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2018年12月14日 06:30:36|来源:国际在线|编辑:泡泡咨询
When the Oscar nominations were announced last month, revealing that not one black actor was in the running, the resulting furor touched on the permances that critics said should have been considered: What about Idris Elba in “Beasts of No Nation”? Michael B. Jordan in “Creed”? Will Smith in “Concussion,” or one of the stars of “Straight Outta Compton”?上个月,奥斯卡提名公布,没有一位黑人演员获得提名,引发强烈抗议,人们纷纷谈论影评家们认为应该予以考虑的演员:比如《无境之兽(Beasts of No Nation)中的伊德瑞斯·艾尔巴(Idris Elba);《奎迪(Creed)中的迈克尔·B·乔丹(Michael B. Jordan);《震荡效应(Concussion)中的威尔·史密斯(Will Smith);又或者《冲出康普顿(Straight Outta Compton)中的其中一位明星The uproar over #OscarsSoWhite made me curious. What does the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences value in black permance? Black artists have been nominated best actress or actor on 30 occasions, work spanning films. Over the last few weeks, I watched all of them.#OscarsSoWhite抗议活动的喧闹让我很好奇:美国电影艺术和科学学会(Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences)是如何评价黑人演员的表演的呢?黑人艺术家凭借部影片在30个奖项中获得最佳女演员或男演员提名在过去几周里,我观看了所有这些影片These are movies with a lot in common, not least that most were written and directed by white men. Only three were written and directed by black men. None were directed by women. Perhaps these numbers aren’t surprising, given the well-known demographics of the film industry. Other numbers are more eye-opening.这些影片有很多共通之处,相当重要的一点是,这些电影的编剧和导演大多是白人只有3部的编剧和导演是黑人没有一部是女性导演的这些数字可能并不令人意外,因为大家都清楚电影业的人口构成其他一些发现更令人吃惊Consider: In the history of the Oscars, black women have been nominated best actress, and nine of them played characters who are homeless or might soon become so. (The exception is Viola Davis, the drama “The Help.”)那就是:在奥斯卡历史上,有名黑人女性获得最佳女演员提名,其中9名饰演的是无家可归或很快就要无家可归的角色(唯一的例外是维奥拉·戴维斯[Viola Davis]在年影片《相助[The Help]中饰演的角色)The first was Dorothy Dandridge, “Carmen Jones” (195). That musical drama, like the opera from which it derives, is mostly known as the story of a sexually rapacious young woman and her obsessive, ultimately murderous lover. But it’s also the story of a wily, prideful human running out of places to go. Late in the film, Carmen and her fugitive boyfriend hide out in a seedy Chicago apartment. There’s no money rent, and soon they’ll be evicted. Carmen, who’s spent the movie working hard to seem carefree and fierce, tries her best to summon that look again as she sets out to scare up food and rent money.第一位是多萝西·丹德里奇(Dorothy Dandridge),她出演的影片是《胭脂虎新传(Carmen Jones, 195)这部音乐片改编自歌剧,它主要讲述的是一名在性方面很贪婪的年轻女子和痴迷并最终杀害她的情人之间的故事但它讲述的也是一个狡猾骄傲、无处可去之人的故事在影片末尾,卡门和她逃亡的男友藏在芝加哥一个破旧的公寓里他们没钱交房租,很快将被赶走在整部影片中,卡门都努力显得无忧无虑而热情,她出去张罗食物和房租时,也努力再次露出那副神情Nearly every black best-actress nominee has faced a similar plight, right up through “Beasts of the Southern Wild” (), in which Quvenzhané Wallis played a little girl about to lose her home to a flood. No black woman has ever received a best-actress nomination portraying an executive or even a character with a college degree. (Though Gabourey Sidibe’s character in “Precious,” from , seems likely to get one eventually.)几乎每位获得最佳女演员提名的黑人女演员在片中都处于类似的窘况,一直到年的《南国野兽(Beasts of the Southern Wild),奎文赞妮·瓦利斯(Quvenzhané Wallis)在片中饰演一个即将因洪水失去家园的小女孩从没有一位黑人女性因饰演高管或者哪怕是拥有大学学位的角色而获得最佳女演员提名(虽然加布蕾·丝迪贝[Gabourey Sidibe]在年影片《珍爱[Precious]中饰演的角色似乎很可能最终获得学位)All permances which black women have received best-actress nominations involve poor or lower-income characters, and half of those are penniless mothers. Two of the portrayals — Diana Ross’s incarnation of Billie Holiday in “Lady Sings the Blues” (197) and Angela Bassett’s depiction of Tina Turner in “What’s Love Got to Do With It” (1993) — are of singers who enjoy a measure of wealth at some point. But Holiday begins broke, and viewers know she’ll end up that way, while Tina Turner doesn’t have money of her own until the film’s last five minutes. The remaining characters are maids, sharecroppers, criminal-drifter types, impoverished housewives and destitute girls.获得最佳女演员提名的位黑人女演员所饰演的都是贫穷或低收入的角色,其中有一半是身无分文的母亲有两位饰演的是一度拥有巨额财富的歌手——黛安娜·罗斯(Diana Ross)在《难补情天恨(Lady Sings the Blues, 197)中饰演的比莉·哈乐黛(Billie Holiday);以及安吉拉·贝塞特(Angela Bassett)在《与爱何干(What’s Love Got to Do With It,1993)中饰演的蒂娜·特纳(Tina Turner)但是,哈乐黛一开始一文不名,观众知道她最终也会破产,而蒂娜·特纳直到影片最后五分钟才有了自己的钱其他角色是女仆、佃农、罪犯游民,以及贫穷的家庭主妇和女孩A few more commonalities to note: Seven of the best-actress nominees played characters with absent or incarcerated husbands, boyfriends, or fathers. And six of the characters suffer physical abuse, with five of them being raped.还有其他一些共同之处:这个角色中有7个没有丈夫、男友或父亲(或者在狱中)其中6个曾遭受暴力虐待,有5个曾遭强奸The academy has tended to honor black men different sorts of roles, and it has honored them more often. Black men have been up best actor times, with four nominations going to Denzel Washington, three to Morgan Freeman, and two each to Sidney Poitier and Mr. Smith.奥斯卡似乎更青睐黑人男演员饰演的各种角色,而且更经常给予他们荣誉黑人男演员共获得次最佳男演员提名,其中,丹泽尔·华盛顿(Denzel Washington)曾次获得提名,根·弗里曼(Morgan Freeman)3次获得提名,西德尼·波蒂埃(Sidney Poitier)和威尔·史密斯各获次提名Thirteen of the recognized permances involve being arrested or incarcerated. Picture Chiwetel Ejio as the newly kidnapped Solomon Northup in “ Years a Slave” or Mr. Washington behind bars as Malcolm Little, soon to change his name to Malcolm X. (His other nominated characters all face arrest, even his corrupt detective Alonzo Harris, bee he flees in the last few minutes of “Training Day.”) Picture the police bursting through the bedroom doors of Jamie Foxx’s Ray Charles in “Ray” () or James Earl Jones’s Jack Jefferson in “The Great White Hope” (1970). Most of the films deliver these men into bondage with the best of intentions — so we may identify with them, and hate the injustices done them. Nevertheless, the images seem endlessly — and sadistically — repeated.获得提名的角色中有个曾被捕或遭到监禁比如,切瓦特·埃加福特(Chiwetel Ejio)在《为奴十二载( Years a Slave)中饰演刚被绑架的所罗门·诺瑟普(Solomon Northup);丹泽尔·华盛顿饰演的马尔科姆·利特尔(Malcolm Little)被关进监狱,很快把自己的名字改为马尔科姆·X(Malcolm X)(他获得提名的其他角色都曾被捕,甚至连他在《训练日中饰演的堕落警探阿朗佐·哈里斯[Alonzo Harris]在最后几分钟逃脱之前也曾被捕)还有,警察冲开《灵魂歌王(Ray, )中杰米·福克斯(Jamie Foxx)饰演的雷·查尔斯(Ray Charles)的卧室门,或者《拳王奋斗史(The Great White Hope, 1970)中詹姆斯·厄尔·琼斯(James Earl Jones)饰演的杰克·杰斐逊(Jack Jefferson)的卧室门在影片中,这些角色大多是出于善意而被捕,所以我们可能会同情他们,憎恨他们遭遇的不公但是,这些形象似乎在不断地施虐般地重复In of the films, the nominated permances involve violent or criminal behavior. It’s often justified or victimless — or, as with the boxers in “Ali” (01), “The Hurricane” (1999) and “The Great White Hope,” part of a day at the office. These characters tend to end up in jail anyway. (When the crime is not victimless, as in “Training Day” or “What’s Love Got to Do With It,” the perpetrators often never see the inside of a jail cell.)在这部影片中,有部涉及暴力或犯罪行为这些行为通常有正当理由或者没有侵害他人,或者像《拳王阿里(Ali, 01)、《飓风(The Hurricane, 1999)和《拳王奋斗史中的拳击手那样,暴力是他们日常工作的一部分不过,这些角色最后似乎都进了监狱(如果犯罪行为并不是没有侵害他人,比如在《训练日或《与爱何干中,那么犯罪者通常从没进过监狱)Ten of the characters have a white buddy or counterpart — or, when it comes to “Lilies of the Field” (1963), a whole convent full of them. In most cases, the white counterpart is the apparent protagonist. Think of Tim Robbins in “The Shawshank Redemption” (199), Jessica Tandy in “Driving Miss Daisy” (1989) or Ethan Hawke in “Training Day.”其中有个角色拥有白人搭档或对手,或者像《野百合(Lilies of the Field, 1963)那样,黑人主角的搭档是一整座修道院的白人修女在大部分情况下,那个白人对手是明显的主角比如《肖申克的救赎(The Shawshank Redemption, 199))中的蒂姆·罗宾斯(Tim Robbins)、《为黛西开车(Driving Miss Daisy, 1989)中的杰西卡·坦迪(Jessica Tandy),或《训练日中的伊桑·霍克(Ethan Hawke)Seven of the actors’ films feature no major black female characters. Seven of the characters abuse or mistreat women.这些影片中有7部没有主要的黑人女性角色有7个角色虐待女人I shared these numbers with Dr. Todd Boyd, the author and professor of critical studies at the University of Southern Calinia School of Cinematic Arts. He wasn’t impressed, but he also said the focus on the Oscars was misplaced. “The Oscars are a symptom,” he said, and not the illness itself. 我把这些发现分享给南加州大学(University of Southern Calinia)电影艺术学院(School of Cinematic Arts)的批评研究教授兼作家托德·伊德士(Todd Boyd)他没有感到震惊,不过他也说把焦点放到奥斯卡身上不合适他说:“奥斯卡只是症状”,不是疾病本身The academy president, Cheryl Boone Isaacs, in announcing changes intended to address #OscarsSoWhite, cited the film industry’s failure to produce movies with diverse casts, and Dr. Boyd made a similar point: “You have to backtrack and look at the kinds of movies that African-Americans have been cast in.”电影艺术和科学学会主席谢丽尔·恩·伊萨克(Cheryl Boone Isaacs)在宣布针对#OscarsSoWhite做出的改变时,提到电影业没有制作选角多样的电影是根本原因伊德也表达了类似的观点:“你必须回溯和研究非裔美国人演的那种电影”And what kind is that?哪种电影呢?These films are full of enormous characters, men and women of world-historic or pop-cultural significance, people who face seemingly intolerable oppression with nigh-unimaginable resolve, characters who are victimized or who encounter and occasionally inflict cruelty.这部影片充满各种人物,讲述的是具有世界历史意义或流行文化意义的男女,他们以不可思议的决心面对似乎难以忍受的压迫,他们受到迫害或残酷对待,有时他们也残酷地对待别人What they’re not full of is characters who resemble ordinary people. And when such people do make an appearance, the camera tends to linger on the parts of their lives most likely to interest white Americans struggling to reckon with their country’s racist past. We learn all about Miss Daisy — her son, her childhood, her politics. But we hear only a sentence or two about the family of her driver (Morgan Freeman). Similarly, there’s a lot of inmation about Billy Bob Thornton’s Hank in “Monster’s Ball.” But watching Halle Berry as the bereft Leticia Musgrove, we see only her wretchedness, and her eventual rescue by a white man.这些影片所缺乏的角色是普通人当这样的角色确实出现时,摄像机似乎停留在他们最可能引发美国白人反思美国种族主义历史的那部分生活我们非常了解黛西——她的儿子、童年和政治立场但我们只听到一两句台词是讲述她司机(根·弗里曼饰)的家庭类似地,《死囚之舞(Monster’s Ball)中有很多关于比利·鲍勃·桑顿(Billy Bob Thornton)饰演的汉克(Hank)的信息,但是关于哈莉·贝瑞(Halle Berry)饰演的失去亲人的莱蒂西娅·马斯格罗夫(Leticia Musgrove),我们只知道她很不幸,最后得到一个白人男性救赎These are largely isolated characters, said Dr. Miriam J. Petty, an assistant professor in the department of radio, television and film at Northwestern University. “And they’re bound to the destinies of the white people with whom they appear in these films.”西北大学(Northwestern University)的电台、电视和电影系助理教授米利娅姆·J·佩蒂士(Miriam J. Petty)说,这些角色大多很孤独,“他们与影片中出现的白人的命运紧密联系在一起”It is not entirely surprising that so many of these nominees have portrayed the poor, imprisoned, great or tragic. The history of African-Americans contains many such people, and the academy loves history. Of the most recent best-actor nominees, eight played historical figures. But the academy has never nominated a black leading actor a role like Woody Grant in “Nebraska” ( which Bruce Dern was nominated in ) — an idiosyncratic person who is both fictional and unexceptional.这么多获得提名的演员都是演绎伟大或悲惨的穷人和犯人,这并不完全出人意料非裔美国人的历史上有很多这样的人物,而奥斯卡很喜欢历史最近获得最佳男演员提名的位演员中有8位是饰演历史人物但是,在奥斯卡提名过的黑人男主角中,没有一位是《内布拉斯加(Nebraska,年,布鲁斯·德恩[Bruce Dern]凭借在此片中的表演获得提名)中伍迪·格兰特(Woody Grant)这样的角色——这个角色很独特,但同时也是一个虚构的普通人“If you had a film about an ordinary black guy — well, that might mean that he knows other black people,” Dr. Petty said. “Those black people might need to be in the movie, too. And then it’s a black film.”“如果一部影片讲述的是一个普通黑人——呃,那可能意味着他认识其他黑人,”佩蒂说,“那些黑人可能也需要出现在影片中然后它就变成一部完全是关于黑人的影片” 193Early morning frost clings to a leaf in Knutsd, Cheshire在柴郡纳茨福特的清晨,霜附着在一片叶子上A dog walker makes her way through Ashton Court Estate in Bristol, where temperatures dipped to -3C一只穿过在布里斯托尔的阿什顿法院的土地,那里温度降至零下3度 619The Germans viewed canines as being almost as intelligent as humans and attempted to build an army of fearsome 'speaking' dogs, extraordinary new research shows. Hitler hoped the clever creatures would learn to communicate with their SS masters - and he even had a special dog school set up to teach them to talk. The incredible findings show Nazi officials recruited so-called educated dogs from all over Germany and trained them to speak and tap out signals using their paws. One mutt was said to have uttered the words 'Mein Fuhrer' when asked who Adolf Hitler was. Another 'spoke' by tapping letters of the alphabet with his paws and was said to have speculated about religion and learnt poetry. He was said to have speculated about religion, learnt eign languages, wrote poetry and asked a visiting noblewoman 'could you wag your tail?' The patriotic German dog even expressed a wish to join the army, because he disliked the French. 最近的研究表明,在二战时,德国人觉得跟人一样聪明,于是他们决定建立一会说人话的令人害怕的部队希特勒希望这些聪明的生物能够学习跟党卫军首领交流——他甚至建立了一犬族学校去专门教它们说话纳粹从全德国征募这些据说受过教育的,训练它们说话以及用爪子打出一些暗号据说,当被问到希特勒是谁时,一只杂种开口说了“元首”另一只有杰出表现的则是通过打字来写诗、学习外语以及表现它对宗教的思索它甚至问了一个来访问的陌生女人“你能摇尾巴么?”这只爱国的德国犬还表达了它想加入军队的愿望,因为它不喜欢法国人至于训练结果怎么样,文章里没写,但也不言而喻了 77

Ip Man 3, the third installment of the hit kung fu franchise based on the life of a martial arts master, has enjoyed massive success on its opening weekend in China. According to estimates from the Beijing-based box office monitor Ent Group, the fight flick grossed 3 million yuan in just three days.《叶问3,基于一位武术界大师生活写照的武打动作系列电影的第三部,在中国的周末首映上获得了巨大成功根据总部位于北京的票房监测中心估算,这部动作片的票房收入在三天之内就达到了.3亿元This may seem like good news, except that the high earnings were marred by fraud allegations that Dayinmu Film Distribution, the distributor of Ip Man 3, is bulk-purchasing discount tickets through cinema chains across the country to enhance the film perceived permance.这似乎看起来是个好消息,但是这一高收益却被《叶问3的发行方--大银幕投资有限公司的欺诈指控事件给破坏了据悉,该公司在全国连锁电影院用大量购买折扣电影票的方式来提升该影片的口碑Ticket sales Ip Man 3 surpassed 300 million yuan on March 5, the second day since its opening. This is a mind-blowing figure in March, when box office permances tend to be weak. Internet users began to speculate on the authenticity of box office earnings, with renowned Sina Weibo user dianyingpiaofang, calling to ;stop films from paying the price of these actions.;3月5号,也就是电影发行的第二天,《叶问3的票房收益就超过了三亿元这在票房属于淡季的3月份无疑是个令人激动的数字不过当微知名大V“电影票房”发出“停止这种电影营销行为”的微时,网友们开始审视该票房的真实性Signs of this dubious phenomenon started to sp on China social media, from the surge of ticket sales from a single cinema, sold-out ghost screenings at midnight,fully booked front two rows in theaters in advance, and abnormally high ticket prices alleged to falsify an enhanced permance at the box office.从单家影院的票房销售额激增、全部预售完的午夜“幽灵场”、提前订满电影院的前两排,再到涉嫌伪造用于提升票房成绩的“高价电影票”这些令人半信半疑的票房现象开始在中国各大社交媒体上传播开来“I apologize any of the inconveniences this may have caused, and I state that this cinema has not signed any agreements with the distributor of Ip Man 3,; said Jin Zhe, marketing manager at China Film Cinema Guranggu Tianhe branch.中影天河市场经理金喆对此表示:“我对给大家造成的困扰感到非常抱歉,并且我申明,我们影院没有和《叶问3发行方签订任何协约”Several e-ticketing institutions, including Maoyan and Baidu Nuomi, have all received notices from SARFT to investigate the abnormal fluctuations in the ticket sales of Ip Man 3. SARFT has also asked e-ticketing institutions to provide their contracts with the distributor of Ip Man 3 further scrutiny.包括猫眼和百度糯米的几大电子售票方已经收到广电总局的公告,要求其审查《叶问3不正常的票房波动为了进行更彻底的审查,广电总局还要求电子售票方提供他们与《叶问3发行人签署的合同Producers of Ip Man 3 have yet to respond to the allegations.而《叶问3发行方尚未对该指控做出回应 95

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