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楼主:美分类 时间:2019年02月16日 13:46:19 点击:0 回复:0
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A restructuring of Walmart’s China business is being challenged by the country’s normally reticent official union, which is involved in at least one of three protests that have erupted at stores slated for closure this month.沃尔玛(Walmart)重组中国业务计划正受到中国通常沉默寡言的官方工会的挑战。在计划关闭的门店本月爆发的3场抗议中,官方工会至少参与了其中一场抗议。A unit of the government-sanctioned All China Federation of Trade Unions has been leading the protests outside a Walmart store in Changde, Hunan province that closed last week. The ACFTU’s involvement in an industrial action, which is extremely rare, could increase official scrutiny of the closures.政府批准的中华全国总工会(All China Federation of Trade ,简称ACFTU)的一个单位,近日在上周关闭的沃尔玛湖南常德店外领导抗议活动。中华全国总工会极其罕见地参与劳工行动,可能加强官方对沃尔玛关店措施的关注。“The fact that the union president has come forward in Changde has given the workers great confidence,” said Wang Jiangsong, a labour expert who has been advising the workers in Changde and at two other Walmart stores in Maanshan, Anhui province.“工会主席在常德出面的事实,给了工人们很大信心,”劳动关系专家王江松表示。近期他为常德以及安徽马鞍山另外两家沃尔玛门店的工人们提供建议。The protests highlight Chinese workers’ growing willingness to demand higher compensation during corporate acquisitions and restructurings, in addition to agitating for higher pay adjustments every year. A historic demographic shift in 2012, when China’s working-age population declined for the first time, has given workers greater bargaining power.这些抗议活动突显中国工人除了每年要求得到更大幅度的加薪外,还越来越倾向于在企业并购和重组时要求得到更高补偿。中国在2012年发生历史性的人口结构变化,劳动适龄人口首次减少,这给了工人们更大的议价能力。China has proved to be a difficult market for Walmart. It opened its first stores in the country in 1996 and now has about 400, but it has struggled to get a satisfactory return on investment and in the past two years has admitted to making mistakes in its haste to expand.对沃尔玛来说,中国已被明是一个困难的市场。沃尔玛1996年在中国开设首批门店,目前拥有大约400家门店,但该公司一直难以取得令人满意的投资回报,在过去两年里承认在匆忙扩张的过程中出现失误。While China’s ACFTU was instrumental in establishing branches at Walmart’s Chinese stores in 2006 and 2007, many labour activists say that it is more interested in collecting lucrative payroll fees than fighting for workers’ rights. ACFTU officials played no part in a recent strike that affected an IBM factory in southern China and have also been silent on two other labour protests in which workers were charged with disrupting public order.尽管中华全国总工会在2006年和2007年大力推动在沃尔玛的中国门店设立分机构,但许多劳工活动人士表示,这个官方工会更感兴趣的是收取丰厚的工会会费,而非为工人争取权益。前不久在中国南方一家IBM工厂发生的罢工行动中,中华全国总工会的官员没有扮演任何角色;这些官员在另外两场劳工抗议活动中也保持沉默,尽管参与抗议的工人被控扰乱公共秩序。China Labour Bulletin, a Hong Kong-based rights group, has described the situation in Changde as “historic”.总部位于香港的劳工权利组织——中国劳工通讯(China Labour Bulletin)形容常德发生的情况是“历史性的”。“It’s a very unusual and encouraging sign that a store union chairman would take the initiative and take such a strong stand in defence of his members’ interests,” said Geoffrey Crothall at CLB.“这是一个非常不寻常和令人鼓舞的迹象:某一家店的工会主席站出来,采取强硬立场捍卫工会会员的权益,”中国劳工通讯的杰弗里#8226;克罗塞尔(Geoffrey Crothall)表示。Chinese workers have been picketing the stores in Changde and Maanshan since it was announced that they would be closed. They are demanding twice the compensation offered by Walmart to workers who will lose their jobs, and also rental and other subsidies for those who transfer to stores in other cities.自沃尔玛宣布将要关闭常德和马鞍山的门店后,中国工人们就在相关门店外聚集抗议。他们要求沃尔玛对将要失去工作的工人提高一倍补偿金,并向调任其它城市的门店的员工提供房租及其它补贴。The more than 140 workers at Walmart’s Changde store have been offered positions in the city of Yiyang, a three-hour bus ride away. “Workers cannot survive elsewhere on their low wages,” said the store’s union head, Huang Xingguo. “Walmart’s offer is an empty cheque. Our families are in Changde. It would cost more to rent new homes in Yiyang.”沃尔玛常德店的140多个工人已被提供益阳市的岗位,从常德搭乘巴士到那里需要3小时。“工人们凭这点低工资是无法在其它地方生存的,”沃尔玛常德店的工会主席黄兴国表示。“沃尔玛的提议是一张空头票。我们的家在常德。在益阳租一个新家需要更多钱。”Mr Huang has vowed to continue the Changde protest even after police forcibly detained workers at the weekend.黄兴国誓言将常德的抗议进行下去,即便警方在周末强行带走了一些工人。Walmart has denied claims that its workers in Changde and Maanshan were given inadequate notice about the closures and says that it consults closely with local governments, the ACFTU and affected workers. “The nearest store [to Changde] is Yiyang, which unfortunately is about 100km away,” said Ray Bracy, a senior vice-president with Walmart’s China operations. “That makes it really difficult for the associates to transfer.”沃尔玛否认有关常德和马鞍山的工人们没有在关店这件事上得到充分通知的说法,并表示,公司在与地方政府、中华全国总工会和受影响的工人密切磋商。“距离常德最近的门店在益阳市,可惜该市在大约100公里外,”沃尔玛中国区高级副总裁雷#8226;布雷西(Ray Bracy)表示。“这真的使员工们很难调任。”Mr Bracy said Walmart was closing about 20 stores as part of a wider restructuring of its China business, but also has plans to open another 110 new stores and hire 19,000 more workers over the next three years. “Those stores [that are closing] are not acceptable from a dollars and cents standpoint,” he added. “In the cases where we’re closing it’s a decision of last resort.”布雷西表示,作为在华业务整体重组计划的一部分,沃尔玛将关闭大约20家门店,但同时也计划在未来三年开设110家新店,新增1.9万员工。“那些将要关闭的门店从财务角度看是不可接受的,”他补充道。“关店是我们在万不得已的情况下作出的决定。” /201403/281835In some countries, business owners can go their way in the happy knowledge that government officials won#39;t be hitting them up for bribes or tossing them in jail on trumped-up charges. But in other parts of the world, public sector corruption is a fact of life.在一些国家,商人深知,可以通过贿赂,让政府官员不触及抓捕他们,或给他们一个“莫须有”的罪名入狱。但是在世界的其它地方,公共部门的腐败是一个不争的事实。Hoping to shine a light on this widesp problem, Transparency International, a non- governmental organization that serves as a watchdog for corporate and political corruption, has published its Corruption Perceptions Index for 2013. The index ranks countries around the world by perceived level of government corruption, with a score of 100 signaling an absence of official corruption and a score of 0 indicating a country that is hopelessly corrupt.为了揭露这一普遍问题,国际透明组织-一个非政府组织,对企业和政治腐败进行监督,公布了其2013年清廉指数。世界各国的政府腐败通过指数进行排名,100的高分代表无官员腐败,得分0暗示这是一个无可救药的腐败国家。Of the 177 countries and territories listed on the index, less than one-third managed to break 50. As No. 127 Nicaragua would say, that#39;s no bueno. So in what countries can you trust public officials and what places should you avoid?在177个国家和地区中,只有少于三分之一的国家能够超过50分,所以在这份排名中,你能发现哪些国家官员能够给予信任,哪些国家应该避免呢To start, the Nordic countries are a safe bet for business, with Denmark, Finland, Sweden and Norway all among the least corrupt nations. Rounding out the top five are New Zealand, tied for first with Denmark with a score of 91, and Singapore, tied with Norway for No. 5.在这份排名中,北欧国家腐败指数都非常安全,丹麦,芬兰,瑞典和挪威都排在腐败程度最低的榜单中,前五位中,排名榜首的新西兰和丹麦,得分是91分,新加坡和挪威并列第五Here are the 10 least corrupt countries in the world, according to the index:下面是世界十大腐败程度最低的国家Denmark丹麦New Zealand (tied with Denmark for No. 1)新西兰(与丹麦并列第一)Finland芬兰Sweden (tied with Finland for No. 3)瑞典(与芬兰并列第三)Norway挪威Singapore (tied with Norway for No. 5)新加坡(与挪威并列第五)Switzerland瑞士Netherlands荷兰Australia澳大利亚Canada (tied with Australia for No. 9)加拿大(与澳大利亚并列第九)What of the ed States? The world#39;s largest economy sits at No. 19 with a score of 73, while its fellow Anglophones to the north and south, Canada and Australia, are tied for 9th place with scores of 81. (Both have dropped since last year. In 2012, Canada scored an 84 and Australia an 85.) The ed Kingdom is ranked No. 14.那美国呢?世界最大的经济体得分73,位列19名。而其南北邻国加拿大和澳大利亚,并列第九,得分是81分。(两个国家相比于2012年得分都有所下降,加拿大当时84分,澳大利亚85分)。英国目前排名14.Mexico, another U. S. neighbor, is listed as far more corrupt than Canada, with a score of 34 ranking it at 106 of 177. (This reporter#39;s own experience suggests the country#39;s low score is well-deserved.)美国的另一个邻国墨西哥,要比加拿大腐败的多,腐败指数34分,在177个国家中排名177.(改记者自身经验暗示该国的低分数是罪有应得的)At the positively wretched end of the scale it#39;s no surprise to see Yemen, Sudan, Syria and other Middle Eastern and African countries. But some of their scores look almost handsome beside the worst of the lot: Tied for last place are Afghanistan, North Korea and Somalia, all having scored a measly 8 on the index.在排名的末端,我们毫不惊讶的看到了也门,苏丹,叙利亚和其他中东和非洲国家。但他们的分数还是要比最糟糕的国家好一些:他们是阿富汗,朝鲜和索马里,他们的分数都只有8分。Here are the world#39;s 10 most corrupt nations, starting with the worst:下面是世界十大最腐败的国家Somalia索马里North Korea (tied with Somalia and Afghanistan for No. 175)朝鲜(与索马里阿富汗并列175名)Afghanistan (tied with North Korea and Somalia for No. 175)阿富汗Sudan苏丹South Sudan南苏丹Libya利比亚Iraq伊拉克Uzbekistan乌兹别克斯坦Turkmenistan (tied with Uzbekistan and Syria for No. 168)土库曼斯坦(与乌兹别克斯坦和叙利亚并列168位)Syria (tied with Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan for No. 168)叙利亚 /201312/270514President Barack Obama has endorsed a young girl#39;s suggestion to feature a woman on printed US currency. But what does it take to get a new face on a , or even bill, asks Debbie Siegelbaum.美国总统奥巴马采纳了一个小女孩的建议,决定将一位女性的头像印到美元上。黛比·西格尔伯姆(Debbie Siegelbaum)问道:将一个全新的面孔印到5元或50元的钞票上需要什么条件。Betsy Ross, Amelia Earhart, and Rosa Parks could all be contenders for appearing on US currency.贝琪·罗斯(Betsy Ross)、阿梅莉亚·玛丽·埃尔哈特(Amelia Earhart)、罗莎·帕克斯(Rosa Parks)都是出现在美元上的候选人。First, it helps to be a titan of American history, like former presidents George Washington, Abraham Lincoln and Andrew Jackson, or founding fathers Benjamin Franklin and Alexander Hamilton.首先,它必须是美国历史上一位成就非凡的人,如美国前总统乔治·华盛顿(George Washington)、亚伯拉罕·林肯(Abraham Lincoln)、安德鲁·杰克逊(Andrew Jackson)或者开国元勋本杰明·富兰克林(Benjamin Franklin)和亚历山大·汉密尔顿(Alexander Hamilton)。The current Secretary of the Treasury is responsible for selecting the lucky few featured on US bills, and though the bills have been frequently redesigned for security purposes, the famous faces on them have remained the same since 1929.时任财政部部长负责选取有幸出现在美元中的人,尽管出于安全的考虑要经常重新设计美元纸币,但美元上的名人头像从1929年开始就没有换过。That#39;s when a special treasury committee selected them due to their ;permanent familiarity in the minds of the public;, according to the US Department of the Treasury.美国财政部(the US Department of the Treasury)表示,那时一个特殊的财政委员选择他们作为纸币新头像的候选人,因为他们被视为“永远为人们所熟知的人”。Thanks to one 19th Century upstart, one also must be dead to appear on a bill.多亏了19世纪那个自命不凡的人,一个人必须是去世之后才有资格出现在美元上。;Some lowly clerk put his image on currency during the Civil War, ; says currency expert Frederick Bart. ;People decided he had no right to be there, so that changed our laws forever.;货币专家弗迪雷克·巴特(Frederick Bart)说道:“在南北战争时期,某个低级职员把他们自己的头像印到钞票上。人们一致决定他没有权力这么做,于是法律永远被改变。”Though acclaimed women such as suffragette Susan B Anthony and Native American guide Sacagawea have appeared alongside men on US coins, only one has ever graced a printed US bill.尽管呼声很高的女性如妇女参政权论者苏珊·B·安东尼(Susan B Anthony)和印第安探险家莎卡嘉微亚(Sacagawea)等都曾随男性一起出现在美元硬币上,但她们中只有一个人有幸单独出现在美元上。That singular honour goes to the nation#39;s first first lady, Martha Washington.这个人就是美国第一位第一夫人玛莎·华盛顿(Martha Washington)。Mrs Washington was featured alone on the face of the silver certificate in 1886. Ten years later, she was moved to the back of the bill and featured next to her husband, George, with the roman numeral I between them.华盛顿夫人的头像单独出现在1886年发行的1元银元券上。10年之后她的头像被移到了纸币的背面,和她的丈夫乔治共同出现,他们头像之间印着罗马数字1。It may be years until a woman makes it onto a bill again, says Bart. She would have to have a major political impact, such as assuming the presidency, and then die in order to even be considered, he says.巴特说,可能要过很多年以后才会再次把女性头像印到美元上。她将需有重大的政治影响力,比如成为总统,而且她得先去世才有资格被印到美元上。Terry O#39;Neill, president of the National Organization for Women, says the time to see women represented on US currency is now. She says abolitionists Sojourner Truth and Harriet Tubman or politicians Bella Abzug and Shirley Chisholm aly, in a manner of speaking, fit the bill.国家妇女组织(the National Organization for Women)主席特里·奥尼尔(Terry O#39;Neill)表示,现在正是再次见到女性出现在美元上的时机。她表示,不妨说,废奴主义者索洁娜·特鲁斯和哈丽特·塔布曼或者政治家贝拉·阿伯格和雪莉·齐泽姆已经很适合出现在美元上了。 /201408/321141

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