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玫瑰医疗普及新闻

2018年12月16日 07:38:59
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Brazils history has been expressed through its national passion for music.巴西的历史已经表达了这个国家对音乐的热情。Samba, the countrys dominant musical style, was used by politicians in the 30s in an attempt to create unity and a sense of national identity in this vast multiracial state.桑巴这一全国主要的音乐形式,在30年代被政客使用以在这个巨大的多民族国家试图创造团结和民族身份的感觉。Regional musicians fought back, determined to promote a more down-to-earth image of Brazil.而传统地区的音乐家们奋起反击,决心促成巴西一种更为实际的形象。And in the 50s, Bosnova gave Brazil a new sophisticated internatinal identity.在50年代,巴萨诺瓦赋予了巴西一种新的复杂的国际身份。But in the 60s, everything changed.但在60年代,一切都为之改变。In a era of repression, music becomes a battleground in the new struggle to determine the identify of Brazil.这是一个压迫的时代,音乐在新的难以确定巴西身份中成为一个战场。1964 was a strange year for Brazilian music.1964年对巴西音乐而言是奇怪的一年。 注:听力文本来源于普特 201301/222968上海人民医院祛痣多少钱Downturn, start up-The effects of recessions on entrepreneurs and managers run deep衰退与创业;;经济衰退对企业家和经理人的影响在加剧THE list of famous companies founded during economic downturns is long and varied. It includes General Motors, ATamp;T, Disney and MTV, all founded during recessions. A study found that over half of Fortune 500 companies got their start during a downturn or a bear market. A recession, it seems, may not be an entirely bad time to start a company. Indeed, busts (and booms) cast a longer shadow on the business landscape than is commonly realised, because they influence both the rate of business formation and how existing firms are run.在经济衰退期间创办的知名企业数量很多,且各式各样的行业都有。通用汽车(General Motors)、美国电话电报公司(ATamp;T)、迪士尼(Disney)和音乐电视(MTV,全球两大音乐台之一)等都是在经济衰退时创建的。年有研究发现,超过一半的财富500强公司都是在衰退或熊市期间创设的。经济衰退时期,看起来并非完全不适合创设新公司。事实上,萧条(或繁荣)对经济的商业环境的影响远比一般人意识到的要深远,因为它们既影响新企业的设立速度又影响现有企业的运营状况。Some argue that recessions speed up the process of productive economic churn;what Joseph Schumpeter called ;creative destruction;. The destruction part is easy to see: downturns kill businesses, leaving boarded-up windows on the high street as their gravestones. But recessions may also spur the creation of new businesses.有些人认为,经济衰退可以加快经济结构的调整进程;;约瑟夫熊彼特称这为;创造性破坏;。破坏那部分很容易理解:经济衰退让企业倒闭,大街上剩下的那些用木板钉牢的窗户就如同他们的墓碑。然而,经济衰退也可能刺激新行业(企业)的诞生。When people suddenly have less money to spend, clever entrepreneurs may see an opportunity to set up businesses that give them what they want more cheaply or efficiently. Downturns may also swell the ranks of potential firm creators, because many who might otherwise have sought a stable salary will reinvent themselves as entrepreneurs. A recent study by Robert Fairlie of the University of California, Santa Cruz found that the proportion of Americans who start a new business each month is on average about half as high again in metropolitan areas where unemployment is in double digits as in those where it is under 2%.当人们的可配的收入突然减少,敏锐的企业家可能抓住这个机会去兴办企业,生产他们需要的更便宜且更有效的商品。经济衰退也可能扩大潜在创业者的规模,因为很多原本要寻找一个稳定的工作的人,将会重塑自己为企业家。圣克鲁兹的加利福尼亚大学的罗伯特费尔利最近的一项研究发现,在失业率高达两位数的大城市,美国人的月均创业比率大约两倍于那些失业率在2%以下的地区。A recession is a difficult time to start a company, of course. Credit is scarce. Would-be entrepreneurs are further handicapped by falling asset prices, since they might want to use their homes as collateral for a start-up loan. Whether downturns on balance help or hurt entrepreneurs depends therefore on the relative strength of these opposing sets of forces.当然,在经济衰退期间创业总是相当艰难的。信用稀缺,且不断下降的资产价格更成为未来的企业家们创业的进一步障碍,因此他们可能以房屋为抵押,从而获得启动资金。因此,资产负债表的恶化对企业家是有利还是有害,取决于他们的相对资本实力。Mr Fairlie finds evidence that the spur to enterprise during the most recent recession in America from a drying-up of other employment opportunities outweighed the drag on business formation from a collapsing housing market. That said, a shrinking economy also makes it hard for young firms to take root and grow. A study commissioned by the Kaufmann Foundation, an organisation devoted to entrepreneurs, suggests that young companies, typically responsible for the bulk of US job creation, added only 2.3m jobs in , down from about 3m a year earlier.费尔利在美国最近的经济衰退中发现的据表明,其他就业机会的枯竭对创业的刺激超过了崩溃的房地产市场的阻碍。也就是说,经济萎缩也使得年轻企业难以扎根和成长。考夫曼基金会(一个致力于研究企业家的组织)资助的一项研究表明,美国大多数就业机会的增加要归功于新企业,在年仅增加了230万就业,而在去年这数字是300万左右。Tough times do not suddenly prompt everyone to start a business. The vast majority of people who reach working age during a downturn still look for a job. But research also suggests that recessions have lasting effects on how executives manage businesses. John Graham of Duke University and Krishnamoorthy Narasimhan of PIMCO, a bond manager, have found that chief executives who lived through the Depression tended to run companies with lower debt levels (leverage then went up when these Depression-era bosses retired). In a new study, Antoinette Schoar and Luo Zuo of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology show that companies run many years later by people who cut their teeth during bleak times, when money was tight and customers harder to find, are systematically different from those run by managers whose formative experiences date back to expansionary times, when credit and optimism were in ample supply.艰难的日子并非突然促使每个人去创业。在衰退时期,绝大多数处于工作年龄的人仍然会去寻找工作。但是有研究表明,衰退对管理层管理企业的方式有着持续的影响。杜克大学的约翰葛拉汉和太平洋投资管理公司(PIMCO)的债券经理Krishnamoorthy Narasimhan发现萧条期间的首席执行官倾向于以更低的债务水平运营公司(在大萧条时代的老板退休以后,公司的财务杠杆将会上升)。在一项新研究中,麻省理工学院(MIT)的安托瓦内特肖尔和佐罗( Luo Zuo)发现,那些曾在黑暗时期(银根紧缩,客户难寻)创业的企业家管理多年的公司,与仅经历扩张时期(信贷充足,且对未来持乐观态度)的企业家的公司有系统性的差别。By carefully dissecting the careers of over 5,700 bosses of companies that have been on the Samp;P 1500 list, Ms Schoar and Mr Zuo found that those who began their management careers during a bust were substantially more risk-averse, took on less debt and generally were more conservative managers than the rest of the sample, even many decades later. That will strike critics of the over-leveraged company as thoroughly good news, but it is hard to say whether this effect is entirely benign.通过详细分析那些公司曾入标普1500(Samp;P1500)的公司的5700多名老板的职业生涯,肖尔女士和佐先生发现,那些在萧条时期开始管理生涯的人更不愿意冒险,公司的负债更少。此外,即使几十年之后,相对于样本中的其他老板,他们亦更保守。这对于那些指责公司过度负债的批评家来说,应该是彻底的好消息。然而,很难判断这样的效应是否是完全良性的。Bosses whose careers began in a recession also tend to be so concerned about cost-effectiveness that the companies they go on to run spend less on research and development. They may thus be too conservative: firms with bosses whose professional baptism came in a weak economy have lower returns on assets than those run by other managers.那些在衰退时期开始管理者生涯的人,倾向于过多地关注企业的成本效益,以致他们研发的投入较少。他们也可能因此变得过于保守:对于那些职业生涯受过经济低迷的严峻考验的老板,他们的企业的资产回报率相比其他老板的要低。Why should this be? One plausible explanation is that recessions affect the way people take decisions. Management styles are surely in part the result of the kinds of problems a person has had to grapple with. Even a risk-lover may end up taking more conservative financial decisions in a weak economy. If these decisions serve him well in lean times, then he may conclude that fiscal prudence is a stance worth sticking with in years of plenty.这是为什么呢?一个合理的解释是经济衰退影响人们的决策方式。企业家的管理风格在一定程度上取决于他们过去所应对的各种难题。即使一个风险爱好者也可能在经济不景气的时候最终选择保守的融资决策。如果那些决策在拮据时期给他带来了好处,那么他可能得出这样的结论,即使在经济繁荣的时候,审慎的投融资仍是值得我们持续坚持的立场。Downturns also funnel people into different jobs from those they might otherwise have entered. A 2008 study by Paul Oyer of Stanford University found that Stanford MBAs disproportionately shunned Wall Street during a bear market. This may seem unsurprising;who wants a job in finance when the market is tanking? But there are reasons to believe that these choices make a difference well into the future. Those who begin their careers in a bust are less footloose than their boom-time equivalents. Ms Schoar and Mr Zuo find that the average recession-scarred chief executive is more likely to have risen through the ranks of a firm than the norm, and is less likely to have switched employers or jumped from one industry to another.若不存在经济下滑,人们可能会选择不同的工作。2008年,斯坦福大学的保罗奥耶研究发现,斯坦福的工商管理硕士(MBA)在熊市时都或多或少地避免在华尔街就业。这看起来不足为奇;;在股市大滑坡之际,又有谁愿意在金融领域工作呢?但是我们有理由相信,这些选择的影响将会波及未来。相比那些在经济繁荣期间开始工作的同行,在萧条期间开创职业生涯的人显得更稳定。肖尔女士和 佐先生发现一般经历过经济衰退的首席执行官有更大的可能是从公司的底层一步步爬上来的,也不大可能跳槽或变换所从事的行业。The pool of candidates for top jobs in a particular industry reflects the choices that people make early on in their working lives. Yet these choices are the result not only of managersrsquo; preferences and abilities, as you might expect, but also of the economic circumstances that prevailed at the time they began working. Whether they were set up during a boom or a bust, todayrsquo;s firms are deeply affected by the economic fluctuations of the past.某一特定行业最高职位可供选择的人才反映了他们在工作初期所做的选择。然而,这些选择不仅仅依赖经理的偏好和工作能力,正如你所预料的,也取决于他们开始工作时所处的经济环境。不管企业是在衰退又或者在繁荣时期创设的,现在的企业都深受过去经济波动的影响。201202/171155九院治疗狐臭多少钱第一人民医院宝山分院玻尿酸隆鼻价格费用

上海整形 推选玫瑰上海鼻翼缩小多少钱The gravity on Mars is about 1/3 the gravity on earth. That means this 300-pound suit will still weigh a little over 100 pounds on Mars. Thats heavy if the astronauts want to explore Marss rocky cliffs and valleys.火星上的重力只有地球的三分之一。那意味着一套300磅的太空在火星上只重100英镑多一点。对于宇航员来说,如果想要探索火星的岩石峭壁和山谷,300磅是非常重的。;Mars is a fantastic environment. The Martian geography makes Mount Everest and the Grand Canyon look very small. So we really need a suit that we can lope and bend and climb and we want it to be a very light system as well. And so thats why we came up with our bio-suit invention.;火星上的环境很奇妙。火星的地形令珠穆朗玛峰和大峡谷显得很渺小。因此我们确实需要一种可以让人大步走,能弯曲能攀爬的太空,同时也要非常轻便。因此我们想到发明生物太空。The bio-suit, a light weight, full mobility spacesuit designed for human exploration on Mars.Bio-suit是一种重量轻,移动性全面的太空,专门为人类在火星上探险而设计。;Spacesuit has to provide pressure to keep someone alive in space.;“为了让人们在太空上活着,太空一定要提供压力。”The atmospheric pressure on Mars is about 1/100 of that on earth. Walking around in that kind of pressure would be fatal.火星上的大气压力只有地球的100分之1。在这种压力下行走会有致命的危险。;Due to kind of this vacillate since your fluid is in your body would come out of a solution and so you would essentially choke and die. It wouldnt be very pretty.;“由于这种波动,你体内的血液可能会倒流,因此你会窒息而死。这样就不好了。”A conventional spacesuit keeps the astronaut in a hard shell that is gas-pressurized. For the astronaut its like being in a balloon. The breakthrough with the bio-suit is that it can apply the required pressure right onto your body.传统的太空把宇航员包在气体供压的硬壳里。宇航员看起来像挤在一只气球里。生物太空的重大突破在于它能将压力直接施加在你身体上。;The bio-suit squeezes a person. We call it mechanical counter pressure that provides enough pressure to keep all the fluids and your body working.“生物太空会挤压人。我们叫它“机械反压”,它会提供足够大压力,让你的血液和身体正常工作。”As an added bonus its a lot cooler-looking than the old spacesuits.附加的奖励是它比传统的太空看起来更酷。;There is a very specific patterning to the suit that I guess it kind of looks like a spider man suit.;“这种生物太空有非常具体的特点,让我感觉跟蜘蛛侠的衣相似。”The lines on the suit arent just a fashion statement; they are actually a kind of exoskeleton that keeps the suit rigid.衣上的线条并不是为了时尚而设计。它们实际上是一种让衣保持稳固的外骨骼。That pattern doesnt move and is very much mapped to your musculature so as you can move your joints, your elbows and your knees but these lines would stay, you know very tight fitting to your muscles if you can imagine that so allowing you maximum mobility.这种线条不能移动,这也映射了肌肉组织,正如你可以移动关节,胳膊肘和膝盖,但肌肉线条仍然不动。如果你能想象的话,太空紧贴着肌肉才能使你最大限度的活动。原文译文属!201208/194468Finance and Economics;Inflation around the world;Parsing prices;财经;全球通胀;价格分析Rising inflation is not as worrisome as it appears, at least for now.通胀没有看上去那么可怕,至少现在如此。Inflation is back. Despite a weak recovery in much of the world, the threat of rising prices preoccupies policymakers and the public. Concerns are greatest in emerging markets. Inflation stands at 4.6% in China and 5.9% in Brazil; in India it is almost 10%, if below last years high. But it is on the rich worlds agenda, too (see chart).通胀回来了。尽管世界上大部分地区有略微的恢复,但是价格上涨的威胁仍萦绕在政策制定者和公众的心头。这种焦虑在新兴市场最为严重。中国通胀率维持在4.6%,巴西是5.9%,在印度,如果说通胀率比去年最高点低的话也达到了近10%。但是,通胀也提上了富国的议事日程。(见图)Euro-area inflation hit 2.4% in January, according to data out this week. Jean-Claude Trichet, the president of the European Central Bank, has been talking tough, recalling the ECBs July 2008 rate rise when concern over inflation trumped a wobbling economy. In Britain inflation has been above its 2% target since December and stood at 3.7% in December. Mervyn King, the governor of the Bank of England, gave warning in January that it will soon climb to 4-5%. Even in America, where inflation has been at historic lows, it jumped to 1.5% at the end of last year.根据本周发布的数据,欧元区1月份的通胀率达2.4%。欧洲中央行长让-克罗德·特里谢(Jean-Claude Trichet)回忆起欧洲央行2008年7月上调利率,那时通胀的忧虑超过了了摇摇欲坠的经济。在英国,通胀从年12月起通胀已超过其2%的目标,2010年12月保持在3.7%。英国央行行长默文·金(Mervyn King)1月警告通胀率很快就会攀升至4-5%。甚至在通胀率一直位于历史最低点的美国去年年底也上涨到1.5%。Much of the surge in inflation reflects dearer commodities. As well as oil and food, metals prices have been soaring: the price of copper hit a series of record highs this week. More expensive raw materials will work their way through the supply chain over the coming months, pushing up on inflation. Another part of the story in Europe is the effort to plug fiscal gaps by increasing VAT, a consumption tax. A hike in VAT at the start of the year will have driven prices higher in Britain in January.通胀的急剧上升反映出商品的日益昂贵。金属、油和食品价格一直飞涨:本周铜价创一系列历史最高。在未来几月,更多的昂贵的原材料会通过供应链推高通胀率。欧洲正增加增值税(一种消费税)以填补财政赤字。伦敦新年伊始增值税的增长将推动1月价格水平上涨。A rise in commodity prices or taxes has only a temporary effect on inflation, however, with the price rise dropping out of annual comparisons after a year. The stuff of nightmares for central bankers is that this leads to a more pernicious type of inflation. Price rises change expectations of inflation, leading workers to bid for wage increases that preserve their buying power and firms to push through price increases, generating a vicious spiral.然而,商品价格或税收的增长只能暂时影响通胀,因为一年后价格上涨将不具可比性。让央行行长们夜不能寐的是这将导致一种更恶性的通胀。价格上涨改变通胀预期,致使工人为维持购买力而要求涨工资,企业推动价格上涨,从而产生一个恶性工资——价格螺旋。These “second-round effects” are worth losing sleep over, but only when there is aly inflationary pressure in the wider economy, from a tight labour market and firms running factories at full pelt. Such overheating seems some way off for advanced economies. The unemployment rate is in double digits in the euro area, above 9% in America and 7.9% in Britain. Wage growth has been weak, running below 1% in the euro zone and at around 2% in America and Britain.只有劳动力市场紧缩,企业利用全部产能,致使在更大范围的经济已经存在通胀压力时,这些“第二轮效应”才值得人们为之辗转反侧。这种过热似乎对发达国家来说遥不可及。欧元区失业率达两位数,在美国超过9%,在英国超过7.9%。工资涨幅不大,欧元区不到1%,而美国和英国在2%左右。Inflation expectations have edged up a little in recent months. But even if workers expected inflation to let rip, they would be in a bind. Karen Ward of HS reckons anxious employees wont ask for more pay for fear that they will end up getting the sack instead.通胀预期在最近几个月已经略微加强。但是即使工人预期通胀会失控,他们仍无能为力。汇丰的Karen Ward估计,焦急的员工因为害怕被解雇而不会要求加薪。Rich-world economies are also running well below capacity. According to the OECD, in 2010 the G7 economies were anywhere between 2.4% (Japan) and 4.7% (Italy) below potential output. Such estimates are notoriously imprecise. But if the recovery had aly eliminated excess capacity they would be in the wrong city, not just the wrong ballpark.发达国家经济经济资源远未达到充分利用。根据经济合作发展组织(OECD),2010年七国集团经济实际产出低于潜在产出,差额为2.4%(日本)至4.7%(意大利)之间。那类估计十分不准确。但是如果复苏已经消除过剩产能,则错误之处就不仅是细枝末节而是大前提就错了。The story is very different in emerging economies. Many of these got back to their pre-crisis levels of output in . With capacity constraints starting to bite, underlying inflation is on the up. Households inflation expectations are also rising. In China they are at their highest for over a decade and there are signs of growing wage pressure. Higher wages are not, by themselves, a bad thing, especially in a country like China where pay has for years failed to keep pace with rapid productivity growth. The danger comes when loose monetary conditions and an overheating economy mean prices and wages chase each other upward.新兴市场的情况大为不同。很多新型经济体于年恢复到危机前的产出水平。产能水平开始起限制作用,通胀开始上升。居民的通胀预期也在增长。中国通胀已达十多年来最高水平出现工资上涨压力的迹象。更高工资本身并不是件坏事,尤其是在中国这样一个多年工资增长赶不上生产力增长的国家。但宽松的货币状况和过热的经济意味着价格和工资彼此追赶螺旋上升时,危险就来了。To prevent that, central bankers have been fighting back with higher interest rates and higher reserve requirements. The Brazilian and Indian central banks raised rates last month; in total, they have now hiked their policy rates by 2.5 and 1.75 percentage points respectively. Chinas central bank recently raised reserve requirements for the seventh time in a year.为了控制工资——价格螺旋上升,央行的家们一直通过加息和上调准备金率予以回击。上月巴西和印度央行上调利率;现在他们已经分别上调2.5个百分点和1.75个百分点。中国央行最近进行了年内第七次上调准备金率。For all that, monetary conditions remain extraordinarily loose. According to JPMorgan Chase, real policy rates in emerging economies—the official interest rate minus core consumer-price inflation—are at their lowest level since 2000. Core consumer-price inflation (which excludes food and energy prices) remains below its 2008 levels. But vigilance is needed. A continuation of booming growth and cheap money will cause trouble in the end.尽管有上述一切措施,货币状况依然十分宽松,根大通表示,新兴市场的实际利率(名义利率减核心消费价格通胀率)达到2000年以来的最低点。核心消费价格通胀率(不包括食品和能源价格)保持在2008年水平以下。但是警惕是需要的。最终,持续的经济过热和货币贬值将造成麻烦。 /201302/225122浦东新区人民医院减肥手术价格闵行区人民医院激光去痣多少钱

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