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佛山市第一人民医院男科预约好面诊

2018年11月21日 23:56:19 | 作者:58健康 | 来源:新华社
Finance and economics财经商业Rigging currency markets操控货币市场Bank, fix thyself,作茧自缚The Bank of England faces questions over its role in rigged forex deals.英格兰面临非法操控外币市场的指控。ABOUT two dozen staff have so far been fired or suspended by banks for allegedly tampering with foreign-exchange markets.目前为止,总共约有24名员工因操纵外汇市场而被解雇或停职。The latest twist in the saga came from an unexpected quarter:给这一漫长风波带来新波折的,是令人意想不到的一方:on March 5th the Bank of England announced that it too had suspended an official following an internal investigation.3月5日,英格兰经过内部调查后宣布将一名职员停职。Awkwardly, Britains central bank has gone from inquisitor to a possible protagonist in the latest episode of financial-market chicanery.尴尬的是,这次金融市场诈骗案的最新发展却使英国中央从审问官变为了犯罪嫌疑人。Regulators globally have spent months investigating whether forex traders at big banks rigged global currency markets,全球监管部门已花费数月来调查大型的外汇交易员们是否操纵了全球货币市场,the worlds largest, where turnover is over trillion a day.这个世界最大的市场中的日流通额度达到了5万亿美元。They suspect that bankers used their knowledge of what currencies their clients wanted to buy and sell to nudge market prices against them.它们怀疑员工利用其客户想要买卖的现金种类的消息来推动市场上的汇率下跌。If so, it would be the latest in a long list of financial benchmarks that have been rigged in ways that have bolstered bankers bonuses.如果情况属实,这将成为那一长串纵以获取大量红利的基准数字中的新成员。Fines are still pouring in over LIBOR, an interest rate used to peg contracts worth trillions, which traders fiddled.因操纵LIBOR一个涉及到数万亿合同的利率数字,而受到巨额罚款的仍在不断增加。A plausible defence from the bankers in the latest probe might be that they had told the Bank of England exactly what they were doing.在最新一次调查中,员工辩称曾告知英格兰他们的具体行为。Minutes from regular meetings between the central bank and traders showed widesp concern about the structure of the currency markets as early as 2006.中央和交易员日常会议的记录文件显示,早在2006年货币市场的结构就引起了广泛关注。All sides agreed that it was open to abuse because many clients,各有关方面都认为这极易受到利用,因为众多顾客,from multinational companies to mutual funds with foreign holdings,从跨国公司到有外国资本的共同基金都以一个当日参考汇率来买卖货币,tended to buy and sell currencies from their banks at a single daily reference rate, the London fix, which is calculated using trades executed in 60 seconds of trading at 4pm in London.而伦敦定价是基于下午四点开始60秒钟内发生在伦敦的所有交易来计算的。That means rigging the market for just a minute could reap rich rewards.这意味着操纵市场一分钟就能带来丰厚的回报。A bank that had agreed to sell lots of Canadian dollars, say,比方说,一家在定价时为客户公司卖出大量加元,for a corporate customer could, in effect, depress that currencys price at the fix and so buy them for itself at a slightly lower price.这就会压低货币的价格,从而使能以低一些的价格买入加元。Bankers allegedly shared trading positions ahead of the fix, in internet messaging groups, among them The Cartel and The Bandits Club.据称,员工在在定价之前会在网络上共享交易头寸,比如在卡特尔和强盗俱乐部交易员从不以谨慎著称。Regulators think this is tantamount to fraud; banks have argued they were injecting order in an otherwise unworkable marketplace.监管部门认为这等同于诈骗;而辩解称,他们是在维护市场秩序,以保市场的正常运行。Notes taken by a trader at a meeting organised by the Bank of England in April 2012 suggest the traders had told the bank that they regularly shared information on forex positions.一位交易员在2012年4月英格兰会议上的笔记显示,交易员已经告知他们定期共享外汇头寸的信息。According to Bloomberg, the central bank at least tacitly endorsed their attempts to match buyers and sellers,根据彭社消息,英国中央至少是默许了交易员匹配买家和卖家的行为,purportedly to limit the volatility of everyone trading at the fix.据称这是为了限制定价时各类交易的不稳定性。Discomfitingly, the bank explicitly said notes should not be taken at the meeting. Its own minutes reportedly shed no light on the matter.尴尬的是,曾明确表示开会时是不允许记笔记。方面的会议记录中并未涉及相关事件。The Bank of England denies it endorsed any wrongdoing.英格兰否认自己曾允许违规操作。After reviewing 15,000 e-mails, 21,000 chat messages and 40 hours of phone-call recordings, it said it had found no evidence its staff were privy to any collusion.该表示,在其调查的15,000封邮件、21,000聊天信息和40小时的电话记录中,没有据显示员工私下勾结。But one person at Thneedle Street had breached rigorous internal control processes,但是针线街的一名员工确实违反了严格的内部控制流程,and others have been reminded of the importance of keeping accurate records and telling higher-ups when they hear something noteworthy.而其他人则被提醒了保管好准确的记录以及在得到重要消息时告知上级的重要性。A fuller investigation has been launched.进一步的调查正在进行中。It is not the first time the central bank is painted as a conspirator in financial fiddling—or at least a tolerator of it.这已经不是英国中央第一次被描述为金融舞弊的谋划者或者至少是默许者。In 2012 the then-deputy governor, Paul Tucker, had to flatly deny he had sanctioned duff LIBOR submissions by Barclays at the height of the financial crisis.在2012年,时任副行长的保罗塔克坚决否认自己在金融危机高潮时持了巴克莱提交的经过粉饰的LIBOR意见书。Chummy exchanges with Bob Diamond, at the time the boss at Barclays, made for awkward ing.而他与时任巴克莱行长的鲍勃戴蒙德之间的暧昧谈话,又像是在自打耳光。One potential problem for banks is that, unlike the people affected by LIBOR, it is easy for those who were fleeced by their forex bankers to figure it out.对而言,一个潜在的问题是这些被外汇交易员痛宰的客户不同于受到LIBOR影响的那些,他们更容易发现事实。Perhaps the most curious thing is the timing: much of the currency-market skulduggery happened after the banks had aly come under investigation for LIBOR.最值得玩味的事情也许是,大量货币市场舞弊发生在已经因为LIOBR受到调查之后。That suggests banks were slow to clean up the rotten culture on their trading floors,这表明在清除交易市场上的陈腐文化时非常缓慢,or that they genuinely thought their colluding ways had been officially endorsed.或者他们是真的认为串通行为被官方允许。 /201403/279797Business商业报道Solar power in India印度太阳能Waiting for the sun等待着艳阳Is the sun the answer to Indias energy problems?太阳能是印度能源问题的解决办法吗?ON A salt plain near the border with Pakistan lies half a billion dollars worth of solar-energy kit paid for by firms from all over the world.靠近巴基斯坦边界的一块盐地,安装了来自全球的公司价值五亿美元的太阳能设备。A million panels stretch as far as the eye can see.目所能及的就有一百万块太阳能板了。Past a dishevelled brass band is a tent crammed with 5,000 people who cheer when Narendra Modi, the chief minister of Gujarat, declares the solar park open:穿过一群散乱的铜管乐队就是一个挤满了正在欢庆的5000人帐篷区,此时,古吉拉特邦的首席部长纳伦德拉·莫迪宣布太阳能电厂正式运行,I pray, sun god, that today Gujarat will show the way to the rest of the world for solar energy.我希望太阳神庇护我们,今天古吉拉特邦将向世界其他地方展示通向太阳能的道路。Despite the uncomfortable cult of personality around Mr Modi, Gujarat is an easy place to do business.除了对莫迪的个人崇拜令人感到不舒外,古吉拉特邦还是一个容易经商的地方。And solar power would appear to be an obvious winner for India.而太阳能仿佛令印度成为了最大的赢家。The country has plenty of sun and flat, idle land.印度境内有充沛的阳光和许多平坦闲置的用地。India is energy-hungry, but electricity supply is sporadic.而它又是一个能源缺乏的国家,电力供应时常不足。Costly diesel generators are popular. Solar power could replace them.连昂贵的柴油发电机在这里也很畅销。And solar parks, which look like giant Lego kits, are easier to build than conventional power plants.这方面太阳能可以替代。至于看上去像巨大的乐高积木桶的太阳能发电厂,比起建造传统的发电厂要容易多。The new park, in a place called Charanka, has just over 200 megawatts of capacity running, making it the biggest site in India.最新的电厂,建在Charanka,拥有超过200兆瓦发电量,使其成为印度最大的电力厂。It took 16 months to build. No one builds nuclear power stations nearly that fast.它花了16个月去建造,没有人能用这速度建造出原子能发电站。Two other factors make an Indian solar boom seem possible.还有两个原因使印度的太阳能得到广泛使用成为可能。Conventional energy generation, which in India means burning cheap but dirty local coal, is a mess.传统能源的生产十分混乱,在印度是通过燃烧便宜但污染大的煤炭来发电的。Power stations charge local electricity boards 3-4 rupees per kilowatt hour.发电站以每度电约3~4卢比卖给当地的供电局。The state coal monopoly is unable to dig up enough of the black stuff, forcing power firms to buy pricier imported coal.国家垄断了煤炭,却无法开采足够的量,这迫使能源公司购买更贵的进口煤炭。Hopes that India might find abundant natural gas off its coast have been dashed.印度期望能在远离海岸线的地方找到丰富的天然气的愿望已经破灭。Many observers think the price of conventional power will have to rise to 5-6 rupees.许多观测者认为传统能源价格将上升5~6卢比。Meanwhile, the cost of solar equipment has fallen by a third since 2010, reckons Alan Rosling of Kiran Energy,与此同时,一间由美国私募基金注资的太阳能公司—Kiran能源的阿兰?罗斯林指出,自2010年以后,a solar firm backed by American private equity.太阳能装备的花费已经下降了三分之一。Cheaper solar and pricier conventional power have persuaded many that solar will soon be competitive without subsidies.相对便宜的太阳能与较贵的传统能源令更多的人在没有补贴的情况下仍选择更有竞争力的太阳能。V. Saibaba, the boss of Lanco Solar, a firm that makes and operates solar parks, says that by 2016 Indian solar will match the price of conventional electricity.负责建造与运营太阳能发电厂的兰科太阳能公司的领导V. Saibaba说,到2016年印度的太阳能价格将接近传统电力的价格。That should mean a building boom.这意味着太阳能发电厂的建造潮将到来。Sunil Gupta of Standard Chartered, a bank, reckons Indias share of new global solar installations will rise from 1% this year to 5% by 2015.渣打的Sunil Gupta指出,印度的太阳能设备安装量在全球的份额将从今年的1%上升到2015年的5%。Indias central government has set a target for 20,000MW of installed solar generation by 2022, from under 1,000MW today.印度政府设定了一个指标,到2022年,安装的太阳能发电量将从现在的1000百万瓦以下上升到20,000百万瓦。That would still represent a miserly 5% or less of total power-generation capacity in India,这显得有点保守,因为这只是印度总发电量的5%,甚至更少。and cost perhaps billion-40 billion to build—a fraction of the investment in new coal-fired plants.投资约300亿美元~400亿美元去建造太阳能发电厂,而这只是相当于投资于新建的火力发电站的一小部分。So plenty of folk think the official target will be smashed.所以很多人认为官方目标将难以达成。D.J. Pandian, a civil servant in charge of energy policy in Gujarat, believes his state alone will easily reach 10,000MW of capacity in a decade.D.J. Pandian,一位负责古吉拉特邦能源问题的官员则相信,单单古吉拉特邦在十年内就将轻易地达到10,000百万瓦的发电量。But not everyone agrees.但不是每一个人都认同。Half of these plants wont be here in ten years, says a German boss at the new solar park—bad news,这些厂的一半在十年内都不会建在这里,一位在新的太阳能发电厂的德国领导说。since the contracts are for 25 years.他指出,坏消息是,因为合同是25年,Too many firms have cut corners, he reckons.导致太多公司节省成本。A Chinese executive raises his eyebrows at Indias plans to force solar firms to buy some equipment locally.一位中国执行官听了印度计划迫使太阳能公司购买当地的某些设备后扬起了眉毛。The supply chain and economies of scale are not there, he says.供应链以及经济规模还不理想。他说。An American manager scoffs: Weve all been coming to India for years and theyll never get there…一位美国经理调侃到,我们全部来印度已经多年了,清楚他们还没有达到那程度,They dont have the infrastructure.他们没有基础设施。The difficulty of getting plugged into the grid and a shortage of water to clean panels are common worries.难以接入电网以及因水的短缺而致难以清理太阳能板是常见的忧虑。Solar faces two other problems.太阳能普及面对两个问题。First, Gujarats state government has guaranteed high prices of 15 rupees for the first 12 years of operation to solar producers,第一个是,古吉拉特邦的政府要求确保太阳能生产商每度电15卢比的高价,作为第一个12年内的运营成本,which should mean they make money.这也意味着他们可以盈利。But at the national level there is a separate system.但在国家层面上仍有一个分流制。It relies on reverse auctions in which those solar producers who commit to producing power at the lowest cost win the right to operate.那些太阳能制造商是依靠逆向拍卖选出的,谁能用最低的成本生产能源,谁就能获得运营的权利。In the second national solar auction, of 350MW, in December, the winning firms committed themselves to selling solar power for as little as 7.5 rupees.在12月的第二个国家级太阳能运营拍卖会,其产能为350百万瓦,竞拍成功的公司已经承诺,他们将用低至每度7.5卢比的价格卖太阳能。Many people doubt that it is possible to make money at these prices.很多人怀疑按这些价格到底能不能实现盈利。An Indian engineer says the auction was a farce and that it is impossible to build a solid plant and operate it for less than 10 rupees.一位印度工程师说拍卖会只是一场闹剧,建立一个固定的工厂并以低于每度10卢比的价格运营它,这是不可能的。Firms bidding below, say, 8.5 rupees must assume that technology will improve, equipment prices will keep falling,参与投标的厂商们也说,要是技术得到提升,而设备价格又持续下降,or that they can make their sums work by borrowing cheap dollars rather than dear rupees.或者说他们能通过借到廉价的美元而不是昂贵的卢比来总结工作。只有这样,每度电8.5卢比才显得有可能。Second, if prices do not fall steeply, there may be little appetite for solar power.此外,如果价格没有快速下降,可能很少人会愿意使用太阳能。The grid is rickety.电网也变得摇摇欲坠。Many states distribution firms are financial zombies.许多国家的流通企业都是金融僵尸。Today the cost of solar subsidies is hidden—pooled with the overall generation bill in states such as Gujarat or,今天太阳能补贴的费用被隐藏了—像古吉拉特邦,统计在全部的账单中,或许,for projects under the national scheme, buried in the finances of a big state-owned conventional power firm.根据国家计划的项目,埋藏了一个大型的传统国有能源企业的资产。Such bureaucratic subterfuge works on a small scale.像这些官僚式的托词只影响了一小范围。But if the bill for solar swells, it is not hard to imagine the kind of public backlash against subsidies that has hit cash-strapped Europe.但要是太阳能的账单变大,不难想象,公众对补贴的不满将冲击欧洲的经济。Indias politicians may then start to ignore contracts.印度的政客可能将开始不履行合约。To solve Indias energy problems, solar firms must deliver blindingly low prices.要解决印度的能源问题,太阳能公司必须盲目地实现低价卖电。 点击此处下载本期经济学人讲解PDF与音频字幕 /201306/244631The national parks desginated three-day trail isnt for the faint-hearted. 国家公园指定三天的考验唯独不适合胆小者。You need to carry all your own equipment, food and water. 你需要备足所有你自己的装备,食物和水。And theres no electricity or showers on hand.而且手边没有电力,也不能淋浴。This walk is closed for five months of the year because of the heat. 这一旅途一年中有5个月因为天气炎热而关闭。And today I can understand why.时至今日我才理解个中缘由。And the further you climb away from the only water in the park, the more you realize how little shelter there really is. 你攀爬的离公园唯一水源越远,你就越清楚离遮蔽所越远。But the climb leads me to a high point, called, the best possible view of the Orange River.但是攀爬带给我无上荣耀,那里可有最好的奥兰治河美景在等待你。What a gorgeous gorge! 多么壮观的峡谷!She is a beauty! 她简直美不胜收!Definitely worth all that hard work to get up here.能够到达这里所有的努力都绝对值得。201309/258217

A bigger can?一个更大的罐头?By the end of 2010, Dr Potti had resigned from Duke,到2010年底,Potti士已经从杜克大学辞职,the university had stopped the three trials for good,学校永久停止了那三项临床试验,scientists from elsewhere had claimed that Dr Potti had stolen their data for inclusion in his paper in the New England Journal,另有科学家称Potti士在其在新英格兰杂志发表的文章中窃取了他们的数据,and officials at Duke had started the process of retracting three prominent papers, including the one in Nature Medicine.杜克大学方面也开始撤回他那三篇出名的文章,《自然-医学》的那篇也包括在内。At this point, the NCI and officials at Duke asked the Institute of Medicine, a board of experts that advises the American government, to investigate.到了这时候,国家癌症研究所和杜克大学都请求负责向美国政府提出建议的美国医学协会对此事进行调查。Since then, a committee of the institute, appointed for the task, has been trying to find out what was happening at Duke that allowed the problems to continue undetected for so long,之后,协会的一个专为此事成立的委员会就一直在努力查清是什么使得杜克大学长时间对问题不管不问,and to recommend minimum standards that must be met before this sort of work can be used to guide clinical trials in the future.并建议在今后碰到此类可供指导临床试验的研究时,需要其达到一个最低标准。At the committees first meeting, in December 2010, Dr McShane stunned observers by revealing her previously unpublished investigation of the Duke work.在2010年12月举行的该委员会的第一次会议上,McShane士披露了此前未发表的她关于杜克大学事件的调查,Subsequently, the committees members interviewed Dr Baggerly about the problems he had encountered trying to sort the data.这些材料震撼了在场的学者。结果,委员会的成员询问了Baggerly士关于他在尝试整理那些数据时遇到的问题。He noted that in addition to a lack of unfettered access to the computer code and consistent raw data on which the work was based,他指出,那些急于出版Potti士的论文的杂志不仅没有获得研究结果所涉及的计算机程序代码和可信的原始数据,journals that had ily published Dr Pottis papers were reluctant to publish his letters critical of the work.甚至还不情愿刊登他对于该成果质疑的文章。Nature Medicine published one letter, with a rebuttal from the team at Duke, but rejected further comments when problems continued.《自然-医学》杂志刊登了一篇文章,并附上了来自杜克大学研究组的辩驳,可是当问题继续存在时就拒绝了进一步的。Other journals that had carried subsequent high-profile papers from Dr Potti behaved in similar ways.其他刊载了来自Potti士的高曝光文章的杂志也采取了相似的态度。Eventually, the two researchers resorted to publishing their criticisms in a statistical journal, which would be unlikely to reach the same audience as a medical journal.最后,两位研究员只好把他们的文章发到了一个统计杂志,这就很难被医学杂志的读者群看到了。Two s ubsequent sessions of the committee have included Dukes point of view.委员会接下来的两次会议都包含了杜克方面的观点。At one of these, in March 2011, Dr Nevins admitted that some of the data in the papers had been “corrupted”.在2011年3月的一次会议中,Nevins士承认文章中的一些数据被“玷污”了。He continued, though, to claim ignorance of the problems identified by Dr Baggerly and Dr Coombes until the Rhodes scandal broke,但他声称直到Rhodes丑闻被揭发才得知Baggerly士和Coombes士指出的问题,and to support the overall methods used in the papers—though he could not explain why he had not detected the problems even when alerted to anomalies.而且虽然他没法解释为什么他没能在被指出异常时发现问题,但是他仍然在总体上持文章中采用的方法。At its fourth, and most recent meeting, on August 22nd, the committee questioned eight scientists and administrators from Duke.在第四次,也就是在8月22号举行的最近一次会议上,委员会质问了8位科学家和杜克大学的管理人员。Rob Califf, a vice-chancellor in charge of clinical research, asserted that what had happened was a case of the “Swiss-cheese effect” in which 15 different things had to go awry to let the problems slip through unheeded.Rob Califf, 一位负责临床研究的的副校长,称该事件是一个“瑞士奶酪效应”的例子,它需要15件不同的事都出了错才有可能让问题不被察觉。Asked by The Economist to comment on what was happening,当被《经济学人》的记者问到他关于这件事的评价时,he said, “As we evaluated the issues, we had the chance to review our systems and we believe we have identified, and are implementing, an improved approach.”他说“对这些问题的评估,使得我们有机会重新审视我们的体系,而且我们相信我们已经确认并且在采取改进后的方式了。”The universitys lapses and errors included being slow to deal with potential financial conflicts of interest declared by Dr Potti,校方的过失和错误包括在处理潜在利益冲突时反应迟缓。Dr Nevins and other investigators, including involvement in Expression Analysis Inc and CancerGuide DX, two firms to which the university also had ties.这些冲突方包括Potti士和Nevins士,其他的调查者,还有两家与大学有关系的公司Expression Analysis和CancerGuide DX。Moreover, Dr Califf and other senior administrators acknowledged that once questions arose about the work, they gave too much weight to Dr Nevins and his judgment.除此之外,Califf士和其他高级管理者承认,当出现有关于研究成果的质疑时,他们过分地看重了Nevins士和他的判断。That led them, for example, to withhold Dr Baggerlys criticisms from the external-review committee in .这导致了年他们把Baggerly士的挡在外部评审委员会之外。They also noted that the internal committees responsible for protecting patients and overseeing clinical trials lacked the expertise to review the complex, statistics-heavy methods and data produced by experiments involving gene expression.他们还提到了,负责保护病人和监督临床试验的内部委员会缺乏专业知识来评审由涉及基因表达的实验产生的复杂、侧重统计的方法和数据。That is a theme the investigating committee has heard repeatedly.这是一个调查委员会反复听到的说法。The process of peer review relies on the goodwill of workers in the field, who have jobs of their own and frequently cannot spend the time needed to check other peoples papers in a suitably thorough manner.同行审查制度依靠着内行人的善意,大家都有自己的工作,所以常常不能花足够的时间来对其他人的论文进行恰当细致的检查。Moreover, the methods sections of papers are supposed to provide enough information for others to replicate an experiment, but often do not.而且,文章的介绍实验方法的部分本应该为其他人提供重现实验结果所需的信息,但事实经常不是这样。Dodgy work will out eventually, as it is found not to fit in with other, more reliable discoveries.掺假的研究结果最终会被淘汰,因为它们不能与其他更加可靠的发现相兼容。But that all takes time and money.但是,这些都需要时间和金钱。The Institute of Medicine expects to complete its report, and its recommendations, in the middle of next year.美国医学协会计划在明年年中完成这个报告和相关的建议。In the meantime, more retractions are coming, according to Dr Califf.在此期间,据Califf士说将会有更多论文撤回。The results of a misconduct investigation are expected in the next few months and legal suits from patients who believe they were recruited into clinical trials under false pretences will probably follow.关于此次学术不端的的调查结果预计将在未来几个月内获得,而认为自己被欺诈进入临床试验的病人则可能会在之后提起诉讼。The whole thing, then, is a mess.整件事就是一团糟。Who will carry the can remains to be seen.谁将会承担责任目前还不清楚。But the episode does serve as a timely reminder of one thing that is sometimes forgotten.但是这一连串事件的确及时地提醒了我们一件常常被忽略的事实:Scientists are human, too.科学家也是人。 /201305/242083

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