,你们懂我吗?Right now Im like Iowa fat.现在我像爱荷华式的肥胖吧。I want to get Hollywood fat so I can play the fat best friend in a romantic comedy, right?我想变成好莱坞式的肥胖,这样我就可以以一个胖朋友的身份出演一个浪漫的喜剧,对不对?I dont want to be the lead, I dont even be the lead but I want to be like the fat best friend.我不想当主演,我也当不了,但我想成为那个胖朋友。I want to act in the wedding at the end of the movie wearing a blue tuxedo, like dancing with the chimpanzee我只是想在电影的尾声穿着一件蓝色色的燕尾,和一只大猩猩跳舞。You did it Brandon. You won her back in a twirl!你做到了,布兰登。你带着她旋转。Im trying to get down there. Its hard. When you live in L.A. what youre supposed to do is go hiking我试着做到。但是很难。当你住在L.A.时,如果你想减肥,你应该去远足,if you want to lose weight because its terrible news for me because I hate the outdoors. I hate them.但这对我来说是个可怕的消息,因为我讨厌户外活动。我很讨厌I hate the outdoors. Im not good at the outdoors and I hate the outdoors. I hate it.我讨厌户外活动。因为我不擅长户外活动,所以我讨厌户外活动。真得讨厌Like if you told me I had 24 hours to build a campfire and if I didnt you were going to murder me.就像你告诉我,我需要24小时搭起个篝火,如果我没做到,你就会杀了我。I would just try to have a really fun last 24 hours.我会有一个美好的一天。Thats it. Itd be like 24 hours. All right. Were gonna a party bus. Theres pizza on the party bus.不错,24小时。我们在派对车上,车上有比萨。Were going to take it to the water park. You can murder me at the water park.我们要把它带到水上公园。你可以在水上公园杀了我。I just really hate the outdoors. When I was in my early 20s, I would wake up after a long night of drinking in a panic with a bunch of questions.我真的很讨厌户外拓展。我20岁以前的时候,有一次度过了一个漫长的夜晚,那晚我喝的不省人事,醒来的时候脑子里一连串问题Remember that you wake up like oh, my god, what happened last night?记得你醒来的时候,哦,天哪,昨晚发生了什么?Whose blood is this? Why am I wearing fingernail polish? What am I gonna do?这是谁的血?我怎么涂了指甲油?Now Im 30 years old. Now I wake up after a long night of drinking, I wake up like oh my god, I hope I didnt agree to go camping last night.现在,我30岁了。酒醒后,哦,天哪,希望我昨晚没来露营过。I cant hike. But Im trying to do something about it, Im trying to lose a little bit of weight.我不能露营。但我想做点什么,我想减肥。So Ive got a personal trainer and Ive got a nutritionist. Thats what I did.我有一个私人教练和一个营养师。Its been great. The nutritionist I learned so much from. Like get rid of the bad.效果不错,我从那位营养师那里学到了很多。改掉了一些坏习惯The first thing I learned...The first thing I learned from the nutritionist is that a taco salad is not a salad at all.我学到的第一件事就是,墨西哥是沙拉根本就不是沙拉。Not even a little bit. Its just a gigantic taco. Thats all it is.一点也称不上。这只是一个巨大的玉米面。就这样。And then the next thing I learned is that an ice cream salad.然后接下来我学到的是冰淇淋沙拉。It is not real. I made it up. I made it up.它不真实。我错了。我错了。Im the only one who thinks thats a thing.我是唯一一个认为那是一个东西的人。The personal trainings been interesting. Ive been to the gym before. I grew up playing football.健身锻炼很有意思。我以前去过健身房。我从小就踢足球。But it never worked with the personal trainer. I just all saw them off in the distance being too buff for their own good.私人教练 我只是在远处看到,他们疯狂的追求自己想要的东西。You know what I mean personal trainer, they have too many muscles and seems like its kind of ruining her life a little bit, right.你知道我说的是私人教练,他们肌肉太多了,这好像毁了她的生活。They all walk like theyre covered in sleeping bees. They are trying not to wake up. Its like—她们好像在一群睡着的蜜蜂中龃龉前行。就像这样...Personal trainers, theyre always very enthusiastic about everything about everything. You get in there like at six in the morning, its all like—个人教练,她们总是非常热衷于一切。你早上6点钟到那儿,Ian Karmel, how are you doing, brother? Good to see you, dude. Good to see you.伊恩卡玛,你好吗?很高兴见到你,兄弟。很高兴见到你Lets go over your fitness goal, shall we? Shall we...You want to get jacked or ripped, dude? You want to get jacked or ripped?让我们看看你的健身目标。你想要加大运动强度以得到肌肉线条?You want to get cut or swole. Jack, rip, cut or swole. You want to get yolked.还是说,你想减小运动强度?你想加大运动强度还是减小?You have to tell me if you want to get yolked, dude. You have to tell me.如果你想加大强度,就说说呗。I just like...I just want to dance with a chimpanzee at the end of the movie. Thank you for your time!我只是想在电影的尾声和一只大猩猩跳舞。感谢你的参与。201706/514651All right, welcome back welcome back, do you enjoy us欢迎回来 欢迎回来,大家玩的开心吗?I have taken control of this show tonight今天晚上的节目将由我来主持Normally, this program is hosted by that tonight, it is being hosted by this通常情况下,节目都是由那边那位主持的 但是今天,我来了Look, this seems like a good opportunity to explain the origin of all the hatreds and bitternesses between me and Jimmy kammel今天貌似是个很好的机会,给大家讲讲我和吉米之间所有怨恨痛苦的渊源I think its time people finally know the truth是时候让大家了解事情的真相了Jimmy bumps me from his show every night, because吉米每天晚上在节目中挤兑我Jimmy always wanted to be an actor, and unfortunately for him是因为吉米一直很想成为一名演员,但是很遗憾的是I....I beat him out for every role that he ever truely wanted it他真心想要饰演的每个角色最后都被我拿下了Jimmy has audition for every movie Ive ever been in我参演的每部电影吉米都有去参加试镜thats true, every single one of them and how many did he get?是真的,每一部电影 那么他拿到了几个角色呢?None So he hates me and, Look! I know it seems hard to believe, so很遗憾,一个都没有 所以他对我心生怨恨 我知道这很难让大家相信to prove it to you guys, I..I called every casting director in town to get tapes of all of Jimmys audition所以为了明我说的是真的,我给电影的选角导演打电话并且拿到了吉米去参加试镜的录像带You guys wanna see it? Yeah! Fine你们想看吗?想看 嗯Yeah, now Im sorry Jimmy, Im gonna have to show I mean, yeah, go ahead, you can roll it对不住了吉米,我要把录像带拿给大家看看 好了,可以开始放了This is Jimmy Kammel y for the role of Will Hunting吉米试镜《心灵捕手》Oh, I got a number how do you like them,Apples? Try one more time Again?诶,我拿到了一个号码牌 你觉得苹果怎么样?再试一次?再读一次?How do you like them? Apples? Do you like Apples? I have them你觉得苹果怎么样?你喜欢苹果吗?我有货哦So you are the guy running for office, arent you? You bet I am你就是那个参加竞选的人,是吗?我是And judging from you speech, you are not wining?从你演讲的内容来看,你输了?Well, that what happens when you are a part of the Adjustment Bureau What are you doing?事情已成定局 这是命运规划局的安排 你在干嘛?Sorry, whats...whats he doing? I just is planing on that stretching the..不好意思,他在干嘛?我就是跟摄像机互动一下,伸展下筋骨No, you cant do it to the camera when you....不,你对词的时候不应该看着摄像机So you are the guy running for that? You bet I am You are gonna let me finish你就是那个......对,我就是 呃,你要先让我说完我的台词You know this movie is an animated, right? uh?这是一部动画电影,你知道吧?啥?Its a voice-over audition What? A voice-over audition你要做的是配音 配音But why am I in the costume Hi, kids Im happy feet two OK, cut那我为什么要换装 嗨,孩子们,我是快乐大脚2号哦 好,停My beak kicks off eye Ok, next Picture? Nope, thanks噢,我的喙戳到了我的眼睛 好的,下一个 要我的大头照片吗?不,谢谢Judging from your speech, you are not wining从你的演讲内容来看,你输了?Thats what happens, when you are a part of the Adjustment Bureau Ok这是命运规划局的安排,事情就是这样 嗯Are you say that camera was I supposed to look at?你是说我对词的时候应该看着那台摄像机吗?No, just what you do it to it Oh, to you Have you done this before?不是,是看着我 对着你哦!你之前有过经验吗?Whenever you are y. You are adorable. Was that you saying Im adorable,too?你准备好就开始了 你好可爱!你会觉得我也很可爱吗?well, thats why we bought a zoo yeah这就是我们为什么要买下这座动物园 嗯Before we start I just clarifying am I..am the stucky? or the stucker? I mean who stuck to who here?在我们开始之前 我想先弄清楚,我们到底是谁贴着谁呢?I dont. Im sorry is that matter for the process? Really?不好意思,这对我们工作有意义吗?Its part of my process, it does matter. Who the hell are you?有意义,对我有意义 请问你是哪位?Im Jimmy Kammel, and Im stuck on you Who looking the Matt Damon我是吉米 我要黏着你了 谁知道马特·达蒙在哪儿啊?Go do it The movie is called Stuck on youve even do it ....hey hey, hey, hey快去找 这部电影叫贴身兄弟 嘿嘿嘿.....I dont know what this is, is this like a pity ing or something我不知道这是个什么情况?这是因为同情而组织的会面还是?No, no, you are here on your own American. Dont.. dont do that噢不,你是凭实力得到这个角色的Thats.. Ive been come..you came here since she is her own.Ameican我是被选上的......你告诉她她是凭实力得到这个角色的吗?Ive been cost an.. She thinks its a pity meeting How do you like dump Apples?她以为是因为同情让她过来的 你觉得苹果怎么样啊?Next How do like them? Apples?下一个 你觉得它们怎么样?苹果?I swear to god if I even feel somebady behind me, there is no measure without.... stop....um我发誓,如果我感觉到后面有人跟踪我,你无法估量......停we should just.. yes So we will start it again You y?不好意思,我们得重来一遍 你准备好了吗?Just give us an action again. I swear to god if I even feel somebady behind me重新开始 我发誓,如果我发现有人跟踪我......Theres no measure....What you doing? What you doing? you my part你在干嘛?你在干嘛?你读了我的台词No, my this, you are the other part. Im Jason Born. I thought I was really for Born你的台词是另外一段 我是杰森·伯恩 我以为我是杰森·伯恩呢Yeah? Why would you? I mean, I played it in the first two movies, why would you my part?呃,你以为?我的意思是,这部电影前两部都是我演的,你怎么能不知道,抢了我的台词呢?I didnt see the first two movies前两部电影我没看And thank you, since you spoiler alert. Im supposed to those alert你剧透了,剧透了what goes on here? I mean he didnt say Spoiler Alert Im, really, Im sorry yet Spoiler Alert他这是怎么了?他没说剧透警告 实在是不好意思 剧透警告201706/514893Being a teenager is hard. And so is living with one, Im told.我被告知作为一个青少年不容易,和青春期的人在一起生活也不容易No human gets to escape this moody, angsty, confusing phase.没有人能逃避开这段情绪化的、焦虑的、迷茫的时期。And interestingly, such an extended adolescence is unique to humans.有趣的是,这样一段延长的青春期是人类独有的。Other animals grow up a lot faster than we do.其他的动物成长速度比我们快得多。And you may think our teen years are just about streamlining bodies for baby making,你也许认为我们的青少年期只是在长身体以繁衍后代,but as it turns out, the storm of sex hormones that we associate with the teenage years,但事实明,青春期时性荷尔蒙的大爆发are only a small part of whats really going on in the teenage body.只占那时身体变化的一小部分。Most of the action, it turns out, is happening in the brain.大部分的变化发生在大脑。Until fairly recently, we thought that the brain finished the nuts and bolts of its development,直到最近,我们还认为大脑已基本发育完全by the time we started kindergarten. But really,在我们开始上幼儿园的时候,但事实上,when puberty starts, it undergoes massive remodeling.当进入青春期大脑会开始大规模地重塑。This amounts to several years of neural growing pains,这意味着长达数年的神经成长的烦恼as well as the other more visible growth thats going on all over your body.So take heart!以及其它你身体上下更易见的成长变化。所以振作起来!Whether youre going through it now, or about to go through it,不管你是正在经历青春期还是正要经历or count yourself among the veterans of that turbulent decade,或是认为自己在那混乱的十年里已是个老手know that the result of the teen years is a stronger, faster, more sophisticated brain.你要知道最后你将有一个更强壮、更快速、更精密的大脑。If there were someone that told me twenty years ago...如果二十年前有人这样告诉我就好了……Lets start with that obvious scapegoat of adolescent anguish, hormones.让我们从看上去是导致青春期烦恼的罪魁祸首,但其实是“替罪羊”的荷尔蒙说起。That word itself, is kind of a lazy shorthand这个单词本身即是一种偷懒的简易表达that people use to describe the chemicals that some glands secrete, that can affect our behavior.是人们用来描述从一些腺体分泌的、可以影响我们行为的化学物质。But the fact is, hormones have all kinds of jobs that have nothing to do with where you grow hair,但事实是,荷尔蒙有诸多作用,但不能决定你在哪里长毛发,or what turns you on, or whether you feel glum for no apparent reason不能使你“性奋”,也不会让你不明原因地觉得沮丧Hormones keep your heart beating, and your body hydrated, and they make your organs grow,荷尔蒙使你的心脏保持跳动,保持身体水分,使器官生长,and make you grow bone, and muscle, and skin!使你生出骨头、肌肉与皮肤。What people actually mean when they talk about teenage hormones, are sex hormones.当人们谈论“青春期荷尔蒙”时,他们实际上指的是性荷尔蒙。And yes, puberty involves a whole series of sex hormones storms,是的,青春期包含一整个系列的性荷尔蒙爆发,the first of which actually kicks in before youre outta Primary School.最早的性荷尔蒙分泌实际上在你小学毕业前就已开始。Thats when the Adrenal glands start secreting androgens, which triggers the growth那时肾上腺开始分泌雄激素,从而引起in activity of the skins sebaceous glands, making skin more oily.皮脂腺的生长加速,使皮肤变得油腻。Soon enough, more apocrine or sweat glands get activated increasing body odor.很快,更多的分泌腺或汗腺活跃使得身体气味增加。Then comes the waves of hormonal agents that start activating the gonads.然后大量的荷尔蒙开始促进生殖器官的发育。For boys, this influx of luteinizing hormones from the pituitary gland, get testosterone from the testes,对于男孩,从脑垂体大量涌入的促黄体生成素,促进睾丸大量分泌睾丸素,and suddenly, that guy has up to fifty times more testosterone than he did before puberty.一下子,那家伙获得了比青春期前最多50倍的睾丸素。This also changes the shape of the male body, promoting hair growth,and building up lean muscle mass,这也改变了雄性的身体,促进毛发生长,塑造肌肉线条,just as the increased presence of estrogen in girls rearranges the deposition of their fats, stimulating the growth of breasts.就像女孩们体内增加的雌激素会重新安排脂肪的位置,促进胸部的增长。Humans are actually lucky to experience the craziness of puberty only once,人类很幸运,只用经历一次青春期的疯狂,many other animals undergo multiple similarly intense hormonal rodeos as they enter sexually active periods,很多动物在进入发情期时要经历数次类似的紧张的荷尔蒙起伏变化,sometimes called the rot or heat, every new breeding season.有时可称为“堕落或疯狂”。Some male species completely stop eating during their breeding period, because theyre just that sex crazed.在繁殖期一些雄性品种会完全停止进食,它们只是为性疯狂。And yet all that said, teen are far less ruled in their hormones than you might think. There are other factors that play here.然而说了那么多,青春期对荷尔蒙的控制并没有你想的那么大。还有其它的因素在影响。For example, your favorite moody teen may be by turns punchy, angry, depressed, or in a zombie like fog,比如,你那处于青春期的情绪化的宝贝,也许变得寡言、愤怒、沮丧或像僵尸一样无神,because of their chronic lack of sleep.只是因为长期的缺少睡眠Sleep is vital to everyone, but its specially important for kids and teens,睡眠对每个人都很重要,对小孩和青少年尤其重要,because its during sleep that your pituitary gland releases an essential growth hormone, necessary for development.因为在睡眠中,脑垂体会释放一种重要的生长激素,这对于成长很重要。A normal sleep cycle driven by circadian rhythm, is regulated by the daytime release of cortisol,一个遵循24小时节律的正常的睡眠循环,由人体白天释放的皮质醇which helps you wake up, and melatonin, which helps you wind down when it gets dark.和晚上释放的褪黑激素调节皮质醇使人保持清醒,褪黑激素使人保持平静。But this biology of sleep timing changes as we age and as puberty begins, teens sleep clocks get pushed back.但是这个生物钟会随年龄变化,当进入青春期,睡点会推后。Most adults start producing melatonin 10 p.m. ish,大多数的成年人晚上10点开始分泌褪黑激素,but one study showed that teenagers dont start producing melatonin until closer to 1am!但一项研究显示青少年直到凌晨1点才开始分泌褪黑激素!This may be because pubertys hormonal frenzy is stalling the release of melatonin,这也许是因为青少年疯狂的荷尔蒙推迟了褪黑激素的释放。and could partly explain why so many teens stay up late, energized by the night,这也可以一定程度上解释为什么那么多的青少年熬夜,晚上精力旺盛,but had a really hard time rolling outta bed with the alarm.闹钟响了却起不来床。Of course its a bit of a chicken and egg deal, since watching reruns of The Simpsons,当然这有点像先有鸡还是先有蛋的问题了,因为看《辛普森一家》的重播and playing Call o Duty late at night continues to stimulate the brain, which may further delay the release of melatonin.或者玩《使命召唤》到很晚,这些都在刺激大脑,也许会更一步推迟褪黑激素的释放,Still, some researchers are starting to advocate for pushing back high school start times in the morning,所以,有些研究者开始提倡将高校的早晨开始上课时间往后调,in the hopes of having more focused students.希望这样有更多集中精力的学生。So weve got sex hormones changing the bodies, and a lack o sleep to contend with,那么我们知道了性荷尔蒙会改变身体,以及缺少睡眠对人的影响,but increasing evidences suggest that, there is something much bigger at work thats making teenagers so teenager-ry. Their brains!但是越来越多的据表明,有些事有更大的影响使得青少年如此的与众不同。即他们的大脑!It turns out that brains actually take longer than we thought, to fully mature.事实表明,大脑确实需要比我们想象的更长的时间来发育成熟。I dont mean physical size - our brains are aly about 95% full-sized by the time were just six我不是指物理大小--在我们只有6岁时,我们的大脑就已经有成年人95%大小了but more in the sense of the connections inside the brain.我指的是大脑内部的神经连接。Adults - for the most part - know how to make decisions by evaluating choices, and weighting consequences.大部分成年人知道如何做决定--通过对比选择,权衡结果They do this with their prefrontal cortex, which is responsible for controlling impulses and emotions, and forming judgments.通过他们的前叶额皮质层,这负责控制冲动和情绪来做出决定。Its neurons chat with the neurons in other regions of the brain, responsible for - say it - memory or movement, through synapses.它的神经元与大脑其它的区域的神经元进行交流,比如说,负责记忆和行动的神经元,这种交流通过突触进行。The thing is, teenage brains dont quite work like this yet.真实情况是,青少年的大脑还没有像这样运作。The prefrontal cortex may not be fully developed until youre mid-twenties,他们的前叶额皮质层也许无法发育完全,直到25岁左右,and teen synapses - those ;lines; of communication - are still growing, and specializing. Theyre also - slow.青少年的突触(即脑内神经的交流线路)还在成长中、细化中。它们同时也非常缓慢。As an adolescent brain keeps developing, its axons - the long ;tail-like; parts of the neurons that transmits signals to other neurons在一个青少年的大脑成长过程中become more and more insulated by a fatty layer called the Myelin Sheath.轴突变得越来越不易受影响,因为被一层厚的称为髓鞘保护膜所包裹。This padding greatly increases the cells transmission speed,这层包裹大大提升了细胞的传输速度and while it helps adults make faster decisions, it isnt fully formed in teens.这使得成年人做决定时更迅速,却在青少年时期无法完全发育完成。These changes occur slowly, beginning at the back o the brain, where the oldest and most fundamental brain parts reside,这些变化发生得十分缓慢,开始于大脑的后部,即大脑最古老和最基础的部分and slowly working its way forward to the more advanced and complicated brain bits.然后逐渐地往更先进和复杂的部分发展。The prefrontal cortex is the last to be hooked up and shaped.前叶额皮质层是最后被连接和塑造的,So its important to keep in mind, that just because your favorite teenager stayed up until sunrise因此这很重要你要记住,你的宝贝在考试的前一天晚上binge-watching The Walking Dead the night before an exam, it doesnt mean theyre dumb or lazy,无节制地看《行尸走肉》直到天亮并不意味着他们又蠢又懒their brain are just literally finishing being built.只是因为他们的大脑还在塑造中。But at the same time, because all o this brain buildings just starting to peak,同时,因为他们的大脑塑造开始达到顶点,this is also, when the brain starts getting thinned out.这也是大脑开始清理多余连接的时候。You actually start losing connections that you dont use enough, in a process called synaptic pruning -那些你用得不频繁的连接会消失,这一进程称为突触修剪which has led to a theory that this is kind of a use it or lose it phase.由此引出一种“用进废退”的理论。Meaning, adolescence could be an specially important time to use your brain这意味着青少年时期对大脑的使用特别重要play an instrument; engage in sports; write poetry; learn language!演奏一种乐器、参加一项体育活动、写诗、学习新语言!Because by doing these things, youre helping hardwire those synapses, and giving your brain topiary a lovely lasting shape.通过做这些事,这些突触连接会巩固,你的大脑会被修剪成一个可爱又持久的形状。Whereas if youre sitting around all day playing Candy Crush,而如果你整天都坐着玩《糖果粉碎传奇》those will be the connections that survive, which you dont need...这些有关的连接就会留存下来,尽管你并不需要……This shaping of the teen brain manifests itself in other ways too, like in teenage attitudes.这种对青少年大脑形状的塑造也通过其它方式表达出来,比如他们对外界的看法。A group of scientist at the McLean Hospital of Massachusetts, once hooked up a group of adults and a group of teens,美国马萨诸塞州麦克莱恩医院的一队科学家,通过核磁共振设备进行观察,曾组织一组成年人和一组青少年to MRI devices and then asked them to identify a series of expressions on photographs of adults faces.让他们鉴别照片上的成年人脸上的系列表情。Interestingly, while adults correctly identified one expression as fear,有趣的是,当成年人正确地指出一个表情是害怕时,the teenagers thought the faces showed anger, surprise, or shock. They werent registering subtleties well.青少年认为那是表示害怕、惊讶或震惊。他们无法识别这些微妙的差异。Not only that, but the MRI images showed that adults and teens responded with different parts of their brains.不仅如此,核磁共振图像显示成年人和青少年是用大脑的不同的部分回应的。Adults, use the reasonable prefrontal cortex, while the teens mostly use the gut reaction, emotional amigdala,成年人理所当然地使用前叶额皮质层而青少年主要使用直觉反应,即主管情绪的杏仁体,located farther back in the brain.杏仁体位于大脑的更后面。Results like these might help explain why teenagers seem to experience frequent mood swings.这样的试验结果也许可以帮助解释为什么青少年们看起来更易情绪波动。For one, they tend to react quickly from the emotional part of their brain,首先,他们倾向于从大脑的情绪部分快速反应without running those reactions by the more rational frontal cortex,而不是用更理智的前叶额皮质层,and two, it could be that theyre just mising expressions, and therefore the intentions behind them.其次,有可能他们只是误解了试验的表情及其后的意图。The frontal cortex also helps people relate to, and understand each other,前叶额皮质层也可以帮助人们建立联系,理解彼此and you can imagine what happens when concern is misjudged as anger; or worry, as disappointment.所以你可以想象当关心被误解为生气或担心被误解为失望时会发生什么。The Fresh Prince has an entire song about it.Fresh Prince就有一整首歌是关于这个的。But the truth is, as much as parents just dont understand, teens dont always understand either.但事实是,父母常常无法理解他们的小孩,少年自己也常常无法理解。When the emotional amigdala, and the more rational cortex arent fully hooked up yet,当负责情绪的杏仁体与更理智的前叶额皮质层还没有完全连结好,that can make it hard for teenagers to productively work through emotions.青少年们就很难控制好情绪。This kind of reactionary, impulsive behavior may also lead to more risk taking.这种叛逆和冲动行为也许会导致更危险的行为。Adolescence is the time when were most likely to experiment with whatever booze, or drugs is available,青少年时期我们最容易体验酒精或毒品,and unfortunately, its also the time our developing brains are most vulnerable to lasting effects不幸的是,那也是我们塑造中的大脑最脆弱、会受到永久影响的时期。Studies have shown that teens are more likely to become addicted to drugs and alcohol, than adults研究已经表明,青少年比成年人更容易沉迷于毒品或酒精,partly because their brains are more attuned to their reward centers.一部分原因是他们的大脑对脑内的奖赏区域更熟悉,While the teenage prefrontal cortex is still developing, their Nucleus Accumbens,因为他们的前叶额皮质层还在发育中,他们的“伏隔核”or pleasure and reward zone, forms early on.或“愉悦和奖赏区域”成型更早。Neuroimaging studies have shown that when presented with a big potential reward,神经影像研究表明当有大的潜在的奖赏时,teen brains light up way more than kids or adults brains, but if the reward was small,青少年的大脑亮起来的区域比小孩或成年人更多,但当奖赏很小时teen brains hardly fired at all.他们的大脑几乎没有反应。So basically, give an adolescent a pat on the back, and youll get a shrug.所以基本上,在一个青少年背后轻拍一下,他只会耸耸肩。Give them a hot date or a wining goal, and their brains light up like Vegas.给他们一个火辣的约会或一个令人振奋的目标,他们的大脑会闪亮得像。This of course, does not always result in great judgment.基于这样的反应,你不能指望他们能做出多伟大的决定。A jacked up thrill-seeking impulse, combined with exquisite pang of peer pressure,一股上涌的寻找刺激的冲动加上同伴的压力带来的痛苦plus a new drivers license, new sex parts, and access to substances can lead to some not good results.和一个新的驾照、新的性伴侣再加上毒品,这些足够导致一些不好的结果。But still, this long and some times tedious remodeling process that our bodies go through in the teenage years, isnt all bad.但是话说回来,我们青春期的身体经历的这个长长的、有时候有些乏味的重塑过程并不全是坏事。Many scientists have pointed out that our delayed adolescence lets our brains keep their flexibility longer,许多科学家指出,较长的青春期使得我们的大脑保持灵活更长的时间which Yeah, may make teens a little slow, but also more adaptable, as they prepare for the adult world.也许会使青少年长得有点慢,但更能适应随后到来的成人世界。In this way, you can see teen impulsiveness as boldness; or independent thinking, and moodiness,从这个意义上说,你可以将青春期的冲动当成大胆或独立思考,as a source of new found empathy; and excitability, as passion.将感性当作共鸣,兴奋过度当作热情。Which means, theres a lot of awesome energy floating around out there y to decrease all kinds of world suck就是说,这些精力旺盛的青春期的人们在准备改变这个世界的旧有成见。Thanks for watching the SciShow, and thanks specially to all of our subscribers on Subbable, who make this channel possible!感谢观看SciShow。特别要谢谢我们在Subbale上的所有贡献者。有他们才有这个频道!You can be an honorary associate producer of SciShow, or even pick the topic of a future episode!你也可以成为SciShow的一名荣誉制作者,甚至决定未来某一系列的主题!To find out how, go to ;subbable.com/scishow;. And you can always find us on Facebook and Twitter, and in the comments below,具体方式,请至subbale.com/scishow。你也可以在Facebook和Twitter及其下的部分找到我们。and if you wanna keep gettin smarter with us here at SciShow, you can go to ;youtube.com/scishow; and subscribe.如果你想和我们一起变得更聪明,欢迎至youtube.com/scishow订阅我们的节目。201706/515382

  Its fast! Come on, jump, jump!水流很急 快跳 跳Theres no way you can fight this sort of current.Youve just got to go with it.你是无法与这种急流抗争的 只需顺着水流前进Use whatever you can to help keep afloat.竭尽所能保自己漂在水中Im using my rucksack to give me extra buoyancy.我要用背包 以增加浮力Take us straight through these rapids.这能带着我们穿过急流Try and use the current just to take you across the river.试着借用流水的力量 渡河Stay with me, and well get across this.跟紧我 马上要过去了The rapids getting bigger.I need to get out of this river fast.急流开始加速 我要赶快脱身Im showing you how to survive one of the most dangerous countries on the planet Guatemala.我在向您展示 如何从 地球上最危险的国家逃出生天 这里是危地马拉I face a live volcano Okay, lets go.200-foot waterfalls.我直面一座活火山 很好 出发吧 200英尺的瀑布Some of central Americas biggest caves,and now Im getting washed through some rapids.还有中美洲最大的洞穴群 现在我身处急流之中Theres no way you can fight this sort of current.Youve just got to go with it.你是无法与这种急流抗争的 只需顺着水流前进You need to get into this eddy.Onto that rock.You okay?先进入这个旋涡 然后爬上那块的石头 你没事吧201609/467039【新闻精讲】Yet despite all the attention given to fake news, the other problems probably have Mr Zuckerberg just as worried. On November 18th, to the surprise of many, Facebook announced that it would buy back up to bn of its shares. That seemed to be in reaction to a 10% drop in its share price since it warned earlier this month that growth next year would be slower and margins lower, as ad space on its services gets tighter and it invests heavily in data centres. The buy-back signals that Facebook considers its shares undervalued, says Mark Mahaney of R Capital, an investment bank. 尽管假新闻已引起了广泛的关注,其他一些问题似乎也同样令扎克伯格担忧。11月18日,Facebook宣布将回购最高达60亿美元的公司股份,这令很多人甚为惊讶。11月早些时候,因广告投放量驱向饱和,以及公司对数据中心大手笔的投资,Facebook发出了下一年增长将放缓、利润会降低的预警。这之后,公司股价下跌了10%。回购股票之举看起来像是对这种局面的回应。投行R Capital的马克氠哈尼(Mark Mahaney)认为,Facebook此举也许表示,公司自认为其股价估值过低。A couple of days earlier, Facebook had to admit flaws in how it measures its traffic (for the second time in just a few weeks, after disclosing that it had overestimated the average viewing time for its ads). This time it said that other numbers, including the quantity of clicks from Facebook posts to apps or websites, were smaller than previously stated. Although this did not lead advertisers to overpay, they are likely to make new demands of Facebook, for instance to provide more data about exactly how its ads are viewed. 在这几天前,Facebook不得不承认其流量测算方法存在缺陷。这已是Facebook在几周内第二次承认存在这一问题,之前它曾披露自己高估了视频广告的平均观看时长。这一次它坦言,从Facebook帖子到应用或网站的点击量等其他数字也比先前声称的要小。尽管这并没有导致广告主多掏腰包,但他们之后很可能会向Facebook提出新的要求,例如提供更多关于广告观看情况究竟如何的数据。 It has also emerged that Facebook has “paused” the ongoing process of merging its data with those of WhatsApp, the messaging app it bought in 2014 for bn in shares. When the takeover was announced, Jan Koum, WhatsApp’s founder, promised users their data would stay apart. In August Facebook reneged on the pledge, which upset various privacy watchdogs in Europe. In September the city of Hamburg’s data-protection commissioner issued an order that stops Facebook collecting data from German users of WhatsApp. 此外,Facebook还已“暂停”将其数据与WhatsApp的数据合并。2014年,Facebook以190亿美元(包含股票)收购了通讯应用WhatsApp。当初这起收购被公布时,WhatsApp创始人简錠姆(Jan Koum)曾向用户许诺,该应用与Facebook的数据将保持分离。而在8月,Facebook却违背了这项承诺,并因此引起了欧洲各地隐私保护机构的不满。9月,汉堡市的数据保护专员命其停止收集WhatsApp德国用户的数据。takeover n.收购Renege v.毁约,食言- He promised to pay but later reneged.Pledge n.承诺 (promise)Watchdog n.检查者(机构)Whether all this will have a discernible impact on Facebook’s finances is a matter of debate among analysts. If advertisers have extra money to spend they do it where they get most bang for their buck, which, Google aside, is Facebook, says Peter Stabler of Wells Fargo Securities. In contrast, Brian Wieser of Pivotal Research recently wrote that the focus on fake news and the concerns over the measurement of advertising could well cut revenue growth by a couple of percentage points. 至于以上种种会不会对Facebook的财务状况产生明显的影响,分析人士们则莫衷一是。富国券(Wells Fargo Securities)的彼得斯塔普勒(Peter Stabler)认为,如果广告主有闲钱,他们会更愿意把钱花在能带来最大收益的地方,而这种地方除了谷歌,就是Facebook了。相比之下,Pivotal Research的布莱恩威瑟(Brian Wieser)近日则撰文指出,假新闻所引发的的关注以及广告效果测量引起的担忧很可能会令Facebook的营收增长率降低两三个百分点Discernible adj.可辨识的,明显的- discern v.识别- Im unable to discern his motives.bang for someones buck / bang for the buck 物有所值201701/487126

  So youve decided to take the IELTS exam, good for you!你决定考雅思了,祝贺你!Its the test for study, work, and life. The IELTS Writing Test is divided into two tasks.The first task differs depending on the module youre taking.雅思是为了出国学习、工作和生活的语言测试。雅思写作测试包括两篇作文。第一篇作文的题目要求取决于你报考的雅思考试类型。There are two IELTS modules: the IELTS Academic Module is generally taken by anyone intending to pursue higher education studies in an English-speaking Institute or country,雅思考试有两种类型:一般学术类考试适用于想申请去英语语言国家的高校学习的学生;the IELTS General Training module is generally taken for immigration or employment purposes.移民或赴外工作的人士则参加培训类考试。Here we look at the criteria of task response for Writing Task 1 and task achievement for Writing Task 2.今天我们将介绍雅思写作的两篇作文的评分标准。These represent one of four criteria on which you will be tested.Look for the other three criteria in other s.先看四大评分标准中的第一个。其余三个评分标准请看相应视频。These criteria focus on the degree to which the exam question has been answered properly.设定评分标准的目的是评价的合理程度。In the academic module, there is a Writing Task at least 150 words where you should summarize, describe, or explain a table, graph or diagram.在学术类考试中,作文1会要求你总结、描述、解释表格或图表及图形,字数至少150个词。You might be expected to make comparisons, too.还有可能做比较Successfully negotiating this Academic Task 1 means you will need to identify all the key features in the diagram.为了出色完成学术类作文1,你应当仔细认清图表中的关键信息。You might lose marks if important details are left out.如果遗漏了关键细节会丢分。Provide sufficient detail for a meaningful explanation, not too much detail, not too little.用足够的细节塑造一个深刻的阐释,细节不宜太多,也不宜太少。Insure accuracy when referring to data, or describing trends or processes.Its important to write a clear overview.提及数据,描述趋势或进展时要保准确。写一个清晰的概述非常重要。This means summarizing the most significant trends or features from the data or information in the diagram.也就是说要根据图表中的数据或信息总结出最明显的趋势或特点。This is not simply an introduction to the topic.Thats a common mistake.Heres an example of identifying significant trends.仅仅介绍主题是不够的。这是一个常见的误区。这里有一个分析重要趋势的例子。Looking at this graph we would say, from the graph it is apparent that participation of both men and women in full time employment has increased over this time period.一起来看这个图表,很明显在图中的时间段,全职雇佣的男性和女性都有增长。However while the numbers of women are generally increasing, the numbers of men in part-time employment are fluctuating.然而兼职工作的女性数量整体呈增长态势,兼职工作的男性数量却很波动。In a question requesting a process description, the overview might identify the key stages in the process, for instance how many stages there, and what each are briefly.如果题目要求你描述进展,在概述中就应该点明整个过程的关键阶段,比如总共有几个阶段,每个阶段简要来说分别是什么。In the General Training module there is a letter Writing Task of least 150 words.培训类作文1的要求是写一篇不少于150字的信件。In this Task, explain the reason for the letter, include all the points mentioned in the question and use a consistent and appropriate tone.答题时应解释写信的缘由,覆盖题目提及的所有要点,并采用连贯和恰当的语气。In both Modules, Task 2 is a short essay task of at least 250 words.在两类雅思考试中,作文2都是要求写一篇至少250字的短作文。You are expected to present your opinion on a specific topic, supporting your ideas with evidence.你应该表达你关于特定话题的观点,并使用论据来持你的观点。Task 2 contribute more to your overall writing mark than Task 1.作文2比作文1的分值高。To master Task 2, you will need to respond completely to all parts of the question.要在作文2发挥好,你需要回答题目的所有问题。Developing support your ideas, dont just mention them in a single sentence and move on to the next idea.加强论观点的能力,不要用一个句子表达一下看法就跳到下一个观点,Add explanations, examples, or experience.Insure your opinion is clear in your answer.用阐释、事例或经历来充实你的观点。确保你的中表达的观点清晰明了。Make sure you underline keywords in the exam question, identify how many parts there are of the question and make sure you do everything you are asked to do.别忘了划出题目中的关键词,明确问题中总共有几个部分,不要漏掉任何一点。Before you write, plan your ideas.Though keep them relevant, then group in sequence them.在动笔之前,把你的观点组织起来。但要保这些观点与话题相关,然后把他们按顺序列在一起。Spending 2-3 minutes doing this can save you time when you are writing.Follow the recommended timings for each task and meet minimum word counts.花2-3分钟的时间来做这件事,会为你写作的时候省下很多时间。在每个部分的规定时间内完成,并且要符合最低字数的要求。For more information, please see the other Writing Test s: coherence and cohesion, lexical resource and grammatical ranging accuracy.其他的评分标准参见余下的写作测试相关视频:连贯与衔接、词汇丰富程度以及语法多样性。201706/514454

  栏目简介:;Shanghai Live; focuses on big events in the city and major issues around the world, and presents them in a practical and audience-friendly manner to meet the ever-evolving needs of Shanghais English-speaking viewers,both local and expatriate.《直播上海英语电台》集中报道城市大事件以及全球热点话题,并以观众喜闻乐见的方式呈现给大家,从而满足上海本地以及上海海外人士的英语需求。201612/481043。

  Explain to me what were gonna be doing while I stand like this.请向我解释一下我穿成这样是想让我干嘛。Well, behind me are trash cans filled with something called liquid nitrogen.我后面是一些垃圾桶,里面充满了液氮。And next to them are buckets filled with hot water.旁边是盛有热水的热水桶。Liquid nitrogen? And hot water.液氮?还有热水。Were going to pour the hot water into the liquid nitrogen.我们将把热水放进液氮中。What happens is that the hot water is so hot and the liquid nitrogen is so cold that they could both burn you.因为热水很烫,液氮很凉,两种物质将会让你灼伤。Is that funny? They could both what?你觉得怎么样?它们都能怎样?They could both burn you. Isnt that funny?它们能将你烧伤。你觉得如何?All this burning, let me explain you something.烧伤,让我解释一下。What do you mean? Thats why you got all this stuff on.你什么意思? 这是你穿这身衣的原因。Mason,you said itll burn, didnt you?梅森,你刚才说它会燃烧,不是吗?I did. Thats why you have all the stuff on.我说了。这就是你穿它的原因啊。To you, this is funny? Its supposed to be.对于你而言,这很有趣是吗?应该算吧。Okay, Mason, lets go get it done.好吧,梅森,让我们开始吧。All right, everyone y? All right.各就各位了吗?Lets do it, Mason.梅森,开始吧。Everybody, count with me. 10, 9, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1...Go! Aah! Go! Aah!所有人和我一起倒数。10, 9, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1...倒!倒!Im suing everybody in here.我要告在场的所有人。Where my helmet at?我的头盔呢?It blew my hat off.我的头盔都吹没了。Where my hat?! Where my hat?!我的头盔呢?我的头盔呢?Im whooping all yall.我把你们都放进去。Im whooping all yall.我把你们都放进去。You crazy, youre a crazy little boy.你小子太疯狂了。Look, you blew my hat off.我的头盔都吹没了。Let me tell you something you are lucky these kids are in here.让我告诉你,你们很幸运今天有很多孩子在场。I got something I want to say right now.有些话我想现在说。The only thing saving yall is these kids is in here.今天救了你们的是这些孩子。I want none of this on me. Look at all this in here.它可别上我身上来,看看都上这里来了。I leaned over, and went poof.我身体向前倾,然后砰。The words that was coming out of this mouth,我这张嘴是说话用的,Good thing you had the suit and the visor on. Good thing I had the suit on?好在你还有这身衣和面罩。好在我有这身衣?Because it got on that instead of you.因为它们都落在了这上面,而没有落在你身上。201705/511511


  But despite their popularity,但除了他们的数量之外scientists know surprisingly little about their behaviour科学家们对他们在猫洞之外的行为once theyve left the cat flap.了解得却出奇的少Got a fairly wide range of types of housing在这儿能找到很多不同类型的房屋and, hopefully, types of cat here.但愿能找到不同种类的猫Yeah, definitely.当然The built-up area, if Im looking at the map,住宅区 根据地图来看seems to be behind us.在我们身后And then these houses in front of us here而我们前面的房子look to back all on to fields.看起来背靠着田野They want to find out more about how far cats travel each day...他们想知道猫每天会走多远的路So hopefully well get cats roaming out of their back gardens但愿我们能发现猫猫们从后花园里and up into the farms.溜达到农场里..How these solitary creatures manage to live side by side...这些独居动物是如何生活在一起Ill expect some of these houses in this more built-up area,我希望那个住宅区的一些家庭there might be multi-cat households.他们也许养了不止一只猫..And where cats really find their food.以及猫究竟在哪里找食物Ive really been interested in the cat我一直对猫很感兴趣because its that combination of wild animal and domestic animal,因为他们是野生动物和家养动物的结合and the changes that are going on within it,还有他们身上发生的改变that I find fascinating as a biologist.作为一个生物学家我认为这很奇妙重点解释:1.look at (仔细地)看例句:Please raise your head and look at the blackboard.请抬起头来,看黑板。2.in front of 在 ... 前面例句;He was sprawling in the sofa in front of the TV.他伸开手脚坐在电视机前的沙发上。3.find out 发现例句:Find out what the conditions of the contract are.弄清楚合同的条件是什么。201605/445533

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