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2018年12月15日 12:46:14来源:兰州晨报


  • Yael: Hey Don, what are you ing? Don? Don!雅艾尔:嘿,唐,你在读什么?唐?唐!Don: Huh?唐:哈?Yael: I asked what book youre ing.雅艾尔:我问你在看什么书。Don: Oh, sorry. I guess I was lost in the story.唐:啊,对不起。我刚才对这个故事太入迷了。Yael: Thats OK. Thats what a good story will do, right? In fact, theres a study that explains whats going on the brain when we get caught up in a story.雅艾尔:没关系。好故事总是会让人入迷,不是吗?事实上,有一项研究解释了我们被好故事吸引时大脑的活动。Don: Do tell.唐:请讲。Yael: Basically, according to the study, when you a story that engages you, your brain creates detailed and vivid simulations of the details in the story.雅艾尔:根据这项研究,基本来说当你被一篇故事吸引时,大脑会详细生动地模拟故事情节。Don: You mean that when Im ing, my brain is activated as though Im actually doing the things Im ing about?唐:你是说在我读书时,大脑会被激活,仿佛我正在做读到的事情?Yael: Or observing them, or imagining them. The point is that ing isnt a passive activity where the brain is just processing language. Its much more dynamic and active. So if youre ing a book about baseball, say, the brain reacts in ways similar to how it would if you were actually playing baseball, or watching a game, or imagining yourself hitting a ball, or whatever.雅艾尔:或者观察,想象着你读到的事情。重点是读书不是一项被动的活动,而大脑也不只是在单纯地处理语言。读书是更为动态的,积极的。比如说,当你正在读一本关于棒球的书时,大脑的反应跟你在真正打棒球,看比赛或者想象自己在打球时的大脑反应相似。Don: Interesting. How was this studied?唐:很有趣。怎么研究出来的呢?Yael: Thats interesting, too. The researchers studied ers brains using an MRI scanner. But because the ers had to remain perfectly still, their heads were immobilized as they the story one word at a time on a computer screen.雅艾尔:那也很有趣。研究人员通过核磁共振扫描仪来研究读者的大脑活动。但由于读者需要保持绝对静止,在他们一字一句阅读电脑屏幕上的故事时,他们的头就被固定住了。Don: Thats hardly a typical ing experience.唐:这样的阅读经历真是独特啊。Yael: True. But even ing stories in that strange, one-word-at-a-time way, the ersbrains were still activated to create mental simulations of the story.雅艾尔:当然,但是即使是以这种奇怪的,一字一句的方式阅读,读者的脑子仍然被激活,仍然会从心理上模拟故事情节。Don: So what does this mean?唐:因此这意味着什么呢?Yael: Maybe that being lost in a good book doesnt mean youre zoned out. Its more like your brain is tuned in.雅艾尔:也许迷失在一本好书里并不意味着你迷糊了。看起来更像是大脑在收听。原文译文属!201209/197746
  • Shell calls the wells relatively simple,but will drill them as though they are the most complicated prospect in thecompany has ever done. Why? Deepwater Horizon and the disaster in the Gulf of Mexico.尽管壳牌(Shell)认为井本身并不复杂,但仍会像公司迄今为止最为复杂的远景地区那样进行钻探。为什么?因为深海地平线,因为曾经的墨西哥湾灾难。Wed have been tone deaf if we had thoughtthat it could be - would have been business as usual after the DeepwaterHorizon.如果我们认为在深海地平线之后可能——或者说可能已经一切正常,我们会表现的充耳不闻。Could this happen again like Shells Arcticwells, the disastrous Macondo well was exploratory, but Shell, unlike BP, hasno plans to bring up oil this summer. It will need a much bigger platform to dothat.这种事情可能再发生一次吗?壳牌勘探的北极井会否像灾难性的马康多油井(Macondo well)一样呢?但是,壳牌,与英国石油公司(BP)不同,今年夏天并没有出油的计划。这需要一个更大的平台。Shells wells will be capped and abandoned.The biggest difference, depth. Shell will be drilling in less than 200 feet ofwater in up to 8,000 feet below the seabed. Deepwater Horizon drilled through5,000 feet of water than more than 13,000 feet below the sea floor. Thepressure differences, enormous.壳牌公司的油井将会被封堵并被放弃。最大的区别在于,深度。壳牌的钻井水深不超过200英尺而海床以下最大深度不超过8000英尺。而深海地平线的钻井水深为5000英尺且海床以下超过13000英尺。压力差异是巨大的。The pressures are roughly about a third ofwhat youd see in a typical deepwater well.就如你所看到的,压力大约是标准深海油井的三分之一。Like all wells, Shell will use blowoutpreventers. Unlike BPs Shells blowout preventers will lie beneath the seabed,so a rig can disconnect more safely in case of emergency.与所有的油井一样,壳牌将会使用防喷器。与英国石油公司(BP)不同,壳牌的防喷器将置于海床之下,这样,在紧急情况下,钻机可以更安全地断开连接。As a part of what happened in the postDeepwater Horizon world, all these blowout preventers were actually broughtback to what we call original equipment manufacturer standards.作为出现在之前的深海地平线事件中的部分,实际上,所有带回的这些防喷器实际上就是我们所说的原始设备制造商的标准。In case of a blowout, Shell will have onhand a capping stack, thats what brought an end to the Gulf disaster.万一发生井喷,壳牌可以就近封堵叠加,这样就可以结束海湾灾难。Here we go. 下面我们看这里。For drivers like Erinn Shmaeff, who has amountain of bills and a three-year-old to raise, she think there should be roomfor exploration, but none of the risks of another Deepwater Horizon.对开车的人来说,例如ErinnShmaeff,她有大堆的账单要付,还有一个三岁的孩子要抚养,她认为石油勘探是必要的,但是不得有再次发生深海地平线事故的风险。I would want to know like where it wouldbe, Id want to know how damaging it would be to the environment if it wouldhave an impact on the local wildlife.我想知道它(油井)会在哪儿,如果它会对当地野生生物造成冲击,它又会对环境造成怎样的破坏。Regulators insist the risk in the Arctic is acceptable. With no easy oil left to find, itis only hard choices from here on out.监管机构坚持在北极的作业的风险是可以接受的。现在,已经没什么易于开发的油田,因此,这只是一个艰难的选择。Miguel Marquez, CNN, Anchorage, Alaska.美国有线新闻网(CNN)记者Miguel Marquez于阿拉斯加州安克雷奇报道。201210/202759
  • Business商业Trademark bullying商标欺诈Shut your kale-hole闭上你的臭嘴Whats in a name, anyway?无论如何,商标中能有什么呢?CHICK-FIL-A sells an average of nine sandwiches per second at its roughly 1,600 restaurants.托莱多的约1600家餐厅每秒平均卖出9个三明治。Bo Muller-Moore paints T-shirts in the garage next to his house in Montpelier, Vermont.家在蒙彼利埃(美国佛蒙特州首府)的Bo Muller-Moore在其车库里染印T恤衫。In 2011 Chick-fil-As sales were more than billion; Mr Muller-Moore (pictured) estimates that his were ,000.托莱多2001年的销售额超过40亿美元;而Muller-Moore估计其销售额仅有40000美元。Nonetheless, the slogan screened on his shirts-;Eat More Kale;, initially made in 2001 as a favour for a local farmer, whose kale crop had a bumper year-caught the humourless eyes of Chick-fil-As lawyers.尽管如此, Muller-Moore染印在T恤衫上的短语;Eat More Kale;还是为托莱多无趣的律师们所关注。They had sent him a cease-and-desist letter in 2006, claiming his slogan was too close to their clients ;Eat Mor Chikin;.他们向Muller-Moore发出了;勒令停止通知函;,声称Muller-Moore的宣传语同托莱多的宣传语;Eat Mor Chikin;意思太相近。Really?事实真是如此吗?The letter does not cite a single person whom the slogan has confused.信函并未列举出任何一个为此宣传语—Eat More Kale所误导的人。Besides, one entity sells food, the other clothing; only the profoundly stoned or deranged would try to eat a T-shirt or wear a chicken sandwich.此外,他们一个是卖快餐的,另一个是卖衣的;只有那些酩酊大醉、精神错乱的人才会吃T恤衫或者穿鸡肉三明治。But Mr Muller-Moore is not the only small entrepreneur to have caught the attention of a big firms trademark hawks.然而,Muller-Moore先生并非唯一一个受到大型企业商标权恐吓的私营业主。In the company that makes Monster energy drinks demanded that Vermonts Rock Art Brewery stop calling its barley wine ;Vermonster;.在年,生产怪物能量饮料的公司要求福蒙特州的啤酒厂Rock Art停止使用;Vermonster;作为其高酒精啤酒的名称。Last year Tootsie Roll Industries, which makes chewy sweets, filed suit against the maker of a roll-up shoe called Footzyrolls.去年,生产咀嚼软糖的小脚趾圈公司对生产roll-up shoe的厂商Footzyrolls提起诉讼。And in The North Face, an outdoor-clothing company, sued a much smaller clothing company that had decided to call itself The South Butt.在年,户外装公司The North Face对一个非常小的装公司提起诉讼,因为其自称The South Butt。Chick-fil-A insists it has to protect its trademark.托莱多声称要坚决保护它的商标。But its idea of self-defence looks to others like bullying.然而,这一行为对于其他人来说更像恐吓、威胁。The firm is protecting its trademark not from a crafty restaurateur hoping to piggyback on its fame, but from a kale farmer and a ;Neolithic stencil-artist; in Vermont.它所谓的商标侵权者不是借其名声的狡猾的餐馆老板,而是风蒙特州的一个种植羽衣甘蓝的农民和一个民间模板艺术家。Also, Chick-fil-A seems to be claiming ownership of the phrase ;eat more;, which is a bit greedy.而且,托莱多似乎宣称其是;eat more;词组的所有者。这一行为显得太贪婪了。Mr Muller-Moore is fighting back. He has taken his campaign to Facebook and Kickstarter, where he and a co-producer are trying to raise funds for a documentary called ;A Defiant Dude;.Muller-Moore先生对托莱多的起诉予以回击。他同其合伙人在Facebook和Kickstarter试图为一个名为;野蛮的家伙;的纪录片募集资金。Rock Art Brewery similarly defended itself, not in a court of law, where deep-pocketed corporations enjoy an enormous advantage, but in the court of public opinion.Rock Art啤酒厂同样予以反击,不是在;自古衙门朝南开,有理无钱莫进来;的法庭,而是在公众舆论的平台。It worked.这一方式奏效了。After boycotts and negative publicity, Monsters makers agreed to drop the matter provided that Rock Art did not start making energy drinks.在收到抵制和负面的名声影响后,怪物饮料生产商同意撤销诉讼,条件是Rock Art不在生产能量饮料。Mr Muller-Moore claims to have received thousands of supportive letters.Muller-Moore先生声称收到了无数的声援信。Hundreds of people have pledged to fund his film.许多人对其给予了资金援助。Chick-fil-A may end up eating more crow.托莱多最终可能会以失败告终。 /201210/206156
  • Ok. You should keep following a river like this downstream. It will lead to a bigger river, then the coast. Walking has always been a big part of Aboriginal culture. And for them, it’s about experiencing the landscape and learning to live with nature. And for me, I think so many of my early climbing expeditions were similar, you know. It’s about pushing my boundaries and through that, finding my sense of identity. 好吧,你应该一直跟着这样的河流,顺流而下。它会带你到更大的河流,最后到达海洋。步行一直是土著文化的一重要部分。对于他们来说,步行使他们能够欣赏沿途的风景,学会与大自然和谐相处。我觉得这与我早期登山探险的许多经历很相似。对于我来说就是在拓宽视野,以此来找到自我认同感。Wow, look at that. After the hot plains, coming across a river like this will really lift your spirits. I joke not when I say it is searingly hot here. And this water is just god sent.哇,看那边。越过那片热平原,就会来到一条像这样的河流边,这会让你神清气爽。当我说这里天气炙热的时候不是在开玩笑。这简直就是上帝派来的。Aborigines believe that the rainbow serpent made the rivers as he traveled across the land. And that serpent is a symbol for both the creative and destructive forces of nature. These gorges are testimony to that power. All around me are signs of flashfloods and debris. Now in the wet season, the risks of these floods are even higher. Where there is water, there is life. And not all of it is friendly.土著人相信河流是虹蛇游过后形成的。虹蛇象征着大自然创造性和破坏性的力量。这些峡谷就是这种力量存在的据。四周遍布着残骸,到处都是骤发洪水的迹象。在湿季,发洪水的几率更高。有水的地方就有生命。但并不是所有的都是友好的。Whaa. Look at this.哇。看这边。 原文译文属!201207/188973
  • Mind Reading读心术Sometimes we get letters here asking whether psychics are for real. Well, despite the t.v. shows, there isn’t any scientific evidence that psychic powers, such as mind-ing, actually exist. That doesn’t prove they don’t exist–just that, so far, there’s no reason to think they do.我们有时会收到观众来信询问通灵人是否真实存在。实际上,除了电视节目,没有任何科学依据明特异功能的存在,例如读心术。但这也不能明它们不存在。只是目前为止,我们没有理由相信它们存在。Still, the famous scientist and popular writer Isaac Asimov made an interesting observation about mind-ing once. Many people across the centuries have claimed they could other people’s minds. If this is true, Asimov points out, then mind-ing would be a fact of nature. It would at least in some people be one of things that the human brain can do, just like dreaming or maintaining your body temperature. That would mean that mind-ing would have to be the result of evolution.不过,著名科学家及作家艾萨克?阿西莫夫做过一次有趣的观察,是关于读心术的。在过去的几个世纪里,很多人声称自己会读心术。如果真的是那样,艾萨克?阿西莫夫指出,那么读心术便是一种本性。人的大脑是可以做到的,就像做梦或者维持体温。这意味着读心术是进化的结果。If, somehow, brains could other brains directly, there would indeed be a very strong evolutionary advantage to it. In Asimov’s example, even a simple version of mind-ing, such as a chicken being able to sense an approaching fox’s brain as it thinks “food, food, food,” would be a huge advantage! Animals of any species that could do rudimentary mind-ing should survive much better than ones that couldn’t, and should pass on their mind-ing gene quite effectively.如果大脑能够直接解读其他大脑,必然会有一个强大的进化优势。在阿西莫夫的实例中,即使是读心术的简单版本,例如鸡能感觉到正在靠近的狐狸的大脑在想“食物,食物,食物”,这就是一个很大的优势。那些可以做最基本的读心术的动物比不会读心术的动物生存得更好,并且会高效地传授它们的读心术基因。Do you see the problem? The fact that there is a debate at all over whether mind-ing exists suggests that it doesn’t. If it were a real phenomenon, versions of it should be widesp, the way normal vision is. We would expect it to be everywhere . . . not just in a few “special” people with nothing up their sleeves.明白了吗?关于读心术是否存在的争论表明它根本不存在。如果读心术真实存在的话,它的版本应该更广泛,方式更正常。我们希望它无处不在,而不只是发生在几个毫无根据的;特殊;的人身上。 /201303/229877
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