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明星资讯腾讯娱乐2018年10月19日 21:17:14
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The brutal killings in Paris come on top of the downing of a Russian airliner in Sinai, the bombing of a Hizbollah stronghold in Beirut and an attack against Kurds in Ankara. Some 500 have been killed in the past few weeks, and many more injured. Isis has claimed the first three, and is suspected of the fourth.就在巴黎发生残忍杀戮事件之前,一架俄罗斯客机坠毁在西奈半岛,贝鲁特的黎巴嫩真主党大本营发生了爆炸,安卡拉则发生了针对库尔德人的袭击。过去几周内,已有约500人在这些事件中丧生,更多人在事件中受伤。“伊拉克和黎凡特伊斯兰国ISIS)声称对前三起事件负责,而对于第四起,它也负有嫌疑。So how should we understand the strategy of the Islamist militants? Do they want to draw foreigners in further or frighten them away? I am not sure that is how they are thinking.那么,对于这些伊斯兰激进分子的战略,我们应该如何理解?他们是希望进一步吸引外国人,还是令他们惧而远之?我无法确定这是否正是他们的想法。What Isis wants is continuing turmoil in Syria, and in Iraq too, so that it can control territory and resources to build up its “caliphate It is not seeking to overthrow Bashar al-Assad the Syrian president is useful as a target of Sunni anger, and there has been tacit co-operation between Isis and the regime. They avoid direct conflict, trade in oil and both target the more moderate militias.ISIS想要的,是叙利亚和伊拉克的乱局持续下去,这样它就可以控制大片土地和资源以建设其“哈里发”。ISIS并未寻求推翻巴沙尔阿萨德(Bashar al-Assad),这位叙利亚总统是吸引逊尼Sunni)怒火的有用靶子,而ISIS和该政权之间也一直存在心照不宣的合作。两者之间会避免发生直接冲突,开展石油交易,并且都把更温和的武装人员当做目标。Isis wants the horrors of war and terrorism as a recruiting sergeant. The best option for them is a conflict that can be presented as Muslims against infidels, whether American, Russian or European. A conflict pitching Sunni against Shia also helps: they want Sunnis in the Middle East and beyond to see them as their standard bearer. In their mindset, the Paris attacks are a show of power. They keep the pot boiling and will draw more Muslims in Europe to their cause.ISIS希望用战争的可怕和恐怖主义充当遴选新人的军官。对他们来说,最好的选择是造成这样一场冲突:它能被描绘为穆斯林和不信教人士(不论是美国人、俄罗斯人还是欧洲人)之间的对战。而引起逊尼派与什叶派(Shia)争斗的冲突对他们也会很有帮助:他们希望中东及其他地区的逊尼派将他们视为标杆。在他们的头脑里,巴黎的袭击是一次力量的展示。他们要确保局面始终混乱,并将吸引欧洲更多穆斯林走上他们的轨道。Two things Isis does not want. First is a full-blown ground intervention by Nato or Russia as this would quickly cost the militants their base in eastern Syria and western Iraq. The group will calculate, probably rightly, that in the wake of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan there is no appetite for that in western capitals or Moscow. French President Hollande’s talk of war is unlikely to result in Nato’s article five commitment to collective defence being triggered in any meaningful way.有两件事是ISIS不希望看到的。首先是北约(Nato)或俄罗斯的全面地面干预,因为这会很快导致这群激进分子丧失在叙利亚东部和伊拉克西部的基地。该组织会打如下算盘(很可能他们是对的):西方各国政府或俄罗斯政府在伊拉克战争和阿富汗战争之后,没有进行全面地面干预的兴趣。法国总统弗朗索瓦攠朗 Hollande)有关战争的讲话,不太可能以任何有实际意义的方式触发北约有关集体防御义务的第五条款。Second is a peace deal bringing a new government to Syria. If there were a settlement accommodating Syrian Sunnis a big if, given that it would require Mr Assad’s departure Isis would lose its appeal. That should reinforce the resolve of foreign ministers from the US, Russia, Europe and the Middle East who met in Vienna on Saturday to seek a political solution to the Syrian war.ISIS不希望看到的第二件事,则是达成能让叙利亚建立新政府的和平协议。如果存在包容叙利亚逊尼派的和平协议(考虑到这以阿萨德下台为必要条件,这是个十分大胆的假定),ISIS就会失去吸引力。这一点应该会加大美国、俄罗斯、欧洲及中东各国外长的决心,他们于上周六在维也纳会晤,以寻求叙利亚战争的政治解决方案。Diplomacy will always reflect what is happening on the ground. Russia’s military intervention in Syria, targeting anti-regime forces, has strengthened the negotiating hand of the Kremlin and its ally, the Assad regime. If the west wants to shape the outcome, its military role will have to be less tentative than the current limited strikes against Isis and arms supplies to the less extreme anti-Assad militias.外交始终是地面军事态势的反映。俄罗斯对叙利亚以反政府武装为目标的军事干预,为克里姆林宫及其盟友阿萨德政权增加了谈判的筹码。如果西方希望改变这一结果,它们就必须提升在军事上发挥的作用,不要像现在那么试探性。目前,它们的行动还只限于对ISIS十分有限的打击,以及向不那么极端的反阿萨德武装人员提供武器。Why did Isis attack France? Well, Paris has been at the forefront of opposition to Islamist extremists in the Sahel and in Syria. The French Muslim community is not well integrated and, being mainly of north African origin, feels more involved in the conflicts in the Arab world than the south Asians in Britain or Turks in Germany, which has made them more susceptible to Isis rhetoric.ISIS为何要袭击法国?在萨赫勒地区(Sahel,非洲撒哈拉沙漠和苏丹草原地区之间一条横跨多个国家的地带——译者注)和叙利亚,法国一直站在对抗伊斯兰极端分子的最前沿。法国的穆斯林群体没有很好地融入社会——由于法国的穆斯林主要是北非裔,比起英国的南亚裔穆斯林或者德国的土耳其裔穆斯林,这些人在情感上更关注阿拉伯世界的争端,这使他们更容易受到ISIS的宣传的影响。Some ask if there was a failure of intelligence that could have prevented the atrocity. We do not yet know. It was a complex, well planned attack by skilled operatives. Of course, some were known to the French security services it would be much more alarming if they were all “clean skins We need to know how they planned, how they communicated, where they trained and what traces they left ahead of Friday.一些人问,情报工作是否失败,否则我们本可能阻止这场暴行。这一点我们还不知道。这是一次复杂、精心策划、由训练有素的行动人员进行的袭击。当然,法国的安保部门知道其中一些人的存在——如果他们全都“背景干净”,此事就骇人得多了。我们需要了解,他们是如何策划、沟通的,他们在哪里接受训练,在周五事件发生前又留下了什么痕迹。French security services will have been working on these questions all weekend, supported by counterparts across Europe. They are battling to get on top of the escalating threat at home. DGSI, the internal service, is having to shift from its police methods to an intelligence-led approach to get on top of the modern threat. DGSE, the external service, is geared more to pursuing French interests abroad than supporting security at home. French intercept capabilities come under the external service and are not as easily directed against terrorists in France. Countering terrorism tight co-ordination of agent penetration, intercepts and bulk data analysis. Teamwork is vital. In the UK we developed it only after the 2005 London bombings. Reform of the French services, aly being driven by Manuel Valls, the impressively tough prime minister, is certain to be accelerated.法国的安保部门在欧洲各国安保部门的协助下,整个周末都在研究这些问题。他们正在奋力控制国内不断升级的威胁。负责国内安全事务的法国国内安全总局(DGSI),现在必须将警察式的手段转换成以情报为主导的策略,以控制现代威胁。负责外部安全事务的法国对外安全总局(DGSE)比起持国内的安全工作,更多追求法国在国外的利益。法国的情报截查能力设在外部安全部门下,因此没那么容易以法国国内的恐怖分子为目标。反恐需要特工渗透、信息截查和批量数据分析的紧密协作。团队合作十分关键。在英国,我们在2005年的伦敦爆炸案之后才发展出这样的机制。风格极其强硬的法国总理曼纽尔瓦尔斯(Manuel Valls)已经开始推动法国安保部门的改革,现在这项改革势必提速。The next attack probably will not be in France. Isis wants to provoke division across Europe in particular, hostility to the refugees flooding in. It wants the far right to grow in strength, further alienating European Muslims. Germany might be vulnerable as Isis would see an attack as weakening Chancellor Angela Merkel and dividing opinion. It could just as easily be in London: according to Andrew Parker, head of MI5, the UK domestic security agency, six terror attacks have been foiled in the UK this year aly though none, I suspect, as extensive as what we saw in Paris.下一次袭击很可能不会在法国发生。ISIS希望在全欧洲制造分歧——尤其是,对涌入欧洲的难民的敌意。ISIS希望极右翼势力提升实力,使欧洲的穆斯林进一步遭到疏远。德国可能是一个容易受到攻击的目标,因为ISIS会将袭击德国视为削弱德国总理安格拉默克尔(Angela Merkel)和制造观点分歧的手段。袭击同样很有可能发生在伦敦,根据英国国内安全机构军情五MI5)处长安德鲁帕Andrew Parker)的说法,今年英国已经阻止次恐怖袭击,尽管我怀疑其中没有哪一起能比得上巴黎暴恐案的规模。Political calculation and available operatives will determine where Isis tries to strike next. There is little doubt that there will be further attacks. This will challenge not just our intelligence agencies. The wars in Europe’s neighbourhood are now washing on to our shores and governments in Europe especially France, Germany and Britain will have to lead the response. We cannot expect the US to ride to our rescue.政治盘算和可用的行动人员将决定ISIS下一次会在哪里试图发动袭击。无疑,我们会看到更多的袭击。这挑战的不仅仅是我们的情报机构。在欧洲邻近地区发生的战争已经蔓延到了我们的边缘,欧洲各国——尤其是法国、德国和英国——政府必须领导起应对行动。我们不能指望美国前来救援。来 /201511/410968

  

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  Fran#231;ois Hollande has protested to Barack Obama over allegations that US National Security Agency listened to the French president’s phone conversations.法国总统弗朗索瓦·奥朗Fran#231;ois Hollande)已就有关美国国家安全局(NSA)监听其电话通话的最新爆料向美国总统巴拉#8226;奥巴Barack Obama)提出抗议。The French president telephoned his US counterpart for “an update on the principles that must govern relations between allies on the matter of intelligence the Elysée palace said. Mr Obama “reiterated without ambiguity his firm undertaking... to put an end to practices that may have taken place in the past and which were unacceptable between allies it added.爱丽舍宫表示,法国总统致电美国总统,询问“在情报事务上规范盟国之间关系的那些原则是否发生了变化”。爱丽舍宫还表示,奥巴马“毫不含糊地重申了他的坚定承诺……将结束过去可能已发生的、在盟国之间不可接受的那些做法”。The Elysée said French authorities had aly discussed the alleged espionage with their American counterparts in 2013 and in February 2014, during Mr Hollande’s trip to Washington.爱丽舍宫表示,早013年以014月奥朗德访美期间,法国有关部门就与美国同行讨论了有关间谍活动的指控。After a meeting of France’s security cabinet earlier in the day to discuss revelations, the Elyséé said “France#8201;.#8201;.#8201;.#8201;will not accept behaviour that puts its security and the protection of its interests at risk.”在法国安全内阁昨日开会讨论最新爆料之后,爱丽舍宫表示,“法国……将不会接受危及本国安全和危及对本国利益保护的行为。”来 /201506/383088

  North Korean leader Kim Jong-un has sent his all-female pop propaganda band to China in an apparent effort to boost relations with his traditional ally.朝鲜领导人金正恩派出他的女子流行乐团到中国演出,有明显意图欲修复与传统盟友中国的关系。The Moranbong Band, which was reputedly handpicked by Mr Kim, is to give ;friendship performances; along with the State Merited Chorus - an army orchestra - the official news agency KCNA reports. Clad in military-style uniforms, the musicians were seen off at Pyongyang station by senior party officials and the Chinese ambassador, underlining the importance of the groups first tour abroad.牡丹峰乐团,被称是应朝鲜最高领导人金正恩指示成立的乐团,将与“功勋国家合唱团”一起进行“友好演出”,据朝鲜中央新闻社报道。乐团成员们身着军装制,从平壤站出发,党内高层官员和中国驻朝鲜大使等为访问团送别,强调了该乐团第一次出国演出的重要性。Its seen as the latest sign that the two countries longstanding alliance is on the mend again, after being strained by North Koreas third nuclear test in 2013. The band will appear at the National Centre for the Performing Arts in Beijing from 12 to 14 December, according to Chinas Xinhua agency.013年朝鲜进行第三次核实验后,中朝两国关系一直紧张,这次公演被视为两国的长期联盟关系正在修补的最新迹象。据新华社报道,朝鲜乐团将会2214日在北京国家大剧院进行公演。Last in the international news in September, when rumours of their disappearance and possible fall from grace turned out to be greatly exaggerated, Moranbong were formed at Kim Jong-uns order in 2012 out of an ensemble favoured by his deceased father, Kim Jong-il.此前已备受金正恩已故的父亲金正日的喜爱,2012年在金正恩的指示下成立了牡丹峰乐团。在九月的国际新闻上,牡丹峰乐团从荧屏上消失和可能失宠的传闻被严重夸大。They are known - at least by the authoritarian states staid standards - for their energetic, almost Western-style performances. Songs include typical North Korea propaganda items such as We Think of the Marshall (Mr Kim) Day and Night and My Country is the Best!, but also more surprising Western-inspired numbers, including the Theme from Rocky.他们是非常受追捧-至少以专制国家古板的标准衡量—她们的朝气蓬勃,和几乎西方式的舞台风格。表演歌曲包括典型的朝鲜歌曲《金正日将军之歌》《祖国赞歌》,还有更让人惊讶的西方歌曲如the Theme from Rocky等。来 /201512/415078Something is changing in the west’s relationship with Saudi Arabia. You can it in the newspapers. You can hear it from politicians. And you can see it in shifts in policy.西方与沙特阿拉伯的关系正在发生某种变化。这一点可以从报纸上读出来;从政治家们口中听出来;从政策转变中看出来。Hostile articles about the Saudis are now standard fare in the western press. On Sunday, the main editorial in The Observer denounced the UK’s relationship with Saudi Arabia as an “unedifying alliance that imperils our security Two days earlier, the B ran an article highlighting an “unprecedented wave of executionsin Saudi Arabia. A couple of months ago, Thomas Friedman, arguably the most influential columnist in the US, labelled the terrorist group, Isis, the “ideological offspringof Saudi Arabia.对沙特怀有敌意的文章如今已成为西方媒体的标配。上周日,《观察家报The Observer)的主社论公开指责英国与沙特的关系是一种“危及英国安全的不光联盟”。不久前,英国广播公B)刊发的一篇文章浓墨重地报道了沙特国内一波“前所未有的死刑潮”。几个月前,堪称美国最具影响力专栏作家的托马斯弗里德曼(Thomas Friedman),将恐怖组织“伊斯兰国ISIS)称为沙特的“意识形态产物”。Politicians are taking up similar themes. Sigmar Gabriel, Germany’s vice-chancellor, has accused Saudi Arabia of funding Islamist extremism in the west and added: “We have to make it clear to the Saudis that the time of looking away is over.In the UK, Lord Ashdown, a former leader of the Liberal Democrats, has called for an investigation into the “funding of jihadismin Britain and pointed at Saudi Arabia.政治家们也开始拿类似的主题说事。德国副总理西格马尔加布里尔(Sigmar Gabriel)指责沙特为在西方活动的伊斯兰极端主义分子提供资金,并补充称:“我们必须让沙特明白,睁一只眼闭一只眼的日子已经结束。”英国自由民主党(Liberal Democrats)前党魁阿什当勋Lord Ashdown)呼吁英国对“资助圣战组织”的行为展开调查,矛头直指沙特。The sudden increase in concern about Saudi Arabia is driven, in large part, by the rise of Isis. Western policymakers know that the battle with jihadism is as much about ideology as guns. When they look for a source of the Isis worldview, they increasingly trace it back to the Wahhabi philosophy promoted by the Saudi religious establishment.对沙特突然激增的担忧很大程度上是由ISIS的崛起带来的。西方政策制定者明白,在打击“圣战主义”方面,诉诸意识形态与诉诸武力同等重要。在寻找ISIS世界观的根源时,他们越来越多地追溯到了沙特宗教机构所倡导的瓦哈比主义(Wahhabi)。Saudi influence in the west has also been weakened by other developments. The “shale revolutionin the US has made the west less dependent on Saudi oil. Meanwhile, the turmoil in the Middle East has shone a harsh light on Saudi foreign policy , with particular criticism aimed at the high level of civilian casualties caused by Saudi military intervention in Yemen, and Riyadh’s role in crushing an uprising in Bahrain in 2011.沙特在西方的影响力也遭到了其他事态的削弱。美国的“页岩革命”使西方国家减少了对沙特石油的依赖。与此同时,中东地区的动荡也使沙特的外交政策招致批评,尤其是针对沙特军事干预也门造成大量平民伤亡、以011年沙特在镇压巴林国内起义中扮演的角色。For the moment, however, all this criticism has led only to modest adjustments in western policy. For the Saudis themselves, the most alarming change has been President Barack Obama’s determination to secure a nuclear deal with Iran, facing down fierce opposition from Saudi Arabia. Beyond the Iran deal, however, there have been only small, symbolic gestures, such as Britain’s decision, driven by human-rights concerns, to pull out of the bidding for a contract to provide training for prisons in Saudi Arabia.然而,目前来看,所有这些批评仅仅使西方轻微调整了对沙特的政策。对沙特人自己而言,最令人担忧的变化是,美国总统巴拉克攠巴马(Barack Obama)不顾沙特的激烈反对,坚决要与伊朗达成核协议。但除了伊核协议之外,其他的都只是一些小的、象征性姿态,例如,英国出于人权方面的担忧,决定退出为沙特监狱提供培训的合同竞标。Western critics of Saudi Arabia want to see the gloves come off. They accuse the governments of the UK and the US of being in thrall to Saudi money. Lord Ashdown has pointed to the influence of “rich Gulf individualsin British politics. Saudi Arabia also remains a crucial market for western arms manufacturers. Over the past 18 months the US has approved the sale of more than bn of weaponry to Saudi Arabia.批评沙特的西方人士希望看到西方对沙特动真格的。他们指责英美两国的政府受制于沙特的金元。阿什当勋爵曾指责“富裕的海湾人物”对英国政界施加了影响。此外,沙特仍是西方军火制造商的重要市场。过8个月,美国已批准向沙特出售价值40亿美元的武器装备。There are also solid reasons, that have little to do with money, for continued western co-operation with Saudi Arabia. The past five years have demonstrated that when bad governments fall in the Middle East, they are often replaced by something far worse. The most powerful internal critics of the Saudi monarchy are not liberals but hardline Islamists. The fear that Saudi Arabia could become yet another failed state haunts the west. One senior UK diplomat warns: “Get rid of the House of Saud and you will be screaming for them to come back within six months.”西方继续与沙特合作,也有与金钱无关的其他充分理由。过去五年的经验明,中东国家的坏政府倒台后,取代他们的人通常更加糟糕。沙特国内批评王室最猛烈的不是自由派,而是强硬的伊斯兰主义者。对于沙特可能变成又一个失败国家的担忧困扰着西方。一位英国高级外交官警告称:“如果推翻沙特王室,不出6个月你就会哭喊着要他们回来。”Saudi Arabia’s relationship with jihadism is also complex. It is true that Islamists in Saudi Arabia have provided ideological and sometimes financial support for jihadis around the world. But it is also true that the Saudi royal family itself has been targeted by both Isis and al-Qaeda. At the same time, intelligence provided by the Saudis has been critical in thwarting some terrorist plots in the west. As one western counter-terrorism official puts it: “The Saudis are sometimes both the source of the problem and the best antidote to it.”沙特与“圣战主义”的关系也同样复杂。没错,沙特境内的伊斯兰主义者为世界各地的圣战分子提供了意识形态和(不时的)资金持。但沙特王室自身一直是ISIS和基地组al-Qaeda)袭击的目标,这也是事实。同时,沙特提供的情报,对挫败一些针对西方的恐怖袭击阴谋一直起着至关重要的作用。正如一位西方反恐官员所说:“沙特有时既是问题的根源也是问题的解药。”Some western strategists daydream about ditching the Saudi alliance in favour of a rapprochement with Iran. If international politics were a chess game, this might look like a clever gambit.一些西方战略人士幻想着宁愿抛弃与沙特的联盟,与伊朗修好。如果国际政治是一盘象棋,这或许看起来像一步妙棋。来 /201512/416541

  Pakistan’s government has approved a deal to buy eight submarines from China, in what some analysts say will be the largest defence contract between the countries and the biggest arms export deal for China.巴基斯坦政府批准了一项从中国购买8艘潜艇的协议。一些分析人士表示,这将是两国之间最大的军售合同,也将是中国迄今最大的军火出口交易。Although officials from Pakistan’s navy neither gave a price tag nor revealed the types of submarines being pursued, they confirmed a decision “in principleduring a hearing of the parliamentary defence committee in Islamabad.尽管巴基斯坦海军官员拒绝透露价格或潜艇型号,但他们实,议会国防委员会在伊斯兰堡举行的一场听会上做出了“原则上”的决定。A former senior Pakistan navy officer close to the talks said the contract could be worth bn-bn. “China has agreed again to fill a strategic gap,he said. “It was about time we placed an order.”接近谈判的巴基斯坦海军一名前高级军官称,这份合同可能价0亿至50亿美元。“中国已再次同意填补一项战略空白,”他说。“我们也该下订单了。”Chinese analysts valued the deal at less than half that amount.中国分析人士对这笔交易的估价为上述数额的不到一半。Islamabad has long been Beijing’s top arms customer, driving China’s emergence as a big exporter of military hardware. Pakistan bought more than 40 per cent of China’s arms exports over the past five years, said the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute.巴基斯坦一直是中国的头号武器客户,推动中国成为军事装备出口大国。斯德哥尔国际和平研究所(SIPRI)称,巴基斯坦在过去五年里买下0%以上的中国武器出口。China’s arms exports surged 143 per cent over the same period, making it the world’s third-largest arms exporter, behind only the US and Russia.同期中国武器出口猛增143%,使其成为世界第三大武器出口国,仅次于美国和俄罗斯。Analysts in Islamabad say Beijing may have agreed to the deal to help counter the perceived threat from India, amid fears the country is building its navy to claim a presence in the Pacific.伊斯兰堡的分析人士表示,北京方面可能已经同意了这笔交易,以帮助反制来自印度的潜在威胁。中国有人担心,印度正在为进军太平洋而建设其海军。“China has its own strategic reasons to help Pakistan in this area,said Ali Sarwar Naqvi, a former senior Pakistani diplomat. “As India prepares to head into the Pacific Ocean, the Chinese are looking to head into the Indian Ocean.”“中国在这方面帮助巴基斯坦有自己的战略考虑,”巴基斯坦前高级外交官阿#8226;萨瓦#8226;纳克Ali Sarwar Naqvi)表示。“在印度准备进入太平洋之际,中国正寻机进入印度洋。”Ian Storey, at the Institute of Southeast Asian Studies in Singapore, agreed there was clear strategic rationale.新加坡东南亚研究所(Institute of Southeast Asian Studies)的伊#8226;斯托Ian Storey)也认为,这笔交易有明确的战略逻辑。“India has been modernising and expanding its navy for over a decade now,he said. “While Pakistan can never close the gap between its own and India’s conventional armed forces, submarines would provide the Pakistan navy with a credible deterrent.”“印度推进海军现代化和扩军已有十多年了,”他说。“尽管巴基斯坦永远不可能在常规武装力量方面弥合其与印度的差距,但潜艇将给巴基斯坦海军带来可信的威慑力量。”来 /201504/368053

  ALTAY, China It has been a bad year for the big-tailed sheep. The grass in the high mountain pastures here in northwest China has been sparse, and the sheep have not eaten well. They are scrawny. That means the Kazakh herders have suffered, too.中国阿勒泰——对于大尾羊来说,这是糟糕的一年。中国西北部的高山草地牧草稀疏,羊群吃不饱,全都骨肉如柴。这意味着哈萨克族牧民的日子也不好过;The drought has affected everyone,; one herder, Aijamal, 32, who like many others here uses one name, said on a recent afternoon as she rode horseback and drove hundreds of sheep across a barren plateau. ;We cant sell the sheep for the same price we did before.;最近的一个下午,32岁的牧民艾贾Aijamal)骑马驱赶羊群穿过一片贫瘠的高原。“所有人都受干旱影响,”她边骑马边说说。“我们的羊卖不出以前的价格了。”她像这里的很多人一样,只使用单名。Sheep that wholesalers bought for 1,000 renminbi, about 0, last year are commanding only 830 renminbi now, she said. The price drop has come as a big blow to the nomadic Kazakh herders whose families have for decades produced the most famous sheep in China.她表示,批发商去年花1000元购买的羊现在只30元。价格下跌给哈萨克族游牧民造成巨大打击,这些游牧家庭数十年来一直在饲养中国最知名的羊。And the season for fattening up the sheep is at an end. Across this remote area of pristine grasslands and alpine forests, along the southern slopes of the Altai Mountains, nomads are in the middle of their annual multiweek autumn migration, as they bring their families, yurts and livestock down from the high pastures to lower altitudes for the winter. They are using horses, camels and flatbed trucks for transport, and horses and motorcycles to herd their animals. Clouds of dust rising from the steppes signal nomads on the move.羊只长膘的季节已经到了尾声。牧民们每年秋季都会花费数周时间进行迁徙,他们正沿着阿尔泰山南山坡穿越未遭破坏的草地和高山林区,带着家人、圆顶帐篷、牲畜从高山草地向海拔较低的地方迁徙过冬。他们利用马、骆驼及平板货车充当运输工具,用马和托车驱赶牲畜。草原上飞扬的尘土说明游牧民正在迁徙。This lifestyle has continued for centuries here, north of the Xinjiang regions desolate Dzungarian Basin and near Chinas borders with Mongolia, Kazakhstan and Russia, despite official efforts to force nomads to settle in newly built villages. The nomads pass the winter near the lower towns before making the reverse migration once the snows begin melting.尽管政府迫使游牧民迁入新建的村庄,在新疆北部的准噶尔盆地,以及中国与蒙古、哈萨克斯坦和俄罗斯的边境附近,这种生活方式已经持续了几个世纪。游牧民们在纬度较低的城镇过冬,然后在雪开始融化时再进行反向迁徙。A history museum in Altay pays tribute to this way of life. ;The Altay region has been a paradise for nomadic peoples since ancient times,; the text on one display says. ;The Tiele, Scythians, Xiongnu, Xianbei, Rouran, Tujue, Mongol and Kazakh have lived here successively for thousands of years and created a splendid grassland culture. They have contributed to the history of not only the Altay region but also of Xinjiang and China.;阿勒泰的一个历史物馆向这种生活方式致以纪念。“阿勒泰地区自古以来就是游牧民族的天堂,”一件展品的文字说明写道。“铁勒人、斯基泰人、匈奴人、鲜卑人、柔然人、突厥人、蒙古人及哈萨克族人相继在这里生活了数千年,并创造了辉煌的草原文化。他们为阿勒泰地区及新疆和中国的历史做出了贡献。”The big-tailed sheep of the region, especially those near Fuhai Lake, have been prized for more than 1,000 years, according to the Ministry of Commerce website. During the Tang dynasty (618 to 907 A.D.), rulers in the area sent sheep as tribute to the imperial court in Xian. During the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing, the regions mutton was served as official food to athletes from Muslim countries, according to an Altay government website.商务部网站显示,该地区——特别是福海附近——的大尾羊早000多年前就受到人们的追捧。唐朝时期(公元618907年),当地统治者曾将福海大尾羊作为贡品献给唐朝宫廷。阿勒泰政府网站声称,在2008年北京夏季奥林匹克运动会期间,阿勒泰羊肉成为穆斯林国家运动员的官方指定食物。Adult sheep can weigh more than 300 pounds, making them ideal for meat production. The sheep are known for tails that weigh more than 20 pounds, where they store fat for the winter.成年羊体重高00多磅(约36公斤),因此非常适合做成肉制品。大尾羊以重量可0多磅的尾部著称,大尾羊依靠尾部储存脂肪过冬。One recent day, Aijamal dressed in a turquoise sweater and a red head scarf (Kazakhs are mostly Sunni Muslims) and astride a white horse was watching over 200 sheep. Her two children were in a mud-walled shelter nearby. She and her family were in the middle of their migration, driving the sheep down to winter pastures near a riverside village.近日,身穿青绿色毛衣、头戴红色头巾(哈萨克族人大多数是逊尼派穆斯林)的艾贾玛骑着一匹白马,看管着200只羊。她的两个孩子待在附近的泥墙房中。她和家人正在进行迁徙,要将羊群赶往一个河畔山村附近的冬季牧场。There, they would hire other herders to look after the sheep until the spring. That is an increasingly common practice among some Kazakhs, especially those who have traded their nomadic occupations for other pursuits.他们会在那里雇佣其他牧民看管羊群,直到春天。在一些哈萨克族人中,这种做法越来越普遍,特别是那些放弃游牧,从事其他工作的人;Well stay here for a few days,; Aijamal said as she got off her horse. ;Then well go down after the sheep have eaten.;“我们会在这儿待几天,”艾贾玛边从马上下来边说。“羊群吃完草后,我们将继续往下走。”She said she and her husband had just sold 80 lambs to two wholesale meat merchants, ethnic Uighurs who were among the few Uighur buyers visiting this year. Officials in Xinjiang have been restricting their movements because of a surge in ethnic violence.她表示自己和丈夫只向两名维族肉类批发商卖出了80只羔羊,他们是今年前来买羊的为数不多的维族买家。由于民族冲突加剧,新疆地区的官员限制维族人的活动。Many Uighurs resent rule by the Han, the dominant ethnic group in China, and hundreds of people have been killed this year amid violence in Xinjiang. Chinese officials blame terrorist groups among the Uighurs, though insurgency experts and scholars of Xinjiang say they have seen no evidence of a widesp terrorist influence.许多维吾尔人对汉人的统治感到不满。汉人在中国的人口中占多数。今年已经有数百人在新疆的暴力冲突中死亡。中国官员将这些事件的责任归咎于维吾尔人中的恐怖组织,不过,研究叛乱活动和新疆问题的专家和学者称,他们没有发现恐怖主义在新疆拥有广泛影响力的据。The shortage of buyers has also contributed to the drop in the price of sheep, Aijamal said. ;Before, the Uighurs would come north from Urumqi to buy our sheep,; she said, referring to the capital of Xinjiang, a vast region that makes up one-sixth of China. ;But now many of them cant come.;买家的稀缺还导致羊肉价格下降,艾贾玛说。“以前,维吾尔人会从乌鲁木齐北上来买我们的羊肉,”她说。新疆地域辽阔,占中国国土面积的六人之一,乌鲁木齐是其首府。“但是现在,很多人都来不了。”But the drought has been a much bigger problem. This year, it killed 8,000 animals and destroyed 3,800 square kilometers of crops in northern Xinjiang, according to a report in the state news media. Three million animals lack sufficient drinking water. The Civil Affairs Bureau said 800,000 people were affected, and officials estimate the economic loss at 4.7 billion renminbi, or 0 million.而更加严重的问题是干旱。官方媒体的一篇报道称,今年,干旱共导致新疆北000头牲畜死亡,3800平方公里的庄稼受到破坏。目前,00万头牲畜缺乏足够的饮用水。民政局称,受灾人数0万人,官方估计,经济损失可达47亿元人民币,.6亿美元。Some nomads were leaving earlier than usual from the summer pastures so their sheep could graze lower down. North of the town of Burqin, near a mountain pass, a man named Loshan was dismantling his yurt with his family and tossing their furniture into the back of a white flatbed truck. Nomad families sometimes split the daily rental rate of 0 or more for a truck and driver for their migration.一些游牧者比往常更早地离开了夏季牧场,好让羊群到南边吃草。在布尔津县北部的一个山口附近,一位名叫罗斯汉(Loshan)的男子正在和家人拆掉毡帐,同时把家当扔上一辆白色的平板卡车。在迁徙时,游牧民族家庭有时会合租一辆卡车和司机,分担每天至00美元的费用;My older brother is watching our sheep in the mountains,; said Loshan, 40. ;Hell bring them down to join us.;“我哥在山上照看我们的羊,”现0岁的罗斯汉说。“他会把羊群赶下山和我们汇合。”East of Altay, in the area of Koktokay, a nomad on horseback pointed to some of his 200 or 300 sheep. Way too thin, he said.在阿尔泰东部的可可托海地区,一个游牧者骑在马上,指着他的一些羊说,太瘦了。他总共有两三百头羊;Soon there wont be any grass,; said the man, Urzbek, 62. ;Maybe next year there will be none at all, because it hasnt rained.;“很快就没有草了,”这个名叫乌尔兹别克(Urzbek)2岁男子说。“可能明年就什么草都没有了,因为没下过雨。”He lives with his family in one of a half-dozen white yurts by a road leading to the Koktokay nature park, a Yosemite-like valley with towering granite peaks through which the Irtysh River flows to the Arctic Ocean. In the park, nomads were coming down from the summer pastures each day with camel caravans.他和家人住在通向可可托海国家地质公园的公路旁的一座白色毡帐里,周围还有五座这样的毡帐。可可托海国家地质公园是一个类似约塞米蒂谷的地方,有高耸的花岗岩山峰,额尔齐斯河经由这里流入北冰洋。在公园里,每天都有游牧者带着骆驼队从夏季牧场走下来。On this morning, Urzbeks daughter walked among their sheep to help ensure that none of them wandered off. A half-dozen camels that his family owns loped in formation, tied together, near the dry hills. Then there was the horse on which Urzbek rode. ;My horse is more important than my life,he said.这天早上,乌尔兹别克的女儿走在羊群中间,帮助确保不会有羊走散。他家养的六只骆驼绑在一起,保持着队形,在干旱的山峦附近阔步前行。跟在后面的是骑在马背上的乌尔兹别克。“我的马比我的命还重要。”他说。He began riding off. ;I need to keep the sheep in line,; he said. He whistled and cracked a short whip to get the sheep moving.他开始策马远去。“我得把羊群看好,”他说。他吹了一声口哨,甩响了短鞭,驱赶着羊群。来 /201410/338013

  

  EU member Slovenia plans to build ;obstacles; on its border with Croatia in advance of an expected new spike in migrants bound for northern Europe this week.欧盟成员国斯洛维尼亚计划要在同克罗地亚接壤的边界地带修建障碍物,背景是,这个星期预计有新一波难民要经过这一地区涌向北欧。But Prime Minister Miro Cerar, whose country last month found itself on the main Balkans route for thousands of migrants after Hungary sealed its southern borders, insisted that its frontier would remain open.不过,斯洛维尼亚总理采拉尔坚持说,该国的边界将保持开放。上个月,在匈牙利关闭了其南部过境点以后,斯洛维尼亚成为了数千名难民逃难所经之路;We decided yesterday to start building over the following days on the Schengen border with Croatia some temporary technical obstacles,; Cerar said Tuesday in the capital, Ljubljana.斯洛维尼亚总理星期二说:“我们昨天决定开始在今后几天内,在同克罗地亚接壤的申根边界地带修建临时的技术性的障碍物。;These obstacles, including fences if needed, will have the objective of directing migrants towards the border crossings. We are not closing our borders,; he said.他表示,“这些障碍物,包括可能需要的栅栏,目的是要将难民们朝着过境点导引;我们不会关闭边境的。”来 /201511/409100

  (CNN) -- In a published to the Internet on Sunday -- purportedly from terror group ISIS -- militants claim to have beheaded American hostage Peter Kassig.(CNN)--星期天,一段据称由恐怖组织伊斯兰国公布到网络上的视频声称美国人质皮特·卡西格已经被斩首。The shows the aftermath of a beheading, in which the victim is not clearly recognizable. CNN has not been able to confirm the authenticity of the nor the identity of the victim.这段视频记录了斩首之后的现场,但无法清晰辨认出受害人。CNN目前无法确认这段视频的真实性,也不能确定受害人的身什?Kassig, 26, who converted to Islam in captivity, also went by the name Abdul Rahman Kassig.卡西格今6岁,在被俘期间转信伊斯兰教,同时还一个名字叫:阿卜杜勒·拉赫曼·卡西格He went to the Middle East as a U.S. soldier and returned as a medical worker, feeling compelled to help victims of war.他以美国士兵的身份奔赴中东,后以一个医疗工作者的身份回国,并以帮助战争受害者为己任。After returning to civilian life, he did aid work in Syria, where he was captured. He was held hostage for over a year.回归平民生活后,他在叙利亚做援助工作,最终在那里被抓。他已经被俘一年多。The White House issued a statement condemning the purported killing.白宫已经发表声明,谴责这次还未实的屠杀;The intelligence community is working as quickly as possible to determine (the s) authenticity. If confirmed, we are appalled by the brutal murder of an innocent American aid worker and we express our deepest condolences to his family and friends,; said National Security Council spokeswoman Bernadette Meehan.“情报机构正在以尽可能最快的速度确认视频的真实性。这种残忍杀害无辜美国救援人员的行为令人发指,如果确认是真实的,我们将对他的家人和朋友表示最深沉的哀悼,”美国国家安全局发言人伯纳黛特·米汉说。British Prime Minister also condemned ISIS over purported killing.英国首相针对这次疑似事件也对伊斯兰国发出了谴责;Im horrified by the cold blooded murder of Abdul-Rahman Kassig. ISIL have again shown their depravity. My thoughts are with his family,; British Prime Minister David Cameron said on Twitter.“斩杀阿卜杜勒·拉赫曼·卡西格的冷血行为让我感到震惊。ISIL又一次展现出了他们的邪恶。我的心和卡西格的家人同在,”英国首相大卫·卡梅伦在推特上说。ISIL is another term for the group ISIS, the Islamic State in Iraq and Syria.ISIL是ISIS的另外一种称呼,即伊拉克和叙利亚伊斯兰国Five beheadings of Westerners五位西方公民被斩首Kassig is the fifth Westerner ISIS claims to have beheaded.、据伊斯兰国的声明,卡西格是第五名被斩首的西方公民。The first was U.S. journalist James Foley. A of his killing was posted online in mid-August, just over a week after President Obama approved ;targeted airstrikes; against ISIS.第一位是美国记者詹姆斯·福利。八月中旬,在奥巴马发动针对伊斯兰国的空袭一个星期后,他被斩首的视频就被公布到网络上。In early September, ISIS released a showing the beheading of U.S. journalist Steven Sotloff. Sotloffs apparent killer spoke in what sounded like the same British accent as the man who purportedly killed Foley.九月初,伊斯兰国公布了美国记者斯蒂芬·所托罗夫被斩首的视频。杀死这两人的刽子手口音听起来相似,都是相同的英国口音。Less than two weeks later, ISIS announced in a the apparent murder of British aid worker David Haines.此后不到两个星期,伊斯兰国在一段可信的视频中宣称杀死了英国援助工作者大卫·海恩斯And on October 3, ISIS released a showing the apparent beheading of hostage Alan Henning.0日,通过伊斯兰国公布的视频,确信被俘的阿伦·亨宁也被斩首。Plea for mercy恳求Kassigs life was threatened in that last .在最后一段视频中,卡西格的生命便受到了威胁A week after its release, Kassigs family released a YouTube of its own, asking his captors to show mercy and free him.在视频公布一个星期后,卡西格的家人在YouTube上也发布了一段视频,恳求囚禁卡西格的人发发慈悲,放了卡西格。Kassigs mother, Paula, addressed her son in the . ;We are so very proud of you and the work you have done to bring humanitarian aid to the Syrian people,; she said.卡西格的母亲保拉在视频中对她儿子说:“我们以你为骄傲,你对叙利亚人民所做的人道主义援助让我们自豪。”The couple noted they were releasing the on the same day of Islams Eid al-Adah, or the Festival of Sacrifice, when Muslims slaughter lambs, goats, sheep and cattle and distribute the meat to the poor and their families.这对夫妇强调他(她)们特意选在伊斯兰教古邦节这一天发布这个视频。古邦节是一个牺牲献祭的节日,穆斯林会宰杀牛羊,并将肉分给穷人和他们的家人。A native of Indiana, Peter Kassig founded Special Emergency Response and Assistance, a nongovernmental organization aiding Syrians fleeing the civil war there.皮特·卡西格出生并成长在印第安纳州,他建立了一个紧急情况应急应助组织。作为一个非政府组织,它主要是为了帮助那些逃离叙利亚内战的难民。From 2012, he delivered food and medical supplies within and outside Syria and provided trauma care and training, his family said.他的家人说,012年起,他就往叙利亚境内和境外运送食物和医疗物品,同时提供外科医疗务,并对其他人进行培训。Joined the Army in 2006 2006年参军Kassigs journey began when he joined the U.S. Army Rangers in 2006 and deployed to Iraq in 2007. He was honorably discharged for medical reasons after a brief tour and returned to the ed States to study political science and train for 1,500-meter races. But something wasnt right.卡西格于2006年加入美国陆军突击部队,2007年被安排去伊拉克。由于身体原因,在一次简短的游行后他光荣退伍了。回到美国后他进修政治学,还进行1500米的田径训练。但是,他总觉得格格不入;I was going to school with kids who look the same, were the same age as me, but we werent the same,; he said in an interview with CNN in 2012. ;I wanted more of a challenge, a sense of purpose.;“我在学校看起来和其他人一样,我们也是同龄人,但是我们不一样,012年在一次CNN的采访中他这样回答。“我需要的不仅仅是一个挑战,一个目标。”In 2010, Kassig took time off and began his certification as an emergency medical technician.2010年,卡西格休息了一段时间,并开始争取获得急诊医师的认。In the two years that followed, he fell in love, got married and quickly divorced. Devastated and heartbroken, he went back to school, but he couldnt shake his depression.两年后,他恋爱结婚,然后立刻又离婚。精疲力竭,心碎神伤后,他又回到学校,但仍然无法回去低落的情绪;I needed a game changer,; he said.“我需要改变我的生活,”他说To Syria then captivity去叙利亚,被俘He decided he would head to Beirut, follow the situation in Syria and try to help. So on his spring break in 2012, he packed his medical kit and flew into the Lebanese capital.他看到叙利亚的局势,他决定去贝鲁特,做一个援助人员。在2012年春假期间,他背上他的医药箱,飞去了黎巴嫩首郀?After finishing the semester back in the ed States, he returned to Lebanon, only this time with a plan -- he founded founded SERA (Special Emergency Response and Assistance), a nongovernmental organization.回到美国继续读了一个学期后,他再次前往黎巴嫩。这次他有了一个计划,创立了一个非政府组织SERA(紧急情况应急应助组织)In summer 2013 he moved its base of operations to Gaziantep, Turkey.2013年夏天,他将组织的指挥总部搬到了土耳其加齐安泰普。Kassig found and delivered food and medical supplies to the growing camps on both sides of the Syrian border, his family said, and provided primary trauma care and trauma care training to civilian casualties inside Syria.他的家人说,卡西格搜集食物和医疗物品,并将这些物资提供给叙利亚边境线两边不断扩大的战争难民营,同时他还提供简单的外科医疗援助,并对叙利亚境内的伤员进行外科的培训。On October 1, 2013, he was ;detained; on his way to Deir Ezzor in eastern Syria, his family said.他的家人说,20130日,卡西格在去叙利亚东部的戴尔泽尔市的路上被武装分子抓走。His family had maintained silence about Kassigs captivity at the request of his captors.在武装分子的威胁下,他的家人对卡西格的被俘保持了沉默。来 /201411/343355

  The ed Nations refugee agency says the world needs to better focus on responding to the hundreds of thousands of people making ;risky; sea journeys in search of asylum or migration.联合国难民署说,国际社会必须更有效地解决数十万人为寻求庇护或移民而冒险渡海的问题。UNHCR chief Antonio Guterres is hosting a conference Wednesday and Thursday in Geneva to discuss rescues at sea, ways to encourage safer forms of migration and addressing the underlying causes of why people are fleeing their countries to begin with.联合国难民署高级专员古特雷斯星期三和星期四在日内瓦主持一次会议,讨论海上救助问题以及如何鼓励采取较安全的移民途径,并设法解决导致人们逃离家园的根本原因。The agency says at least 348,000 people have tried to make sea crossings so far this year, a likely record, with 4,272 reported deaths.联合国难民署说,今年至少4千人试图渡海,据报很可能272人死亡。The most dangerous routes have been across the Mediterranean Sea where more than 3,400 people have died in 2014. The area has seen a surge of activity with 207,000 people trying to make the trip, which the U.N. says is more than triple the previous high from 2011.最危险的路线是地中海,2014年有3400多人死在途中。地中海上的难民人数不断增多,今0千人曾冒险渡海。联合国说,这个数目011年增加了两倍以上。来 /201412/350385

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