湖州激光洗纹身120优惠

明星资讯腾讯娱乐2018年12月19日 11:33:19
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Business商业报道Ad space for equity为股票做广告Air for shares股票时间Could an unusual venture-capital model be taking off?一项不同寻常的风险投资模式能够起飞吗?IN AMERICA, venture capital is plentiful.美国风险资金十分丰富,Not so elsewhere.但是并非所有地方都是这样。In Europe, a handful of companies are helping struggling start-ups with an unusual model:在欧洲,一些公司正以非同寻常的模式帮助那些挣扎的新成立的公司:investing advertising space in them instead of money.投资广告版面而非直接投钱。Start-ups usually get their initial seed funding—a few tens or hundreds of thousands of dollars—from family or friends.新成立的公司通常从家人或朋友那里获得初始的种子资金,通常是数万或数十万美元。A venture-capital firm wont step in until the firm is y to raise maybe ten times that amount.只有公司筹集到了数百万的资金时,风险投资才会介入。In America, intermediate sums tend to come from informal angel investors,在美国,过渡的资金通常来自于非正式的天使投资者,typically entrepreneurs who have made a decent bit of money from their own start-ups and want to invest some in projects they like.特别是由新成立的公司发家且希望投资一些中意项目的企业家。But outside Americas technology hubs, such people are rare.但是在美国科技中心之外,这样的人少之又少。However, start-ups of that size are often making their first baby steps into the market and need publicity.然而,这样规模的新成立的公司通常会迈着婴儿步进入市场并需要广告宣传。Aggregate Media Funds, a Swedish firm started in 2002,2002年成立的瑞典媒体公司媒体公基金集合了15家瑞典媒体提供的广告版面,pools excess advertising space provided by 15 Swedish media companies that are shareholders in the fund,并且以交换股权的形式给予新成立的公司。and gives it to start-ups in return for an equity stake.这15家媒体都是该基金的股东。If the firms do well, they buy back the equity in cash, which goes to the shareholders, with a cut for the fund.如果公司运作良好,他们就会用现金买回股权给予股东,并给基金一份利润。Patrik Rosen, Aggregates boss, says it has made some 120 investments—in both start-ups and established firms that want to advertise a new product or a stock offering—and completed around 80 exits,公基金的老板帕特里克·罗森表示给公司已经做大约120笔投资,都是投在需要为新产品或发行股票的新成立的公司或已成型的公司,并完成了大概80个公司的退市,though he wont disclose how much money has been made.但是他并不会透露赚了多少钱。Similar models have taken hold in Germany.德国也兴起了同样的模式。ProSiebenSat.1, a television company, has been offering other firms advertising in return for equity or revenue shares since , and reported making more than 40m in the past year.德国卫星电视频道ProSieben卫星一台在年就开始以交换股权或股份的形式为公司提供广告,去年盈利超过4千万欧元。A newer fund, German Media Pool, founded a year ago, combines a range of shareholders,成立于一年前的德国媒体基金像媒体公基金一样联合了一批股东。as Aggregate does, so it can offer its start-ups ads anywhere from billboards to TV.从广告牌到电视的任何地方,它都能够为新成立的公司投放广告。基金创始人尼科·华思车的目标是使投资者的钱翻倍。So why is the model not more widesp?为什么这个模式并没有更广泛的应用呢?It may have a bad reputation.可能是这个模式名声不好。Media firms that negotiate barter deals directly dont always do well:协商直接易货交易的媒体公司通常盈利状况不佳:they tend to lack the expertise to invest in start-ups, and the deals may not be transparent.他们通常缺乏投资新成立的公司的专业知识,并且协议可能不透明。Indias largest media firm, the Times Group, which publishes papers such as the Times of India, also owns a media-for-equity firm called Brand Capital, with stakes in around 400 companies.印度最大媒体公司时代集团在发行诸如印度时报之类的报纸的同时也拥有一家媒体换股权的公司,名叫品牌资金,该公司拥有大概400家公司的股份。In , under the name Times Private Treatie s, it got embroiled in controversy after Indias stockmarket regulator censured a group of people for conspiring to bump up the share price of one of its portfolio companies, and a Times Group journalist for midwifing media coverage.年,该公司以时代财产转让契约的名义卷入了一场争议。这场争议源于印度股票市场管理机构严厉指责一帮人串通抬高其中一家成员企业的股价和一位时代集团记者为媒体报道推波助澜。Critics say it is still hard to tell when Indian papers have financial links to firms they write about.批评者称目前仍然很难确定事情根底,因为印度报纸和其报道的公司有经济联系。Hence, Mr Rosen argues, the need for independent, diversified media funds to act as middlemen.所以罗森先生主张独立多样的媒体基金作为中间人。Even then, not all start-ups need ads—some are happy with social media—and many others would rather have cash instead.即使是那是也不是所有新成立的公司都需要广告,有些公司乐意使用社交媒体,而许多公司宁愿获得资金。Still, for some it is just what they need.然而对于一些公司来说这正是他们所需要的。And for the media firms, since the ads would otherwise go unfilled, any return is pure profit.对于一些媒体公司来说,若不投给新成立的公司,一些广告版面也会空白,所以一切收益都是纯利润。 /201306/243323

Business商业报道Social entrepreneurship in India印度的公益创业Cut from a different cloth开辟出另一片天地Building a business around solving a chronic female health-care problem创立产业以解决长期困扰的女性保健问题RATAN JADHAV, a shy, slight woman in her 30s, works on a farm in Osmanabad, a remote part of the western Indian state of Maharashtra.年过三十的Ratan Jadhav是一个害羞,纤弱的女性。她在印度奥斯曼阿巴德的一个农场工作,那里是印度马哈拉斯特拉邦的偏远地区。Her tiny mud-brick house boasts such modern conveniences as a computer bought with a loan from relatives, while arranged neatly on the kitchen window sill are her teenage daughters cosmetics.一台向亲戚借款而买的电脑也给住在低矮泥砖房的她带来了一丝现代生活的便利,而放在厨房窗台上女儿的化妆品则显得整齐有序。Yet when it comes to personal hygiene, both women prefer a cotton rag to a branded sanitary pad.然而当提及个人卫生问题上,这两位女士都偏爱棉布胜过品牌的卫生护垫。Why buy one, asks the mother, when a homespun substitute does the job?母亲不解:自己做的东西就可以替代卫生巾,为什么还要买这个?Ms Jadhav is one of300mmenstruating Indian women who eschew sanitary pads in favour of rags, dry leaves, straw or newspapers.印度有300万月经来潮的女性用碎布,干叶,枯草或者报纸来替代卫生棉条,Jadhav女士就是其中一位。AC Nielsen, a research firm, says that 70% of women in India cannot afford sanitary products.一家名为AC Nielsen的研究公司称,印度70%的女性买不起卫生用品。Many who can pay do not, as they hate having to ask for them in drugstores that are usually run by men.即使付得起,很多女性也拒绝购买。他们恨透了向药店人员索要卫生棉条,因为这些商店通常是由男性经营。This has serious consequences.这个情况后果严重。Adolescent girls miss up to 50 days of school a year.印度的青春期女孩每年旷课高达50天。Some 23% drop out altogether.大约23%的女生干脆完全退学。Working women lose their daily wages.上班族女性也会因月经缺勤被扣掉当日工资。The social and economic benefits to be had from resolving this problem are potentially so large that doing so is now a focus of social entrepreneurs in many developing countries.解决这个问题在经济和社会上的潜在利益是十分巨大的。They include Jaydeep Mandal and Sombodhi Ghosh of Aakar Innovations, a Delhi-based start-up.对于许多发展中国家,解决这个问题是公益企业家现在关注的一个焦点。They have developed a machine that produces low-cost sanitary napkins using as raw materials agri-waste such as banana fibre, bamboo and water-hyacinth pulp.企业家们已经研发出一种可以生产廉价卫生棉的机器。该棉条使用的原材料为工业废品,比如香蕉纤维,毛竹以及水葫芦纸浆。Each machine can churn out 1,600-2,000 pads a day, to be sold for 40% less than branded mass-market products.每台机器每天可以制造出1600-2000个棉片,出售价格比畅销的品牌产品要低出40%。To bypass the current female-unfriendly distribution system, Aakar aims to sell its machines for 250,000 rupees a time to groups of women.为了避开当前对女性不利的流通体系,Aakar公司计划以每台25万卢布的价格出售该机器给特定群体的女性。The finished item will be sold door-to-door by village saleswomen who also hawk solar lamps, stoves and saris.这种成品将由村民中的女销售员进行上门推销。她们还会兜售太阳能灯具,炉灶和印度莎丽。It will be distributed, too, in women-run grocery stores and beauty parlours.由女性经营的杂货店和美容院中也会有该机器出售。Aakar hopes to profit by selling the raw materials and the machines.公司Aakar希望能从销售原材料和该机器中获得利润。This is hardly a new idea.这不是什么新点子。Arunachalam Muruganantham, another Indian entrepreneur, is a pioneer of low-cost pad manufacturing.另一个印度企业家Arunachalam Muruganantham是廉价卫生棉条产业的先驱人物。Gandhigram, a non-profit organisation in Tamil Nadu, has developed similar technology in partnership with engineers at the Indian Institute of Technology in Madras.位于印度泰米尔纳德邦的非营利性组织Gandhigram已同位于马德拉斯的印度技术研究院的工程师共同合作研发出类似的工艺技术。Goonj, an NGO, sews and sterilises discarded old clothes into sanitary pads.民营机构Goonj则将废弃的旧衣进行缝纫消毒制成了卫生护垫。Many start-ups process cotton fibre from old knitwear into pads.许多新兴企业通过加工棉布纤维将旧的针织品制成了护垫。Mr Muruganantham reckons that the country is awash with hundreds of local brands.先生Muruganantham认为印度已经充斥着成百上千种本土品牌的卫生护垫了。Yet, unusually, Aakars product meets the standards of the Western world and can compete with all global brands, says Ronald van het Hof of Women on Wings, a Dutch-based consultancy focused on creating jobs for women.来自挥着翅膀女人的Ronald van het Hof称,Aakar的产品却出乎意料的达到了西方国家的卫生标准并且可以与所有的国际品牌一较高低。挥着翅膀的女人是一个位于荷兰的咨询公司,其致力于为女性增创就业机会。After studying sanitary-pad markets in four states, Bihar, West Bengal, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu, the Dutch outfit decided to help Aakar grow.通过对印度的比哈尔,西孟加拉,马哈拉施特拉和泰米尔纳德这四个邦的卫生护垫市场进行研究,这个荷兰公司决定扶持Aakar发展壮大。Aakars founders see a big opportunity.Aakar公司的创立者们看到了巨大的商机。Despite the challenges, the 13.5 billion rupee sanitary-pad industry in India is growing fast.尽管竞争激烈,印度总资产达到135亿卢布的卫生护垫产业也在迅猛发展。Established firms, including global giants such as Procter amp; Gamble, hold sway in towns and cities, though still only 25% of women use their products.上市公司在印度城镇地区的地位不可动摇,其中包括诸如宝洁公司在内的国际巨头。但是,仍然只有25%的女性在使用它们的产品。In the countryside the proportion is lower still.在乡村地区这些产品所占份额则会更小。By bypassing middlemen and using existing rural retail networks the founders believe they can win6mcustomers and provide direct employment to 11,000 women in the next five years.通过避免雇佣中年男子和借用现存的乡村零售网络的方法,公司创立者们相信在接下来的五年里,他们可以赢得6百万客户并为11000位女性提供直接的就业岗位。Yet many similar ventures have failed due to problems ranging from a lack of standardisation to inadequate saleswomen.但仍有很多人遭遇了创业失败。或是因为标准化系统的缺失,或是合格女推销员的匮乏。Aakar has forged a partnership with Swayam Shikshan Prayog, an NGO in Osmanabad which will be responsible for manufacture and distribution.公司Aakar已经与Swayam Shikshan Prayog 达成合作关系。后者是一个设在奥斯马纳巴德的非政府组织,它将负责产品的生产和分销。It will also promote awareness by asking local doctors and health-care workers to push the pads at workshops and monthly village gatherings.它还会请当地医师和保健部门的工作人员在工作间及每月的村庄集会时推广卫生护垫产品,借此提高公众的卫生意识。A start will be made next month in Osmanabad, with the aim of catering to about 20,000 women.首次活动将会于下个月在奥斯马纳巴德邦举行,该活动的目的在于迎合约20000名女性的需求。This may reveal whether the pad has genuine appeal in Indias hinterland.这个活动可能会检验这些卫生护垫是否能真正引起生活在印度穷乡僻壤的女性们的注意。It surely will, says Devkanya Jagdale, leader of a group of local saleswomen.它绝对会有吸引力,当地某女性推销员组织的领导Devkanya Jagdale称。And Ratan Jadhav will be my first customer.而且Ratan Jadhav将会是我的第一个客户。 /201309/256957

  If you follow football, hockey, soccer, or boxing, then youknow that athletes in these and other contact sports are at constant risk for a concussion.如果你喜欢橄榄球、橄榄球、足球或是拳击运动,那么你就会很清楚这些以及其他接触性运动中的运动员常处于脑震荡的危险境地。Everyseason several football players miss a number of games after absorbing vicious blows to the head.每个赛季都有数名橄榄球运动员由于头部遭受剧烈冲击而缺席接下来的一系列赛事。A concussion is a blow to the head that can result in temporary confusion,amnesia, nausea,dizziness, blurred vision, and loss of consciousness.脑震荡是头部受到撞击而导致的,可能造成暂时性思维混乱,失忆,呕吐,眩晕,视觉模糊以及失去意识。Although a single concussion does not appear to result in structural brain damage or swelling ofthe brain, repeated concussions can cause both.尽管一次脑震荡不会导致大脑结构性损伤或导致脑水肿,但是数次脑震荡可能引起上述两种情况同时出现。Concussions are caused in one of two ways: either by the head hitting a hard surface, or by thehead spinning suddenly.造成脑震荡的原因不外乎是这两种中的一种:头部撞到硬物,或者头部突然旋转。Take, for example, a common incident during a football game.以橄榄球赛比较普遍的事件为例,Thequarterback is hit, falls backwards, and bangs his head on the turf.四分卫触地得分,朝后方倒下,其头部就会猛烈撞击到草坪上。Although his skull stops suddenly upon impact, his brain, floating in cerebral fluid, keeps movingand hits the skull.尽管他的头骨在受到冲击时瞬间会保持不动,但是他大脑内的脑脊液仍然在晃动并不断撞击头骨。Similarly, when a boxer gets hit in the head with a right hook, his head twistsviolently.同样的,当一名拳击手头部受到一记右勾拳时,他的脑袋瞬间剧烈扭转。The skull stops moving, but the brain keeps shaking for a few moments and may brushthe skull.头骨停止移动,但是脑浆却还会震动一会儿,并有可能擦到头骨。The result is a chemical imbalance in the brain.结果是脑部化学失衡。All the neurotransmitters in the damaged area firesimultaneously, causing an overload of chemicals that impair receptors involved in learning andmemory.所有受损区域的神经传递素同时作用,造成脑内化学物质超负荷运转,从而损坏学习与记忆的神经元。The flood of chemicals also constricts arteries, making it difficult for the damaged cells toget the nutrients they need to recover.化学物质过多也会引起动脉收缩,导致大脑受损细胞难以吸收到利于复原的营养物质。Because the brain can take as long as several weeks to recover from a concussion, its a good ideato take a break from contact sports if youve had one.由于脑部需要长达数周的时间来恢复脑震荡带来的损伤,如果你脑部受到撞击最好还是休息一段时间再继续参加此类接触性运动。 201402/277100

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  European migration欧洲移民The great escape胜利大逃亡Emigration may not relieve pressure on wages in weak economies在经济疲软的背景下,欧洲人移民国外也许不能在工资方面缓解压力Purchasing power on the move购买力在移动TO ECONOMISTS, an “optimal currency area” is one in which the gains from sharing a single currency outweigh the costs. There is some debate as to whether the euro area qualifies.对于经济学家来说,一个“最优货币区”意味着共用同一种货币的收益要大于成本。欧元区是否符合“最优货币区”的条件,存在一些争议。Among the keys to making shared currencies work, according to Robert Mundell, the godfather of optimal-currency theory, is a mobile workforce. Countries tying the monetary knot give up the right to slash interest rates or devalue when stormclouds gather. A slump focused on just one region of the currency zone can therefore last a long time: until falling wages make hiring there attractive once more. But if the jobless can up sticks for sunnier shores, this discomfort can be curbed.根据最优货币理论的鼻祖,罗伯特.蒙代尔的理论,流动的劳动力是从统一货币的政策中获利的关键。当不利的经济信号显现时,参与实施统一货币政策的众多国家将放弃削减利率或干预货币贬值的权力。在统一货币区内,经济衰退集中在一个地区,因此,这种经济衰退会持续很长一段时间,直到这个地区的工资下降,使得招聘启事再次具有吸引力。但是如果失业者可以迁居到经济状况较好的地区,这种经济衰退就可以得到抑制。In the 1990s a few prescient critics noted that “fluidity” was not a characteristic commonly used to describe European labour markets. Just 0.35% of Europeans migrate across borders each year, compared with the nearly 2.5% of Americans leaving one state for another. The crisis boosted euro-area migration rates, but overall numbers remain small.20世纪90年代,几位有先见之明的家指出,“流动性”指标不常用来说明欧洲劳动力市场特征。每年跨国迁移的欧洲人仅有0.35%,而有近2.5%的美国人跨州迁移,两者相比,前者迁移人数很少。经济危机提升了欧元区的人口迁移比率,但总体迁移人数并不多。Immobility might not always be quite the drag academics fear, however. New research by Emmanuel Farhi of Harvard University and Iván Werning of MIT finds that although migrants out of depressed regions get the expected boost from relocation, those left behind may or may not benefit, depending on the nature of the slump.然而,人口流动停滞也许并不总是那么让学者们担心。在一项新开展的研究中,哈佛大学的Emmanuel Farhi和麻省理工的Iván Werning发现,尽管人们从经济萧条地区迁移出去可以按照预期推动迁居地的经济发展,但原住地是否能从中获益,这取决于经济衰退的性质。The problem, they note, is that departing migrants take their purchasing power with them when they go. If a regions troubles are the result of tumbling exports that is no big deal. Exporting surplus labour spares the struggling economy the need to suffer falling wages.他们指出,问题是,移民者的离去使得原住地失去了这部分人群的购买力。如果一个地区的困扰是出口严重下滑的结果,这没什么大不了的。出口剩余的劳动力使得疲弱的经济不必再遭受工资下降的打击。If instead the struggling region is facing weak domestic demand then shipping excess labour abroad does not help, because the loss of migrants spending further weakens demand. Instead, higher exports are needed to make up for insufficient domestic spending. That requires improved competitiveness—which often means lower wages.如果情况相反,经济疲弱地区正面临的是内需不足,再向国外输出过剩劳动力就无益了,因为若失去这部分移民者的购买力,则会进一步削弱内需。取而代之的解决方案应该是,需要更高的出口来弥补国内消费不足。这就需要提高竞争力,而提高竞争力通常意味着低工资。Interestingly, however much their lot improves when they move, migrants tend to judge their fortunes relative to economic conditions at home. According to a new working paper from the Institute for the Study of Labour, a German think-tank, migrants to Germanybecome glummer the better the economy in their country of origin does. But they cheer up considerably when unemployment rises at home, presumably because that confirms the wisdom of having moved. By then, they have perhaps been in Germanylong enough to learn the word Schadenfreude.有趣的是,迁移过程中,无论移民者的生活怎样改善,他们都倾向于依据家乡的经济状况来评判自己的财富状况。根据一个德国智囊团,劳动力研究所的一份新的工作报告,迁入德国的移民变得愈加愁苦,他们本国的经济就变得愈好。但是当发现本国失业率上升,他们就明显振作起来,大概是因为这明了自己当初移民是明智的抉择。到那时,他们也许已经在德国居住了很久,以至于都学会了“幸灾乐祸”这类德语单词。 /201405/299314

  Although there has been much debate about whether race has a biological or social basis, the bottom line is that race is a psychological reality for many people.虽然对于种族歧视究竟是关于生物种群还是社会因素仍然未果,但至少对多数人来说种族问题是一种心理现实性的反应。That is, many folks assign other individuals to racial categories based on their appearance, and then make assumptions about them. 这就是说,他们按照外貌将他人划分,然后做出假设。But racial stereotyping goes beyond classifying people into groups.但种族刻板印象还远远不止如此。When a group is assigned a negative stereotype, individuals that exhibit more of the physical characteristics identified with that group suffer more discrimination.当一个人被贴上低等族群的标签时,会遭受到更多的歧视。For example, in a recent study, participants were asked to one of four news articles about a hypothetical African American man.例如在最近的一项研究中,测试者们被要求阅读四篇关于非裔美国人关于种族印象新闻的其中一篇。The first story was about a professor receiving an award.第一篇是关于一名教授获奖。The second was about an athlete, a role stereotypically linked to African Americans.第二篇是一名非裔美国人的运动员。The third was about a white-collar criminal and the fourth about a violent criminal.最后两篇则是一名白领罪犯和一名暴徒。No matter which story they , all participants saw the same photo of the man.不论选择哪篇,文章的附图都是同一名男子。Despite that fact, when participants were asked to reconstruct the mans face on a computer, they gave the man more stereotypically African features, such as darker skin tones, if he had been portrayed negatively as the white collar criminal, or-especially--as the violent criminal.除去新闻内容,当参与者被要求在电脑上重塑这名男子的脸时,如果他曾被丑化为白领犯罪者,或者—尤其是暴力罪犯,他们赋予的是更多黑皮肤等非洲人特质。The fact that they didnt associate more African features with the athlete, who was portrayed positively, suggests the participants linked these features to negativity rather than stereotypes.事实上,他们并没有将更多非洲人的特质赋予正面的运动员形象。这就意味着参与者将这些特质与负面形象联系起来,而非刻板印象。And this happened regardless of the participants self-reported racial attitudes, which means that they werent even aware they were having these troubling responses.而这一切和参与者自己的种族观念无关,他们根本就没意识到自己的是存在问题的。If so, then its not enough to study the way the media portray racial groups.如若这样,对于媒体描述不同种族的研究仍然存在不足之处。Its also important to study how the public interprets and remembers-or misremembers-the news in a way that sustains racism. 但对于研究基于一定的种族歧视人们是如何理解、记忆或遗漏这些新闻信息的还是有其重要的价值。 201401/272178For England to believe that Henry was the rightful king,为了让英格兰相信亨利是合法的国王,he would need to behave like one, and that is exactly what he did.他需要让自己像个国王的样子,而这正是他着手做的事情。Parliament has made of Westminster for over 800 years.威斯敏斯特议会已经有800多年的历史。The official records of its debates, meetings, and acts stretch back to the Middle Ages.官方记录的辩论,会议,和法案甚至可以追溯到中世纪。In early November 1485, Henry VIIs first parliament met.1485年11月上旬,亨利七世的第一次议会召开。He would use it to tackle the inconvenient truth of Richard IIIs reign until rework recent events to suit himself.他会以此来处理忽视的理查德三世的统治真相直到最近的事适合自己。And heres the written proof, the parliamentary record which shows how he did just that.而这里的书面据显示,他的议会纪录正是这样做的。In this record, Richard III is the usurper, Henry VII is the rightful king putting the record straight.在这份记录当中,理查德三世是篡位者,亨利七世是合法的国王将直接记录下来。 201311/263039

  When you boil potatoes on the stove top, it can take half an hour to cook them till tender.如果使用灶台上烹煮土豆,要半小时才能煮软。But, when you boil them in a pressure cooker, instead presto,theyre y in about five minutes.但高压锅只需短短5分钟就可以做好。Whats the difference?两者有何区别呢?What makes pressure cookers cook so quickly?为何高压锅烹饪如此迅速?Lets start with the potatoes boiling on the stove top.首先让我们从炉子上的土豆烹饪说起。The temperature of the boiling water wont go above 212 degrees Fahrenheit, no matter how high you turn up the burner or how long you leave the pot on the stove.无论你将煤气灶调至多大,抑或是烹饪时间多长,水的沸点都不会超过华氏212度。Thats because, at normal air pressure, water boils at 212 degrees and escapes as steam.这是由于在标准大气压下,水一达到华氏212度就会沸腾形成水蒸气挥发掉。In a pressure cooker, on the other hand, the steam cant make such an easy get away.而在高压锅内,水蒸气并不会如此容易挥发出去。These a led lid keeps the steam inside, raising the pressure inside the cooker to about twice normal air pressure.密封盖将水蒸气封存在锅里,致使锅内压强升至标准大气压的两倍。Now heres the secret of speedy pressure cooking.这就是高压锅烹饪快速的秘诀。As pressure rises, so does the boiling point of water.随着锅内压强上升,水的沸点也逐渐升高。At the higher pressure inside the cooker, the boiling point of water goes up to about 252 degrees.锅内压维持在较高水平,水的沸点会上升至华氏252度左右。So, food cooks at a much higher temperature in a pressure cooker, and that`s why it cooks more quickly.因此,在高压锅中烹饪食物的温度更高,烹饪时间明显缩短。Pressure cookers control cooking temperature by maintaining a certain pressure.高压锅通过维持一定的压力来调节烹饪温度。A vent on the lid releases steam when the right pressure, and therefore the right cooking temperature is reached.而借由密封盖上的排气孔释放水蒸气达到合适的压力,烹饪温度也能达到理想值。And to prevent disasters like boiled potatoes exploding onto the ceiling, modern pressure cookers also have a safety valve to release steam, just in case the vent gets stuck.为了避免发生诸如煮熟的土豆炸飞到天花板的意外情况,现代高压锅还设计了安全阀门释放水蒸气,以防排气孔堵塞。201403/282301

  Driverless cars无人驾驶汽车In the self-driving seat坐在无人驾驶汽车的座位上Google is miles ahead of its rivals in the race for autonomous motoring谷歌在无人驾驶领域研发的竞争中已甩开对手几条街Not quite as glamorous as “Knight Rider”不如“霹雳游侠”有魅力TO GOOGLE is now in broad usage as a verb for retrieving information from the internet. If the tech giant has its way, “I Googled” will become a standard reply to the question, “How did you get here?” On May 28th Google said it would build 100 prototype driverless cars devoid of pedals, steering wheel or controls save an on/off switch. It is the next stage in its apparent quest to be as ubiquitous on the road as on computer screens.如今,“谷歌”常被广泛用于互联网信息检索,因而“谷歌”常被用作动词。如果这一科技巨头独行其道,对于“你是怎么过来的?”这种问题,它的标准将会是“我谷歌来的”。5月28日,谷歌表示,其将制造100辆无人驾驶原型车,它们没有踏板,没有方向盘,也没有其他各类控制表盘,只留下一个开关键。谷歌希望在无人车的市场能够做到与搜索市场一样,给人们提供生活中必不可少的务,这显然是下一阶段追求。People have dreamed about driverless motoring since at least the 1930s, but only in recent years have carmakers such as Mercedes-Benz and Volvo given the matter more thought, kitting out test cars with the sensors and sophisticated software required to negotiate busy roads. Google has roared ahead by designing a driverless car from the ground up.至少从19世纪30年代起,人们就已经开始设想无人驾驶汽车,但只有一些汽车制造商,如奔驰、沃尔沃,在近些年尝试把这一想法付诸实践。一辆装备着传感器和复杂软件的测试车需要在繁忙的道路上权衡最佳行车方案。谷歌公司从零起步,设计无人驾驶汽车,已经鹤立鸡群。But bringing autonomous motoring to the world is proving harder than Google had envisaged. It once promised it by 2017. Now it does not see production models coming out before 2020. The technology is far advanced, but needs shrinking in size and cost—Googles current test cars, retrofittedToyotaand Lexus models, are said to be packed with ,000-worth of equipment.但是现实明,无人驾驶汽车的面世比谷歌预想的要难。它曾承诺到2017年就能面世。而今预计产品模型不会在2020年前被制造出来。这项技术十分超前,但需要缩减产品尺寸及成本,谷歌现阶段的测试车改装自丰田和雷克萨斯的车型,据说测试车里塞满了价值8万美元的设备。Googles latest efforts may have as much to do with convincing the public and lawmakers as refining the technology. The firm stresses the safety advantages of computers being more likely than humans to avoid accidents. The cars will have a top speed of just 25mph and a front end made of soft foam to cushion unwary pedestrians. The benefits could indeed be huge. Driving time could be given over to working, snoozing or browsing the web. Rather than suffer all the costs of owning a car, some people may prefer to summon a rented one on their smartphones whenever they need it. However, the issue of liability in the event of a driverless car crashing has yet to be resolved.谷歌最近不仅要努力的完善这项技术,还要同样努力的说公众及立法者。谷歌强调此产品的优势是安全性,在避免车祸方面,电脑比人类表现更佳。无人驾驶汽车最高车速仅为25英里每小时,其前端由软泡沫材料制造而成,可缓冲粗心的行人。这样确有很大好处。开车的时间可以用于工作,打盹或上网冲浪。比起自己承担拥有一辆车的开销,一些人可能更喜欢在需要车的时候,用他们的智能手机叫辆出租车。然而,无人驾驶汽车发生车祸时的责任认定问题还有待解决。Turning cars into commodities may not be good news for traditional carmakers. But reinventing motoring as a service fits neatly with Googles plans to become as big in hardware as in software. And unlike car firms, which talk vaguely of becoming “mobility providers”, Google has pots of cash to make that a reality and no worries about disrupting its current business. Google admits it still has “lots of work to do”. But one day Googling to the shops may be a common activity.对传统汽车制造商来说,把无人驾驶汽车转化成为商品,也许不是什么好消息。但是把汽车彻底转变成一种务,正好契合了谷歌想在硬件领域发展的和在软件领域一样强大的计划。普通汽车公司模糊的表达着成为“移动供应商”的想法,和这些汽车公司不同,谷歌拥有大量资金来实现无人驾驶的设想,并不担心这一项目会扰乱目前公司业务。谷歌承认这一项目还有很多工作要做。但是,有一天,乘坐谷歌无人驾驶汽车去商店购物,也许会变成寻常事。 /201406/305581。

  Part of the fun of eating almonds or pecans is cracking the shell and getting the nut.吃杏仁和胡桃的部分乐趣来源于敲碎外壳后得到果仁。But, some nuts, like cashews, are almost always sold shelled and roasted.然而,有些坚果,比如腰果,通常会去壳烤熟销售。Why arent cashews sold in the shell?为什么腰果会不带壳销售呢?Cashews are in the same family as poison ivy and poison sumac.腰果和毒葛与毒漆树同属一科。Like the others in this family, the cashew plant contains powerful chemical irritants, so handling and eating raw cashews will cause the familiar itchy skin reaction in people sensitive to the chemicals.与同科其它植物相似,腰果树含有强烈刺激性化学物质,所以处理和吃掉生腰果,会使那些对化学物质敏感的人皮肤产生瘙痒反应。People who are sensitive to one plant in the family, for example poison ivy, are likely to be sensitive to others.对某一科某种植物过敏的人,比如对毒葛过敏,很有可能会对同科的其它植物也过敏。Why dont we get a reaction when we eat cashew nuts, then?那当我们吃腰果时为什么没有反应呢?The irritants are found in the shell oil, but not in the nuts themselves.那是因为刺激物质存在于外壳油脂中,而果仁中却不含有。Handling the shell or eating a nut with shell oil on it can cause the reaction.所以处理外壳或者吃带有外壳油脂的腰果时,就会引起反应。This is why theyre sold shelled, but why are they roasted?这就是为什么腰果不带壳售卖的原因,但是又为什么要烤熟呢?Roasting at high temperature destroys the shell oil, so commercially sold nuts will not trigger a reaction.因为高温烘烤可以破坏果壳油脂,所以商业销售的腰果仁不会造成反应。But, cashew nuts that are still in the shell or that are shelled and roasted at home at lower temperatures may be contaminated with the oil, so, shelling raw cashews is about as much fun as handling poison ivy.带壳的或者在家中去壳并低温烘烤后的腰果可能仍会受到果壳油脂的污染,所以给生腰果去壳和处理毒葛一样有趣。201312/269979

  Why? Well, your body is tuned to what are called circadian rhythms which determine things like when you fall asleep, and when you wake up.这是为什么呢?身体遵循生理节律,比如它决定你何时入睡,何时醒来这样的事情。If you lived under a rock, your bodys natural cycles would be slightly longer than 24 hours.如果你活得与世隔绝,你身体的自然周期要比24小时略长一点。However, exposure to factors like daylight, temperature, and other people fine-tunes your bodys cycles to your local time zone.然而,受到像阳光,温度,和人群这些因素的影响,你的身体循环会与本地时区同步。When you travel, this tuning is thrown out of whack, and it takes your body time to just.当你去旅行时,调节变得紊乱,身体要花费时间重新调整。This adjustment is easier if youre heading west because this lengthens your day in the natural direction of your internal clock.如果你是朝西走,调整会容易一点,因为这会延长你在自然走向下的生物钟。However, if youre heading east, youre compressing your day, and working against your internal clock, which makes adjustment more difficult.但是如果是朝东走,你就是在压缩一天的时间,与生物钟相逆,这会使调整更困难。While none of this bodes well if youre a die-hard Dodgers fan, it may be worth remembering the next time you participate in the office pool.不过,如果你是死硬的道奇队的粉丝,这些都不是好兆头,倒是可以成为下次下注时的参考。201312/269466

  Its four A.M.早上四点,Youre tucked safely into a warm bed, savoring the last few hours of sleep before daybreak.你还躺在温暖的被窝里,享受着天亮前几个小时的睡眠时间。And then, suddenly…然而就在这时突然一阵声音惊扰了你的美梦…It must be time to wake up, roll out of bed, and tend to the farm.听到起床号了就得爬出被窝开始劳作。Except its four A.M.,但是现在才四点!its still dark out, and youre not a farmer.外面仍然漆黑一片,而且你又不是农民。Its that neighbor of yours, the one that for some unimaginable reason keeps a rooster as a pet.鸣叫的公鸡是隔壁家的,那个家伙不知道为什么养了只鸡当宠物。A rooster that flaunts the most basic rules of neighborhood etiquette by crowing every morning before sunrise. What gives?每天太阳升起前,公鸡都会仿佛问候邻居早安一样的打鸣。原因何在? 201312/268351

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