明星资讯腾讯娱乐2019年02月22日 01:40:27
We’ve just had a nonsense midterm election. Never has more money been spent to think so little about a future so in flux. What would we have discussed if we’d had a serious election? How about the biggest challenge we’re facing today: The resilience of our workers, environment and institutions.我们刚刚结束了一场无意义的中期选举。关于如此莫测的未来,我们如此缺乏思考,可是花在上面的钱却从来没有这么多过。如果我们有一个认真的选举,那会讨论些什么呢?不如讨论一下我们如今面临的最大挑战:我们的工人、环境及制度的恢复力。Why is that the biggest challenge? Because: The world is fast. The three biggest forces on the planet — the market, Mother Nature and Moore’s Law — are all surging, really fast, at the same time. The market, i.e., globalization, is tying economies more tightly together than ever before, making our workers, investors and markets much more interdependent and exposed to global trends, without walls to protect them.为什么这是最大的挑战?因为:世界变化很快。这个星球上最大的三种力量——市场、大自然和尔定律——都在同一时间风起云涌,速度非常之快。市场即全球化,它正将各个经济前所未有地紧密捆绑在一起,让我们的员工、投资者和市场变得更加相互依存,暴露在全球趋势的风险之中,没有什么围墙可以保护他们。Moore’s Law, the theory that the speed and power of microchips will double every two years, is, as Andrew McAfee and Erik Brynjolfsson posit in their book, “The Second Machine Age,” so relentlessly increasing the power of software, computers and robots that they’re now replacing many more traditional white- and blue-collar jobs, while spinning off new ones — all of which require more skills.尔定律指出,芯片的速度和能力每两年就会翻一番。正如埃里克·布林约尔松(Erik Brynjolfsson)和安德鲁·麦卡菲(Andrew McAfee)在著作《第二次机器时代》(The Second Machine Age)中所说,软件、计算机和机器人的能力增长如此迅猛,它们正在取代大量传统的白领和蓝领工作,同时又派生出新的工作,而所有新工作都需要工人掌握更多技能。And the rapid growth of carbon in our atmosphere and environmental degradation and deforestation because of population growth on earth — the only home we have — are destabilizing Mother Nature’s ecosystems faster.在我们唯一的家园地球,人口增长导致大气含碳量快速增长,环境退化,森林遭到滥伐,使得大自然的生态系统更快地失去稳定性。In sum, we’re in the middle of three “climate changes” at once: one digital, one ecological, one geo-economical. That’s why strong states are being stressed, weak ones are blowing up and Americans are feeling anxious that no one has a quick fix to ease their anxiety. And they’re right. The only fix involves big, hard things that can only be built together over time: resilient infrastructure, affordable health care, more start-ups and lifelong learning opportunities for new jobs, immigration policies that attract talent, sustainable environments, manageable debt and governing institutions adapted to the new speed.总之,我们同时处在三个“气候变化”之中:一个是数字,一个是生态,还有一个是地缘经济。这就是为什么一些强国正在遭受压力,弱国纷纷崩溃。这也让美国人感到焦虑,因为没有人能提供快速解决方案来缓解这种焦虑。他们是对的。唯一的解决办法涉及一些庞大、艰巨的东西,随着时间的推移,它们才可以被构建起来:有恢复力的基础设施、负担得起的医疗务、更多的初创企业、以及终身都存在的学习新岗位技能的机会、吸引人才的移民政策、可持续的环境、可控的债务、可以适应新速度的治理机构。That’s just theory, you say? Really? Look at one aspect in one country: Mother Nature in Brazil. On Oct. 24, Reuters reported this from S#227;o Paulo: “South America’s biggest and wealthiest city may run out of water by mid-November if it doesn’t rain soon. S#227;o Paulo, a Brazilian megacity of 20 million people, is suffering its worst drought in at least 80 years, with key reservoirs that supply the city dried up after an unusually dry year.”你觉得这只是理论?真的吗?来看看一个国家的其中一方面:巴西的大自然。10月24日,路透社自圣保罗报道,“如果最近再不降雨,南美最大最富有的城市可能会在11月中旬耗尽水源。圣保罗,这个2000万人口的巴西大都市,正在遭受至少80年一遇的严重干旱,在经过异常干燥的一年之后,为这座城市供应水源的主要水库干涸了。”Say what? S#227;o Paulo is running out of water? Yes.什么意思?圣保罗快没水了?是的。José Maria Cardoso da Silva, a Brazilian and senior adviser at Conservation International, explains: The drought hit a landscape that had been stripped of 80 percent of the natural forest along the Serra da Cantareira watersheds that feed six artificial reservoirs sustaining S#227;o Paulo. The Cantareira supplies nearly half of S#227;o Paulo’s water. The forests and wetlands have been replaced by farmfields, pastures and eucalyptus plantations. So today the pipes and reservoirs that gather the water are still in place, but the natural infrastructure of forests and watersheds has been badly degraded. The drought exposed it all.巴西人何塞·玛丽亚·卡多索·席尔瓦(José Maria Cardoso da Silva)是保护国际(Conservation International,简称CI)的高级顾问,他解释说:旱灾影响了塞拉达康达雷拉(Serra da Cantareira)流域的一片地区,那里80%的天然森林已遭破坏,在为圣保罗供水的人工水库中,有六座的水就来自这片地区。康达雷拉为圣保罗提供了的近一半的水。森林和湿地已被改建为农场、牧场和人工桉树林。所以,如今收集这些水的管道和水库虽然还在,但森林和流域的自然基础设施已经严重退化。干旱把所有这些问题都暴露出来。“Natural forests act like giant sponges soaking up rain and gradually releasing it into streams,” he said. “They also protect watercourses and maintain water quality by reducing sediment and filtering pollutants. The forest loss in Cantareira increased erosion, caused the decline in water quality, and changed seasonal water flows, reducing the resilience of the entire system against climatic extreme events.” The Cantareira system has fallen below 12 percent of capacity.“天然林像巨大的海绵,吸收了雨水,逐渐释放到河流里,”他说。“他们还可以保护河道,并通过减少沉积物和过滤污染物保持水质。在康达雷拉,森林的损失增加了侵蚀,造成水质下降,并改变了季节水流量,减少了在气候极端事件下,整个系统的恢复能力。”康达雷拉水系已经跌至其容量的12%以下。Sadly, deforestation increased under Brazil’s newly re-elected president, Dilma Rousseff, but this was also barely an issue in Brazil’s election. Yet Reuters ed Antonio Nobre, a leading climate scientist at Brazil’s National Space Research Institute, arguing that “global warming and the deforestation of the Amazon are altering the climate in the region by drastically reducing the release of billions of liters of water by rainforest trees. ‘Humidity that comes from the Amazon in the form of vapor clouds — what we call ‘flying rivers’ — has dropped dramatically, contributing to this devastating situation we are living today,’ ” Nobre said.可悲的是,在最近获得连任的巴西总统迪尔玛·罗塞夫(Dilma Rousseff)执政期间,森林滥伐现象增加了,但在巴西的选举中,这几乎不算是问题。不过,路透社援引巴西国家空间研究所(National Space Research Institute)知名气候科学家安东尼奥·诺布雷(Antonio Nobre)的话,称“热带雨林树木本来会释放的数十亿升水,全球变暖和亚马逊森林滥伐大幅减少了这些水量,改变了该地区的气候。‘亚马逊雨林释放出的水雾被称之为‘飞河’,它已经大幅减少,再加上别的因素,就造成了我们今天的这种惨状,’”诺布雷说。Paul Gilding, the Australian environmentalist and author of “The Great Disruption,” emailed from Brazil to say that the lack of a serious Brazilian response “reinforces to me that we’re not going to respond to the big global issues until they hit the economy. It’s hard to imagine a stronger example than a city of 20 million people running out of water. Yet despite the clear threat, the main response is ‘we hope it rains.’ Why such denial? Because the implications of acceptance are so significant, and we know in our hearts there’s no going back once you end denial. It would demand that the country face up to the urgency of reversing rather than slowing deforestation” and “the need to prepare the country for the risks that a changing climate presents.”保罗·戈尔丁(Paul Gilding)是澳大利亚环保专家,《大破坏》(The Great Disruption)一书的作者,他从巴西发来电邮,说该国并没有认真应对这个问题,“让我更加觉得,我们不会对大规模的全球问题作出回应,直到它们严重影响了经济。很难想象,还会有什么例子,比一个2000万人口的城市水源快要耗尽更加有说力。然而,尽管威胁清楚易见,人们的反应主要却是:‘我们希望会下雨。’为什么要否认问题的存在?由于承认它意味着很多事情,我们心里明白,一旦最终停止否认,就没有回头路了。这将需要巴西勇敢地去面对,扭转森林砍伐的现象,而不是减缓砍伐速度,”并“需要让全国做好准备,应对气候变化带来的风险”。When changes in the market, Mother Nature and Moore’s Law all get this fast, opportunities and stresses abound. One day, we’ll have an election about how we cushion, exploit and adapt to them — an election to make America and Americans more resilient. One day.当市场、大自然和尔定律中的变化发生得如此迅速的时候,机会和压力也比比皆是。有一天,我们将会就如何缓解、利用和适应它们进行选举,那将是一个让美国和美国人变得更强韧的选举。会有那么一天。 /201411/341385

On Tuesday, HP announced the sudden resignation of interim board chair Ralph Whitworth effective Wednesday. The activist investor is also taking a leave of absence from the company he co-founded, Relational Investors, for health reasons.上周二,惠普公司(HP)宣布,董事会临时主席拉尔夫o惠特沃斯突然辞职,从周三起生效。此外,在其联合创建的Relational Investors公司,这位激进投资者也因健康原因开始休假。This is not good news for CEO Meg Whitman, who joined HP’s HPQ -1.12% board in January 2011 and became CEO that same year in September. Despite the nearly billion write-down of HP’s Autonomy purchase in November 2012 and lingering concerns about HP’s business model and strategy on her watch, Whitman has survived atop HP much longer than her predecessor Leo Apotheker did. (He served less than a full year.)对于惠普CEO梅格o惠特曼来说,这绝非好消息。惠特曼于2011年1月加入惠普董事会,并在同年九月份出任惠普CEO。2012年11月,惠普收购英国软件公司Autonomy的交易巨亏90亿美元,而且,外界对于惠特曼上台之后惠普的业务模式和战略也一直存在担忧。尽管如此,惠特曼担任惠普CEO的时间,已经远远超过了其前任李艾科(李艾科担任CEO不足一年。)Her survival has been aided in large part by Whitworth’s evident patience and support since he joined the board in November 2011 and then became interim chair in April of last year. Whitman has benefited from the respect other shareholders have for Whitworth—and his presence and optimism have reassured HP shareholders about the company’s course, keeping them at bay. The mutual respect between the CEO and chair was evident in their statements in the tech giant’s press release announcing Whitworth’s departure.而她之所以能够幸存下来,很大程度上得益于惠特沃斯显而易见的耐心和持。惠特沃斯于2011年11月加入惠普公司董事会,次年4月成为临时主席。股东对惠特沃斯的尊敬,给惠特曼带来了极大的帮助,他的存在以及他的乐观精神,让惠普股东消除了有关公司发展的疑虑,并稳定了股东情绪。在宣布惠特沃斯辞职的新闻发布会上,从发言中可以明显感受到CEO与董事会主席之间的相互尊重。Former J.C. Penney JCP -1.61% CEO Ron Johnson likely wishes he’d had Whitman’s situation. In his case, shareholder activist Bill Ackman, who served on the J.C. Penney board, had recommended the former Apple executive for the top spot at the retailer. But Johnson was out the door in less than two years. Patience had run out.原彭尼百货公司(J.C. Penney)CEO罗恩o约翰逊肯定希望自己能有惠特曼的好运。彭尼百货公司董事会成员、激进投资者比尔o阿克曼,推荐前苹果公司(Apple)高管约翰逊执掌公司。但不到两年之后,约翰逊便被逐出门外。因为,董事会已经失去了耐心。“Ralph was a big asset to corporate governance at HP,” says John M. Nash, founder and president emeritus of the National Association of Corporate Directors. When Whitworth was president of the ed Shareholders Association, Nash and Whitworth used to spar on TV about governance issues, Nash says. “We agreed to disagree and we always respected each others’ opinions,” Nash told me. (Full disclosure: Nash has worked with my company.)美国公司董事联合会(National Association of Corporate Directors)创始人兼荣誉主席约翰oMo纳什表示:“对于惠普公司的治理,拉尔夫是一项宝贵的资产。”惠特沃斯担任美国股东协会(ed Shareholders Association)主席时,曾就公司治理问题在电视上与纳什展开激辩。纳什表示:“我们会求同存异,始终尊重彼此的意见。”(披露:纳什在我在同一家公司工作。)HP’s latest voting materials described some of the firm’s accomplishments during Whitworth’s tenure. The company was one of the first to allow shareholder nominated directors, under certain conditions, to be included in the company’s official voting materials. In July 2013, the company hired three new directors. And the board expanded its outreach to shareholders on Whitworth’s watch.惠普最近的股东投票材料中描述了公司在惠特曼领导下取得的部分成就。在特定情况下,某些公司允许在公司官方投票材料中提名股东为董事,惠普是其中一家。2013年7月,公司新聘请了三位董事。惠特沃斯任职期间,惠普董事会加大了与股东的联系。HP had a lot to do to rehabilitate its governance image. Today, HP is no longer the laughing stock it once was in the corporate director community.为了恢复在公司治理方面的形象,惠普要做很多事情。如今,惠普不再是公司董事会团体里的笑柄。It will be difficult for HP’s board to continue effectively in Whitworth’s absence. When Whitworth was appointed as interim chair in April 2013, I wrote that, “Whitworth has pledged that the board will recruit a chair presumably outside the ranks of existing members.” In July 2013, three new directors joined the board. But none have governance running through their veins, like Whitworth has, and none would provide the shield from shareholders that CEO Whitman has enjoyed. As of February 2014, the board reported that it was still searching for a suitable chair candidate.没有惠特沃斯,惠普董事会很难继续保持有效运行。2013年4月,惠特沃斯被任命为临时主席时,我曾写道:“惠特沃斯承诺,董事会将在现有成员之外招聘一位主席。”2013年7月,有三位新董事加入董事会。但没有人像惠特沃斯一样,具备公司治理方面的经验,也没有人能为CEO惠特曼提供庇护,使其免受股东们的责难。2014年2月,惠普董事会表示仍在寻找一位合适的主席人选。Giving the chair role to Whitman now would be a big mistake for HP, the board, and Whitman herself. But it’s possible the board will make that mistake. While the shareholder voting materials earlier this year said that, “The Board’s preferred governance structure is to separate the roles of Chairman and CEO because it allows our CEO to focus primarily on our business strategy and operations,” later on, the same document equivocates. “This reflects the Board’s preferred governance structure of a separate Chairman and CEO, but the Board’s leadership structure may vary in the future as circumstances warrant.”现在,任命惠特曼兼任董事会主席,不论对惠普、董事会还是惠特曼自己来说,都将是一个巨大的错误。但惠普董事会很可能会犯这样的错误。虽然今年年初的股东投票材料中写道:“公司更倾向于董事会主席与CEO的职责分离的治理结构,因为这种结构将使公司CEO致力于商业策略与运营。”但文件下文却变得模棱两可。“这反映出董事会首选的是董事会主席与CEO职责分离这种治理结构,但在特殊情况下,未来董事会的领导结构可能发生变化。”HP has many challenges ahead. At the end of June, HP had good news on the Autonomy front when it reached settlements in three shareholder lawsuits, the Wall Street Journal reported. But, as the Journal pointed out, regulatory inquiries are ongoing. Apple’s AAPL -1.78% new partnership with IBM IBM 0.07% is just one example of a host of competitive struggles the company faces.惠普面临诸多挑战。《华尔街日报》(Wall Street Journal )报道称,在六月底,惠普收购的Autonomy公司传来好消息,公司在三起股东诉讼中均已达成和解。但《华尔街日报》指出,监管调查仍在继续。对惠普来说,苹果与IBM最近达成的合作,只是它所面临的竞争中的一笔。Relational, Whitworth’s firm, has been a major owner in HP stock. If the board is smart, they will consider extending an offer to Dave Batchelder, Relational’s other co-founder, to join the board and take the interim chair spot until a permanent chair is selected. Batchelder, like Whitworth, is respected in both the shareholder and board member communities. He could stabilize the board and help ensure HP finds the right permanent chair.惠特沃斯的公司Relational是惠普的主要股东。如果董事会足够聪明,应该考虑邀请Relational另外一位联合创始人贝奇德加入公司董事会,并在选出常驻主席之前,担任临时主席。与惠特沃斯一样,贝奇德也深受股东和董事会成员的尊敬。他能够稳定军心,帮助确保惠普找到合适的常驻董事会主席。Such a move would also give Whitman more time to focus on her responsibilities as CEO of HP. I’m thinking she could use it.而且,这种做法也可以给惠特曼更多时间,致力于履行惠普CEO的职责。我认为,她会充分利用这段宝贵的时间。Eleanor Bloxham is CEO of The Value Alliance and Corporate Governance Alliance, a board education and advisory firm.本文作者爱丽诺·布洛斯罕是董事会咨询机构价值联盟和公司治理联盟(The Value Alliance and Corporate Governance Alliance,http://thevaluealliance.com)首席执行官。 /201407/313371





  Standard amp; Poor’s cut Brazil’s prized investment grade credit rating to junk on Wednesday and warned that it could lower it again in the coming months, in a major blow to President Dilma Rousseff’s government.周三,标普(Standard amp; Poor#39;s)把巴西宝贵的“投资级”信用评级调降为“垃圾级”,并警告未来几个月可能会再次调降。这是巴西总统迪尔玛圠广夫(Dilma Rousseff)领导的政府遭到的一次沉重打击。Samp;P attributed the move, which surprised analysts who had not expected such a downgrade until at least next year, to government backpedalling on its budget deficit targets as well as what it described as divisions in Ms Rousseff’s cabinet over fiscal policy.分析师们对此感到意外,他们曾预计起码到明年以前巴西的信用评级不会被调降。标普把此举归因于巴西政府在预算赤字目标上开倒车、以及其所称的罗塞夫的内阁在财政政策上存在分歧。“The political challenges Brazil faces have continued to mount, weighing on the government’s ability and willingness to submit a 2016 budget to Congress consistent with the significant policy correction signalled during the first part of President Dilma Rousseff#39;s second term,” Samp;P said.“巴西面对的政治挑战继续加重,这让巴西政府不再那么有能力和意愿,向议会提交一份与罗塞夫总统第二任期第一阶段提出的重大政策修正相符的2016年预算案,”标普表示。The move by Samp;P to reduce the BBB- rating to BB+ with a negative outlook comes as Brazil’s economy is in recession, with second-quarter gross domestic product sinking 1.9 per cent compared with the first.标普把巴西信用评级由BBB-调降至BB+、并把评级展望定为“负面”之际,巴西的经济正处于衰退中,第二季度的国内生产总值(GDP)环比萎缩了1.9%。 /201509/398203Global warming is having an impact on human and natural systems world-wide, scientists warned in a report Monday, calling for swift action to mitigate the impact of greenhouse gas emissions on the planet. 科学家们周一在一份报告里警告说,全球变暖正对人类和全球自然系统产生影响。他们呼吁迅速采取行动,缓解温室气体排放对地球的影响。The report, released by the ed Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, is the second portion of a four-part report, and follows the September release of the first portion, which focused on scientific evidence for global warming.上述报告由联合国政府间气候变化专门委员会(ed Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change,简称IPCC)发布,是一个由四部分组成的报告的第二部分,其中专注全球变暖科学依据的第一部分已在去年9月发布。#39;What happens in terms of impact of climate change in different parts of the world will be determined to a large extent (by how much) we are prepared and able to mitigate the emissions of greenhouse gasses,#39; IPCC Chairman Rajendra K. Pachauri said. IPCC主席帕乔里(Rajendra K. Pachauri)说:气候变化对世界各地产生怎样的影响,很大程度上将由我们准备且能够减少多少温室气体排放决定。The report said that besides an increase in global average temperature, climate change was having a widesp impact on everything from water resources to food production and weather patterns. 报告说,除全球平均气温增加以外,气候变化还对从水资源到食品生产及天气模式等一切事物产生广泛影响。It said that without action to address the problem, by the year 2100, hundreds of millions of people could be affected by coastal flooding and displaced due to land loss. 报告说,如不对这一问题采取任何行动,到2100年,受海岸洪灾和土地流失影响而背井离乡者可能会达到数亿人。#39;Impacts from recent extreme climatic events, such as heat waves, droughts, floods, and wildfires, show significant vulnerability and exposure of some ecosystems and many human systems to climate variability,#39; the report warned. 报告警告说,热浪、干旱、洪灾和森林大火等近期极端气候事件的影响显示出,一些生态系统和很多人类系统都非常容易受到气候变异的影响。The report said climate change may affect the reliability of pipelines and electricity grids, as well as tourism resorts, especially ski and beach resorts. 报告说,气候变化可能影响到管道、电网和旅游度假区的可靠性,特别是滑雪和海边度假地的可靠性。It also said climate change had the largest impact on people who are socially and economically marginalized. 报告还称,对于在社会上和经济上被边缘化的人来说,气候变化对他们的影响最大。#39;Climate change will exacerbate poverty in low and lower-middle income countries, including high mountain states, countries at risk from sea-level rise, and countries with indigenous peoples, and create new poverty pockets in upper-middle to high-income countries in which inequality is increasing,#39; it said. 报告称,气候变化将加剧中低收入国家的贫困状况,其中包括高山国家、因海平面的上升而面临危险的国家以及拥有原住民的国家,还将在贫富差距日益增大的中高收入国家产生新的贫困人口。But funding needed to offset the impact of climate change is lacking, the report warned, saying developing countries would need between billion to 0 billion a year to implement needed measures. And efforts to reduce the effects of climate change would only have a marginal effect on reducing poverty unless #39;structural inequalities are addressed and needs for equity among poor and non-poor people are met.#39; 但报告警告说,缺乏抵消气候变化影响所需的资金。报告说,发展中国家每年需要700亿至1,000亿美元实施必要的措施。此外,各种减少气候变化影响的措施对减贫只会产生微乎其微的效果,除非结构性贫富差距得以消除,贫困人口和非贫困人口要求平等的诉求得到满足。The report was the culmination of efforts by hundreds of scientists, and portrays a sobering picture of what civilization may face in the coming decades, and emphasized that climate change is happening now. 这份报告是数百名科学家汗水的结晶,它描绘出一幅令人深思的图景,显示出未来几十年人类文明可能面临的问题,它还强调气候变化正在发生。#39;Present-day choices thus affect the risks of climate change throughout the 21st century,#39; it said. 报告说,今日的选择因此会影响整个21世纪的气候变化风险。Economically, the report said a global temperature rise of 2.5 degrees celcius above preindustrial levels could lead to global economic losses between 0.2% and 2.0% of income. By the end of the century, it said climate change could reduce labor productivity by 11%-27% in humid, tropical areas. 报告说,就经济方面而言,如果全球气温较工业时代之前的水平上升2.5摄氏度,则可能使全球经济收入损失0.2%至2.0%。报告说,到本世纪结束,气候变化可能使潮湿、热带地区劳动生产率降低11%-27%。The IPCC#39;s credibility has come under scrutiny since a 2007 report that contained errors about the pace of the melting of Himalayan glaciers. 2007年,IPCC发布了一份报告,报告中有关喜马拉雅冰川消融的速度有误,此后IPCC的信誉一直受到质疑。 /201404/283466

  Ukraine is set to become China’s top supplier of corn in the first half of 2015 as both countries reap the benefits of closer trade relations and Beijing looks to diversify its grain and oilseed purchases.乌克兰将成为今年上半年中国最大玉米供应国,两国都从更为紧密的贸易关系中受益,而中国正试图实现粮食和油籽采购的多元化。The latest customs data for May shows China imported 403,881 tonnes of corn — mainly used as livestock feed — of which almost 95 per cent came from Ukraine.5月的最新海关数据显示,中国玉米进口为40.3881万吨(主要用于牲畜饲料),其中近95%来自乌克兰。This takes the total imports from Ukraine, the b basket of eastern Europe, to 1.55m tonnes for the first five months of the year, or nearly 90 per cent of China’s overseas corn purchases.今年头5个月,来自乌克兰这个东欧产粮区的玉米进口总量达到155万吨,占中国海外玉米采购的近90%。Ukraine has established itself as China’s top corn exporter at a surprising pace since its first shipment to the country in 2012 after Kiev and Beijing signed a bn loan-for-corn deal. Ukrainian agricultural groups have sought investment and export deals with Chinese companies such as Cofco, the state-owned grains trader.2012年,乌克兰与中国签订价值30亿美元的贷款换玉米协议。自首批玉米发运以来,乌克兰以惊人的速度成为中国最大的玉米供应国。乌克兰农产品集团一直寻求与国有粮食交易商中粮(Cofco)等中国企业达成投资和出口协议。The eastern European country’s ascent has come at the expense of the US, which until last year was the top corn exporter to China. For the first five months of this year, China imported a total of 45,000 tonnes from the US, down 95 per cent from the same time last year.乌克兰地位的上升是以美国市场占有率下滑为代价的,直到去年,美国一直是中国最大玉米供应国。今年头5个月,中国从美国进口的玉米总量为4.5万吨,较去年同期减少95%。Ukraine’s deepening relationship with China will support the country’s struggling agricultural sector amid continuing tensions with neighbouring Russia. Meanwhile, imports from Ukraine help satisfy China’s growing demand for grains and meat.在与邻国俄罗斯关系持续紧张之际,乌克兰与中国关系的加深将撑乌克兰步履维艰的农业产业。与此同时,来自乌克兰的进口将满足中国与日俱增的对谷物和肉类的需求。“Ukraine is on the new trade route to Europe that China wants to develop. It also meshes with China promoting investment and infrastructure in parts of the world that are neglected,” said Fred Gale, senior economist at the US Department of Agriculture.美国农业部(US Department of Agriculture)高级经济学家家弗雷德#8226;盖尔(Fred Gale)表示:“乌克兰处于中国希望发展的通往欧洲的新的贸易线路上。这也与中国在世界上某些被忽视的地区促进投资和基础设施建设的战略相符。” /201507/384630

  The brother of China#39;s last emperor who was pushed off the throne more than 100 years ago has died.100多年前被迫退位的中国最后一位皇帝的弟弟去世了。Puren was the youngest brother of the final Qing monarch Puyi, who ruled for four years until 1912.爱新觉罗·溥任是清朝最后一位皇帝溥仪最小的弟弟,溥仪在位4年,于1912年退位。The 96-year-old died on Friday after beingtaken to hospital with pneumonia in February, his family said.溥任周五去世,享年96岁,二月份的时候因肺炎住院,他的家人说。He had been suffering from poor health and memory loss in recent years.最近几年,他的身体和都很不好。One of his sons told The Legal Evening Newsthat Puren - who took the Chinese name Jin Youzhi - was #39;almost deaf#39;.他的一个儿子对《法制晚报》说,溥任——又名金友之——之前;几乎聋;了。#39;He even couldn#39;t hold a pen... he couldn#39;t recognise people,#39; the son added.;他都没办法拿笔,认不清谁是谁,;他的儿子说。The former emperor is pictured (right) with their father and younger brother in front of a beautiful picture溥仪(右)与父亲以及弟弟拍照Puyi became emperor in 1908 when he was two years and ten months old. His abdication ended the rule of the Qing dynasty,which began in 1644.溥仪1908年继位时才2岁零10个月大。他的退位结束了清朝的统治,清朝始于1644年。After the government took power in 1912Puyi and his close family were forced to live within the walls of the Forbidden City, where they retained imperial traditions and were tended to by eunuchs.在政府1912年接管权力后,溥仪和他的家人被迫居住在紫禁城墙里,在这里他们保留了皇家的传统,并且还有太监照顾他们。They were expelled from the palace complexin 1917.1917年他们被赶出紫禁城。Puren established a primary school with the help of his father in the 1940s and continued to teach until he retired in thelate 1960s. He reportedly had three sons and two daughters.1940年代,在父亲的帮助下溥任建立了一所小学,一直教学,直到1960年代退休。据报道,他有三个儿子和两个女儿。The Communist party which took power in 1949 also reportedly gave him a place on the local Beijing branch of the Chinese People#39;s Political Consultative Conference, a mostly symbolic body.中共于1949年掌权,并赋予他北京政协委员的职位,政协是个象征性的机构。A memorial for Puren will be held at the Babaoshan Cemetery in Beijing.北京八宝山公墓将举行他的追悼会。 /201504/370630。


  New York University, in the midst of a review of how laborers were treated during the construction of its Abu Dhabi campus, has acknowledged that procedures intended to protect workers at its other major foreign outpost, in Shanghai, were not followed.纽约大学(New York University)正在就该校阿布扎比(Abu Dhabi)校区建设过程中工人的待遇问题而开展调查。现在该校承认,针对该校在上海的另一个海外校区,旨在保护工人的相关规程没有得到遵守。According to a university spokesman, N.Y.U. hired a company to perform an array of services while the new campus was being built, including monitoring working conditions and publishing its findings in annual reports. But the company “did not perform as expansive a compliance review as N.Y.U. desired, nor did they produce the detailed report that N.Y.U. requested,” the spokesman, John Beckman, said in an email.该大学的一位发言人透露,在新校园建设期间,纽约大学聘请一家公司开展了一系列务,包括监督工作条件,并在年度报告中发表其调查结果。不过,纽约大学发言人约翰·拜克曼(John Beckman)在电子邮件中说,该公司“并没有像纽约大学希望的那样,开展广泛的合规审核,也没有出具纽约大学要求的详尽的报告。”Several years ago, in response to criticism that it was building campuses in authoritarian countries without strong labor protections, the university created “statements of labor values” that pledged fair wages, reasonable hours and the right to resolve labor disputes, and forbade forced labor or employment discrimination.数年前,为了回应该校在缺乏有力劳工保障的威权主义国家建设校园的批评,该校作出了“劳工价值声明”,承诺要给予公平的工资、合理的工时,以及解决劳动纠纷的权利,此外还禁止强迫劳动或就业歧视。During the construction of the Abu Dhabi campus, the engineering firm Mott MacDonald was hired to oversee compliance and to issue annual public reports about its findings. Those reports offered consistent praise for the way laborers on the vast new campus were being treated. But an investigation by The New York Times later found that many of the workers, who were largely South Asian migrants under contract to local companies, had been charged high fees to obtain their jobs, were forced to work overtime and were not being paid what they had been promised. Some were warehoused in squalid and cramped apartments, and some were beaten or arrested for going on strike.在阿布扎比校区建设期间,该校聘请了工程顾问公司莫特麦克唐纳(Mott MacDonald)开展合规监督,并就其监督结果发布公开报告。这些报告对于规模宏大的新校园建设期间,劳工得到的待遇给予了普遍的赞誉。然而《纽约时报》之后开展的调查显示,参与建设的劳工主要是与当地企业签约的南亚移民,他们在获取工作之前都被收取了很高的费用,被迫加班,拿到的报酬也没有承诺的多。一些人挤在肮脏拥挤的公寓里,还有一些人因为罢工而遭到殴打或逮捕。John Sexton, the president of N.Y.U., called such conditions “if true as reported, troubling and unacceptable.” The university, along with the Abu Dhabi government, which financed the campus and oversaw its construction, announced an inquiry, which is continuing.纽约大学校长约翰·塞克斯顿(John Sexton)表示,“如果报道属实”,这种情况“令人不安,是不能接受的”。纽约大学与阿布扎比政府宣布开展调查,目前仍在进行当中。校园是阿布扎比政府出资并负责建设的。N.Y.U. Shanghai, a joint venture with East China Normal University, is the university’s second major outpost. The real estate consulting firm Jones Lang LaSalle was hired in March 2012 to perform a variety of functions on the building site.上海纽约大学(NYU Shanghai)作为纽约大学在海外的第二座大型校区,是与华东师范大学共同开办的。2012年3月,校方聘请了房地产咨询公司仲量联行(Jones Lang LaSalle)在建设现场开展一系列工作。“After some miscommunications — for which we share responsibility — and delays — during which we nevertheless thought a report would ultimately be completed — it became clear that a report with the level of detail we wanted was not going to be forthcoming,” Mr. Beckman said in an email last week.拜克曼上周在一封电子邮件中表示,“发生过一些沟通不畅(我们在其中也负有一定责任),以及延误(那段时间我们仍然以为最终会完成一份报告)之后,显然不会产生一份具有我们期望的那种详尽程度的报告了。”Anthony Couse, a managing director for Jones Lang LaSalle in East China, said there was no miscommunication. “Compliance review with the Statement of Labor Values was not part of our original scope,” he said. “During the summer of 2013 we were contacted by N.Y.U. about labor compliance monitoring; we carried out that monitoring, as agreed.”仲量联行华东区董事总经理顾东尼(Anthony Couse)表示,并不存在沟通不畅。“就劳工价值声明开展合规核查,并不属于我们最初的职责范围,”他说。“2013年夏,纽约大学联系我们核查劳动规章的遵守情况。我们依照双方的约定开展了核查。”He added, “The project is regarded as a success on several levels by both N.Y.U. and J.L.L.”他还说,“纽约大学和仲量联行都认为,这个项目在很多方面都取得了成功。”This summer the university hired the law firm Paul Hastings L.L.P. to perform a retroactive audit of working conditions at the Shanghai campus. The results, which will be made public, are expected by the end of the year.今年夏天,纽约大学聘请普衡律师事务所(Paul Hastings L.L.P.)对上海校区的工作条件开展事后审核。预计审核将于年底完成,结果会对外公开。Mr. Beckman added that “the conditions on the site for workers were in overall compliance with the Statement of Labor Values of N.Y.U. Shanghai.”拜克曼说,“工人在建设现场的工作条件大体上符合纽约大学上海校区的劳工价值声明。”Faculty members in New York who have been scrutinizing the overseas construction projects said that information about the Shanghai campus had been all but impossible to get. An email th between members of the local chapter of the American Association of University Professors and the university administration, in which the professors repeatedly asked which firm had been hired to monitor compliance and what standards it would employ, dated to 2011.身在纽约负责监督海外建设项目的教师表示,几乎无法取得关于上海校区的信息。美国大学教授协会(American Association of University Professors)当地分会的成员,与大学的行政部门之间的一些电子邮件讨论可以追溯到2011年,其中教授们曾反复询问聘请了哪家公司做合规监督,采用的是怎样的标准。Three years later, Jeffrey S. Lehman, the vice chancellor of N.Y.U. Shanghai, wrote to members of a faculty advisory committee to say that “notwithstanding what we understood last summer,” Jones Lang LaSalle “was not able to produce a thorough review of compliance with the worker rights that are set forth in our statement of labor values,” and that Paul Hastings had been hired “to do the kind of thorough review that J.L.L. could not.”三年后,纽大上海校区常务副校长杰弗瑞·S·雷蒙(Jeffrey S. Lehman)给一个教师顾问委员会的成员发邮件表示,“与我们去年夏天的理解不同”,仲量联行“未能出具一份全面的文件,陈述我校劳工价值声明中列举的工人权益是否得到了遵守。”校方聘请了普衡律师事务所“开展仲量联行没能开展的全面审核”。Mr. Lehman added, “Paul Hastings is writing up their report and (not surprisingly) they say they have seen no red flags, no evidence of material noncompliance, etc., etc.”雷蒙还说,“普衡正在撰写报告,而且(并不出人意料的是)他们称审核过程中没有出现问题,也没有重大违规的据,等等。”Anna McCarthy, a professor of cinema studies who was a part of that three-year exchange, expressed frustration that an effective system of oversight was not in place while the campus was being built. “I’m not satisfied,” she said. “I really do think there needs to be a lot more transparency.”电影研究教授安娜·麦卡锡(Anna McCarthy)参与了长达三年的电子邮件交流。她表示,在校园建设过程中,没有建立有效的监管系统,这让她很失望。“我并不满意,”她说。“我真的认为透明度应该高得多才行。”The Shanghai campus, in that city’s Pudong neighborhood, and the Abu Dhabi campus, on Saadiyat Island, are part of what N.Y.U. calls the Global Network University, a constellation of degree-granting campuses and smaller study-abroad sites through which students and faculty members are encouraged to cycle. The concept has won admiration from many other colleges and universities, which have scrambled to establish overseas footholds of their own. It has also attracted criticism from students and faculty members, who say that development of this kind jeopardizes academic freedom and workers’ rights.上海校区位于浦东新区,阿布扎比校区位于萨迪亚特岛,这两个校区都是纽约大学所说的全球教育体系(Global Network University)的组成部分。这一体系中包括一系列可以颁发学位的校区,以及规模较小的海外学习场所,校方鼓励学生和教师在整个体系中轮换。这种设想在其他许多学院和大学中赢得了赞誉,它们也都在匆忙建立自己的海外分校。不过这种设想也受到了师生的批评,他们表示这种开发项目妨碍了学术自由和工人的权利。The inquiry into conditions in Abu Dhabi, conducted by Nardello amp; Company, an investigative firm led by a former federal prosecutor, was to be completed this year. It is now expected in early 2015.针对阿布扎比校区工作状况的调查是由Nardello amp; Company开展的,这家调查公司的负责人是一位前联邦检察官。调查预计将于今年结束,结果将在2015年初发布。 /201412/346759


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